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  • Norbert J. NGOWI
    录用日期: 2023-06-15
    Low efficiency of earth kilns used in the carbonising process of wood to make charcoal has been reported as one of the sources of increasing charcoal wastes in the global south. However, the potential link and approaches of converting charcoal wastes-to-valuable energy and for the environmental health is not well known in Africa. Promoting local community capacity engagement in the production and reutilisation of recycled charcoal wastes at the households’ level is one of important measures to maintain environmental services for sustainability since households make decisions on the type of energy used. This paper, presents an approach of converting charcoal wastes to fuel energy for rural households and environmental health in Kilosa District, Tanzania. To achieve the objective of this research, the primary data were collected through interviews held with 298 randomly selected households, Focus Group Discussions and observations. IBM SPSS statistics version 20 Cross tab tools were used in the data analysis. Results revealed that the conversion of charcoal wastes-to-fuel energy approach used in this research demonstrates the ability of recyclable briquettes made from the locally available charcoal pollutants collected at different stages from earth kilns, to selling centers, improves tree harvest behaviour, adds another fuel energy source through reutilisation, and ultimate reduces pollution at the local level. Thus, the study provides a basis for policymakers to adopt charcoal wastes recycling strategies to address matters related to energy and ultimately enhances environmental health for sustainable development in Tanzania and beyond.
  • JOSHI Nabin Raj, JOSHI Rajeev, MISHRA Jay Raj
    录用日期: 2023-06-15
    Urban trees are valuable resources for urban areas as they have the capacity to reduce ambient temperatures, mitigate urban heat island effects and reduce runoff of rainwater playing an important role in mitigating the impacts of climate change by reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). It also helps to reduce aerial suspended particulate matter, add visual appeal to the urban landscape sequestrating a significant amount of carbon from ambient atmospheric CO2. Carbon storage by urban trees in the ring road area of the Kathmandu Valley was quantified to assess the magnitude and role of urban forests in relation to mitigate the impact of global climate change. A total of 40 sample plots were placed randomly for the detailed carbon assessment. Aboveground and belowground carbon pools were considered in the detailed assessment. Furthermore, quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) were maintained through regular monitoring and capacity building of the field crews while collecting the bio-physical data. The assessment recorded a total of 33 different species of plants in the avenue’s plantation sites in ring road. The mean seedling, sapling, and tree density was found to be 2149585 and 185 per hectare. The mean carbon stock per hectare in the avenue plantation of the ring road area was 24.03 tC ha1 and the existing total carbon stock was 7785.72 tC in 2021. Likewise, the total baseline carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e) in the avenue plantation was found to be 28573.60 tCO2e. The carbon dioxide emission from the transport sector in the ring road area in a full movement scenario was 312888.00 tCO2e per annum, while the net emissions was 42547 tCO2e. There was a deficit of carbon dioxide in terms of stock by avenue plantations of 14000.8 tCO2e.This study indicates that the existing urban forest plantation is unable to sequestrate or offset the carbon dioxide that is emitted through the transportation sector. Consequently, open spaces like riverbanks and any other public lands, in which urban forests could be developed has to be planned for the green infrastructure and plantation of the multipurpose trees. The distinct values of forests in and around urban areas have to be recognized in the specific policies and plans for the sustainable management of urban and peri-urban forests to meet the adverse impact of global climate change. In addition, this study provides insights for decision-makers to better understand the role of urban forests and make sustainable management plans for urban forests in the cities like in Kathmandu Valley.
  • 欧定华, 吴能君, 李媛茜, 马 晴, 郑思源, 李诗琪, 余东芮, 唐浩伦, 高雪松,
    录用日期: 2022-03-30
    科学识别生态空间、合理预测主导生态系统服务功能时空变化趋势,是构建国土空间生态保护格局的基础,具有重要的理论意义和应用价值。目前,生态空间识别、功能分区和格局重构大多数以当前生态系统服务功能及其结构信息为参照,忽略了生态系统服务综合功能和主导生态系统服务功能的时空动态性,对未来生态空间主导生态系统服务功能变化模拟不重视,一定程度上影响了生态空间保护格局构建的合理性。本研究提出了一种基于生态系统服务功能动态变化特征的生态空间划定方法,实现了邛崃市生态空间范围识别,解决了当前研究忽略生态系统服务功能时空动态性的问题。在此基础上,研究还应用Markov-CA模型,集成主导生态系统服务功能时空变化特征,实现了2025年邛崃市生态空间主导生态系统服务功能时空变化模拟,为生态空间变化模拟寻找到了合适的方法,也为合理构建生态空间保护格局提供了基础支撑。研究发现邛崃市生态系统服务综合功能量及其年际变化率呈现出明显的动态性,这一发现证实我们在识别生态空间时考虑生态系统服务功能动态特性的必要性。应用本文提出的生态空间识别方法确定邛崃市生态空间面积为98307 ha,与地方生态文明建设规划中确定的相应生态空间范围基本一致,证实了立足于生态系统服务功能动态特性的生态空间划定方法的可靠性。研究结果还表明:20032019年,邛崃市主导生态系统服务功能表现出较强的非平稳性,这说明我们应当在生态空间保护格局构建中充分考虑主导生态系统服务功能动态性对未来生态空间功能格局的影响。Markov-CA模型高精度实现了邛崃市主导生态系统服务功能时空变化模拟,Kappa系数达到0.95以上,说明应用该模型模拟未来主导生态系统服务功能空间格局是可行的。模拟结果显示,20192025年,受生态系统服务功能非平稳性影响,邛崃市主导生态系统服务功能仍将发生相互转换,预计到2025年,生态空间仍然会保持初级产品生产、气候调节、水文调节三大主导生态系统服务功能,但面积将会发生变化,分别为32793 ha52490 ha13024 ha。研究可以为生态保护红线划定、生态功能分区和生态空间保护格局构建提供科学参考。
  • WU Bin, ZHANG Wenzhu, TIAN Yichao, LIANG Mingzhong, XU Jun, GU Guanhai
    录用日期: 2022-02-28
    Abstract: By studying the structural characteristics and carbon storage of the mangrove island ecosystem in the 
    Beibu Gulf, this study provides a scientific basis for mangrove ecological compensation in the coastal areas of 
    Guangxi, South China Sea. On the basis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing images and a sample plot 
    survey, the object-oriented multi-scale segmentation algorithm is used to extract the mangrove community type information, and one-way analysis of variance is conducted to analyse the structural characteristics of the mangrove 
    community. The carbon storage and carbon density of different mangrove ecosystems were obtained based on the 
    allometric growth equation of mangrove plants. The analysis yielded four main results. (1) The island group covers 
    about 27.10 ha, 41.32% (11.20 ha) of which represents mangrove areas. The mangrove forest is widely distributed 
    in the tidal flats around the islands. (2) The main mangrove types were Aegiceras corniculatum, Kandelia obovata + 
    Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia marina + Aegiceras corniculatum and Avicennia marina communities. (3) 
    Amongst the mangrove plants, Avicennia marina had the highest biomass (18.52 kg plant–1), followed by Kandelia 
    obovata (7.84 kg plant–1) and Aegiceras corniculatum (3.85 kg plant–1). (4) The mangrove carbon density difference 
    was significant. Kandelia obovata had the highest carbon density (148.03 t ha–1), followed by Avicennia marina
    (104.79 t ha–1) and Aegiceras corniculatum (99.24 t ha–1). The carbon storage of the mangrove island ecosystem 
    was 1194.70 t, which was higher than in other areas with the same latitude. The carbon sequestration capacity of 
    the mangrove was relatively strong.
  • “乡村空心化治理与乡村振兴”专栏
    付占辉, 杨雅涵, 乔家君, 朱肖勇, 江孝君
    地理科学进展. 2024, 43(6): 1049-1059. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2024.06.001

    “人”是乡村生产发展的主体,从人口演变视角揭示黄河流域乡村空心化的地域类型及其驱动机制,对推进黄河流域生态保护、乡村振兴发展具有重要的意义。论文利用人口普查资料和XGBoost模型,分析黄河流域县域乡村空心化的地域类型、时空差异及其形成机制,提出不同地区乡村振兴路径。研究发现:① 黄河流域乡村空心化可划分为空废型、衰败型、衰退型、衰弱型、增长型等5种地域类型,其中,衰败型增长幅度最大,由2000—2010年的16%增长到2010—2020年的39%;衰弱型的降幅最大,由29%下降到12%。黄河流域上游、中游和下游乡村空心化地域类型正向变化最大的为中游的衰败型(增幅为43个百分点),负向变化最大的为下游的衰弱型(降幅为34个百分点)。② 乡村空心化地域类型的时空差异显著,且空间集聚特征逐渐显现,增长型和衰弱型空间分布范围不断萎缩,衰败型空间分布呈扩张态势,衰弱型和衰败型逐渐向黄河上游集聚。③ 从黄河流域整体看,不同阶段乡村空心化地域类型空间分异的主导因素不同,但县域城镇化、地形等因素一直发挥了较大的作用。上游地区受县域城镇化的影响一直较大,对中游地区影响较大的因素由2000—2010年的县域城镇化演变为2010—2020年的农业现代化,县域城镇化、地形对下游地区的作用更大。④ 黄河流域上、中、下游地区自然环境、人文经济的空间差异大,乡村空心化地域类型的流域差异显著,各地区乡村振兴路径务必要结合地方特色,创新发展模式,加快形成城乡融合、工农互促的良性格局,推动乡村振兴发展。研究结果可为黄河流域农业农村现代化发展提供科学决策依据。

    Regional Sustainability. 2023, 4(1): 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regsus.2023.02.001

    For a long time, it has been argued that the theories and practices devoted to urban planning and management should conform to the fundamental role of planning policies in the production of urban space, but not merely the spatial distribution of the produced services. Towards this wider connotation, this study introduces the notion of Railwayscape, grounded on the theory of ‘The Production of Space’, to examine the role of railway station districts as catalysts of urban development through the social production of urban space. The present research sets out to establish the notion of Railwayscape and apply it in a railway heritage, i.e., the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway (DHR) and its point of inception, Siliguri City, India. Accordingly, a criteria-based evaluation of four railway station districts (New Jalpaiguri, Siliguri Town, Siliguri Junction, and Sukna) in Siliguri and its surroundings was performed. The information regarding the selected four railway station districts is obtained through field observation and key informant consultation, supplemented by published literature and remote sensing data. This evaluation is succeeded by the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis accentuating the potential strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats associated with the selected four railway station districts and their prospects to become the potential Railwayscape. The results of this research show that there is no railway station district in Siliguri that can fully meet the demands of the locals and tourists, therefore, relfecting a lack of awareness of the historical values of these districts. The results also indicate that there are significant differences in the relative potentials of railway station districts to become the Railwayscape in urban environment. The outcomes of this research, therefore, are expected to encourage policy-making insitutions and practitioners to realise the ‘place value’ of some railway station districts and their potentials to yield better economic, social and structural virtue for a wide range of actors.

  • Durdana OVAIS
    Regional Sustainability. 2023, 4(1): 13-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regsus.2023.02.002

    The persistent environmental problems and the growing difficulty to achieve sustainable development require a re-evaluation of person’ sustainable knowledge, attitude, and behaviour. To go to where we want to go, we must first assess where we are now. The study investigated the level of sustainability consciousness of students in India, and sustainability consciousness was expressed in sustainability knowledge, attitude, and behaviour. Sustainability consciousness was further examined using the three dimensions, such as environment, society, and economy. By drawing the perception map of students and studying the role of the locus of control, the reasons why sustainability knowledge does not appear in sustainability behaviour were analyzed. Quantitative analysis was conducted for a sample of 205 students from higher educational institutions across central India (Madhya Pradesh) from January to March in 2022. The data were analyzed using the SPSS 26 and Smart Partial Least Square (PLS) 3.0. The research revealed that sustainability attitude impacts sustainability behaviour more than sustainability knowledge. The results showed that respondents’ sustainability knowledge is higher than their sustainability attitude and behaviour. Moreover, it was discovered that economic concerns can lead to sustainability behaviour. In order to study respondents’ behaviour regarding sustainability consciousness, the study divided respondents into two groups according to the locus of control: the internal and external locus of control. It was found that most respondents thought whatever happened around them was beyond their control. Further, the locus of control influenced sustainability behaviour in groups with the internal locus of control. The study helps to explain why sustainability knowledge and attitude cannot translate into sustainability behaviour and provides a basis for achieving sustainable development. The conclusions of this study are crucial for governments, educational institutions, and organizations that empower youth to change their behaviour.

  • GAO Jinlong
    Regional Sustainability. 2023, 4(1): 44-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regsus.2023.02.003

    Within the inventory era, urban shrinkage characterized by economic decline and space decay has been widely witnessed in China. The modes and trajectories of urban redevelopment have thus become areas of major concern for both policymakers and scholars. Taking the multi-actor participation nature of redevelopment, this paper stemming from the game-theoretical approach demonstrates in empirical terms on two major fronts. First, the redevelopment of industrial land without the transfer of land use right is shown to be deadlocked by the incapacitation of the original land-user and unlocked with the participation of the new developer. Second, the preference of the original land-user to maximize its interests by operating by itself rather than continue to cooperate with the new developer is observed in the post-redevelopment stage. Therein, the entrepreneurial local government acts only as a “mediator” between the two market entities and tends not to directly intervene in their cooperation. Thus that, it is the reasonable distribution of potential benefits or the pricing of different rights in the land property right bundle rather than their definition that matters more for land redevelopment. Because the delineation of land property rights has never been a problem in a mature land market, particularly for stock industrial land.

  • LI Xiaokang, LEI Lin
    Regional Sustainability. 2023, 4(1): 96-114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regsus.2023.03.002

    Rural sustainable land use (RSLU) is important to China’s implementation of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals and the goals of rural revitalization strategy in China. Research on RSLU is key to understanding the impact of human activities on rural sustainability. This paper explored the evaluation method of RSLU from a system perspective based on the ecosystem service value (ESV). Three systems were proposed for consideration when conducting this evaluation method. One was the sustainability of the land system, the other was the sustainability of the eco-economic system, and the rest was the sustainability of the land-eco-economy system. Indicators including (1) land use intensity and land system stability, (2) gross domestic production (GDP), ESV, and the eco-economic harmony degree (EEHD), and (3) coupling degree and coupling coordination degree were used to analyze the sustainability of the land, eco-economic, and land-eco-economic systems, respectively. An empirical research on Yanhe eco-village was conducted and the study period extended from 2008 to 2020. The results showed that forest land had always accounted for more than 81.20% of the total area in Yanhe eco-village from 2008 to 2020, which greatly influenced land system stability and restricted economic development. This feature contrasted with RSLU. The total ESV of Yanhe eco-village declined by 1.60×106 CNY during 2008-2020 because of land use changes. The EEHD was -0.01, which presented that there was a very slight unharmonious between ecology and economy. The coupling degree and coupling coordination degree showed that the development between the land and eco-economic systems exhibited a coupling coordination relationship. The results indicated that ecology and economy in Yanhe eco-village will change significantly in response to land use changes in rural areas, which further revealed the dynamic linkage between human beings and nature. Moreover, opposite variation tendencies in land system stability and ESV revealed that the contradiction between the high stability of the land system and well development of the eco-economic system. The results of this study implied that it is necessary and useful to integrate ESV into land management to achieve RSLU.

    Regional Sustainability. 2023, 4(2): 115-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regsus.2023.03.005

    World experience indicates the existence of significant imbalances in the development of countries. The problem of assessing the rational development of the regional and national economy is becoming urgent, since such assessments can prevent development imbalances across countries. The aim of this study is to elaborate a methodology to assess the countries’ socio-economic development by integraring 12 modern indices of socio-economic development into the Composite Country Development Index (CCDI). The methodology of this research was based on a set of key indices that described socio-economic development level in four fields (social development, digital development, economic development, and environmental security) and then these indices were integrated into the CCDI. The study further applied factor analysis and R-Studio software to define the gaps of social and economic development in 59 selected countries using the trigonometric function of the angle sine. The correlation analysis confirmed the existence of a close interrelation among the studied countries. This paper noted that due to the emergence of new priorities, it is necessary to revise the assessment methodology of socio-economic development level and expand them to cover the decisive factors. This was confirmed by the results obtained, demonstrating various combinations of the development level in the four fields and their impact on the CCDI. The scientific contribution of this research is to form a methodology (e.g., the CCDI) for evaluating the socio-economic development level of countries in the world.

    Regional Sustainability. 2023, 4(2): 139-149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regsus.2023.04.002

    The impacts of climate change on crop yields are receiving renewed interest, with focus on cereals and staple crops at the regional and national scales. Yet, the impacts of climate change on the yields of leguminous crops in the local context has not been explored. Thus, an in-depth understanding of climate change in the local context may support the design of locally relevant adaptation responses to current and future climate risks. This study examined the impacts of climate variables (annual rainfall, annual average temperature, rainfall indices (rainfall onset, rainfall cessation, and the length of rainy days), and the number of dry days) on the yields of leguminous crops (groundnuts, cowpeas, and soybeans) in the Guinea Savanna agroecological zone of Ghana during the period of 1989-2020. The data were analysed using Mann-Kendall’s trend, Sen’s slope test, correlation analysis, and Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA). The findings revealed that annual rainfall, annual average temperature, rainfall onset, rainfall cessation, and the length of rainy days, and the number of dry days all showed varied impacts on the yields of groundnuts, cowpeas, and soybeans. The trend analysis detected a marginal decrease in the amount of rainfall, rainfall onset, and the number of dry days from 1989 to 2020 (P>0.050). Annual average temperature and the length of rainy days substantially varied (P<0.050) from 1989 to 2020, showing an increasing trend. The findings also showed a marked upward trend for the yields of groundnuts, cowpeas, and soybeans during 2005-2020. The climate variables analysed above increased the yields of groundnuts, cowpeas, and soybeans by 49.0%, 55.0%, and 69.0%, respectively. The yields of groundnuts, cowpeas, and soybeans fluctuated with the variability of 30.0%, 28.0%, and 27.0% from 2005 to 2020, respectively. The three leguminous crops under study demonstrated unpredictable yields due to the variations of annual rainfall, annual average temperature, rainfall onset, rainfall cessation, the length of rainy days, and the number of dry days, which stressed the need for agricultural diversification, changing planting dates, using improved seed variety, and irrigation to respond to climate change. The results of this study implied that climate change considerably impacts crop production in the Guinea Savanna agroecological zone of Ghana, emphasizing the urgency of locally based and farmer-induced adaptation measures for food security and resilient agricultural systems.

  • Subrata HALDAR, Somnath MANDAL, Subhasis BHATTACHARYA, Suman PAUL
    Regional Sustainability. 2023, 4(2): 150-172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regsus.2023.05.001

    The availability of better economic possibilities and well-connected transportation networks has attracted people to migrate to peri-urban and rural neighbourhoods, changing the landscape of regions outside the city and fostering the growth of physical infrastructure. Using multi-temporal satellite images, the dynamics of Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) changes, the impact of urban growth on LULC changes, and regional environmental implications were investigated in the peri-urban and rural neighbourhoods of Durgapur Municipal Corporation in India. The study used different case studies to highlight the study area’s heterogeneity, as the phenomenon of change is not consistent. Landsat TM and OLI-TIRS satellite images in 1991, 2001, 2011, and 2021 were used to analyse the changes in LULC types. We used the relative deviation (RD), annual change intensity (ACI), uniform intensity (UI) to show the dynamicity of LULC types (agriculture land; built-up land; fallow land; vegetated land; mining area; and water bodies ) during 1991-2021. This study also applied the Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) to measure environmental sensitivity zones and find out the causes of LULC changes. According to LULC statistics, agriculture land, built-up land, and mining area increased by 51.7, 95.46, and 24.79 km2, respectively, from 1991 to 2021. The results also suggested that built-up land and mining area had the greatest land surface temperature (LST), whereas water bodies and vegetated land showed the lowest LST. Moreover, this study looked at the relationships among LST, spectral indices (Normalized Differenced Built-up Index (NDBI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI)), and environmental sensitivity. The results showed that all of the spectral indices have the strongest association with LST, indicating that built-up land had a far stronger influence on the LST. The spectral indices indicated that the decreasing trends of vegetated land and water bodies were 4.26 and 0.43 km2/a, respectively, during 1991-2021. In summary, this study can help the policy-makers to predict the increasing rate of temperature and the causes for the temperature increase with the rapid expansion of built-up land, thus making effective peri-urban planning decisions.

  • YANG Zeyu, ZHANG Shubao, LEI Jun, ZHANG Xiaolei, TONG Yanjun, DUAN Zuliang, FAN Liqin
    Regional Sustainability. 2023, 4(2): 173-184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regsus.2023.05.002

    The exchanges between cities and counties in the northern slope economic belt of Tianshan Mountains (NSEBTM) are increasingly frequent and the economic linkages are increasingly close, but the spatial distribution of economic development and linkages among the cities and counties within NSEBTM is uneven. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the evolution of spatial-temporal pattern of the economic linkage network of cities and counties on NSEBTM to promote the coordinated and integrated development of the regional economy on NSEBTM. In this study, we used the modified gravity model and social network analysis method to analyze the spatio-temporal evolution characteristics of the economic linkage network structure of cities and counties on NSEBTM in 2000, 2010, and 2020. The results showed that the comprehensive development quality level of cities and counties on NSEBTM increased from 2000 to 2020, its growth rate also increased, and its gap between cities and counties continued expanding. Both the spatial distribution patterns of the comprehensive development quality level of cities and counties on NSEBTM in 2000 and 2010 were presented as “high in the middle and low at both ends”, while the spatial distribution pattern of 2020 was exhibited as “high value and low value staggered”. The total amount of external economic linkages of cities and counties on NSEBTM showed an obvious upward trend, and its gap between cities and counties continued expanding, presenting a pattern of “a strong middle section and weak ends”. The direction of economic linkages of NSEBTM existed obvious central orientation and geographical proximity. The density of economic linkage network of NSEBTM increased from 2000 to 2020, and the structure of economic linkage network changed from single-core structure centered with Urumqi City to multicore structure centered with Urumqi City, Karamay City, Shihezi City, and Changji City, shifting from unbalanced development to balanced development. In the future, we should accelerate the construction of urban agglomeration on NSEBTM, cultivate a modern Urumqi metropolitan area, improve comprehensive development quality of the cities and counties at the eastern and western ends, strengthen the intensity of economic linkages between cities and counties, optimize the economic linkage network, and promote the coordinated and integrated development of regional economy.

  • Md. Mominur RAHMAN
    Regional Sustainability. 2023, 4(3): 235-248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regsus.2023.07.001

    Multiple ecological and socioeconomic problems have occurred worldwide, raising the awareness of sustainability. This study aims to examine the impact of taxes on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the context of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. This research used effective average tax (EAT), tax on personal income (TPI), tax on corporate profits (TCP), and tax on goods and services (TGS) as the variables of taxes, and employed secondary data from 38 OECD countries covering 2000-2021. The study also used Breusch-Pagan Lagrange Multiplier (LM), Pesaran Scaled LM, Bias-Corrected Scaled LM, and Pesaran Cross-sectional dependence (CSD) tests to analyze the existence of cross-sectional dependency. Then, we established the stationarity of variables through second-generation panel unit root tests (Cross-sectional Augmented Dickey-Fuller (CADF) and Cross-sectional Im, Pesaran, and Shin (CIPS)), and confirmed the long-run cointegration of the variables by using second-generation panel cointegration test (Westerlund cointegration test). The results showed that EAT, TPI, TCP, and TGS are positively associated with SDGs. However, the change in TPI has a smaller effect on SDGs than the change in EAT or TCP or TGS. The result of panel causality indicated that EAT, TPI, and TGS have a unidirectional causal relationship with SDGs. The study also found that TCP has a bi-directional causal relationship with SDGs. Moreover, the finding indicated that the OECD countries need to focus on tax policies to achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This study is based on the theory of optimal taxation (TOT), which suggests that tax systems should be designed to maximize social welfare. Finally, we suggests the importance of taking a comprehensive approach for the managers and policy-makers when analyzing the impact of taxes on SDGs.

  • Fabiana MANSERVISI, Michele BANZI, Tomaso TONELLI, Paolo VERONESI, Susanna RICCI, Damiano DISTANTE, Stefano FARALLI, Giuseppe BORTONE
    Regional Sustainability. 2023, 4(3): 261-281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regsus.2023.08.002

    Individuals, local communities, environmental associations, private organizations, and public representatives and bodies may all be aggrieved by environmental problems concerning poor air quality, illegal waste disposal, water contamination, and general pollution. Environmental complaints represent the expressions of dissatisfaction with these issues. As the time-consuming of managing a large number of complaints, text mining may be useful for automatically extracting information on stakeholder priorities and concerns. The paper used text mining and semantic network analysis to crawl relevant keywords about environmental complaints from two online complaint submission systems: online claim submission system of Regional Agency for Prevention, Environment and Energy (Arpae) (“Contact Arpae”); and Arpae's internal platform for environmental pollution (“Environmental incident reporting portal”) in the Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy. We evaluated the total of 2477 records and classified this information based on the claim topic (air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, waste, odor, soil, weather-climate, sea-coast, and electromagnetic radiation) and geographical distribution. Then, this paper used natural language processing to extract keywords from the dataset, and classified keywords ranking higher in Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF) based on the driver, pressure, state, impact, and response (DPSIR) framework. This study provided a systemic approach to understanding the interaction between people and environment in different geographical contexts and builds sustainable and healthy communities. The results showed that most complaints are from the public and associated with air pollution and odor. Factories (particularly foundries and ceramic industries) and farms are identified as the drivers of environmental issues. Citizen believed that environmental issues mainly affect human well-being. Moreover, the keywords of “odor”, “report”, “request”, “presence”, “municipality”, and “hours” were the most influential and meaningful concepts, as demonstrated by their high degree and betweenness centrality values. Keywords connecting odor (classified as impacts) and air pollution (classified as state) were the most important (such as “odor-burnt plastic” and “odor-acrid”). Complainants perceived odor annoyance as a primary environmental concern, possibly related to two main drivers: “odor-factory” and “odors-farms”. The proposed approach has several theoretical and practical implications: text mining may quickly and efficiently address citizen needs, providing the basis toward automating (even partially) the complaint process; and the DPSIR framework might support the planning and organization of information and the identification of stakeholder concerns and priorities, as well as metrics and indicators for their assessment. Therefore, integration of the DPSIR framework with the text mining of environmental complaints might generate a comprehensive environmental knowledge base as a prerequisite for a wider exploitation of analysis to support decision-making processes and environmental management activities.

  • Daniel ETONGO, Uvicka BRISTOL, Terence Epule EPULE, Ajith BANDARA, Sandra SINON
    Regional Sustainability. 2023, 4(3): 282-295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regsus.2023.08.006

    Agroforestry can leverage the co-benefits of climate change adaptation and mitigation while conserving biodiversity and restoring degraded and deforested lands. The preference of relevant stakeholders regarding agroforestry practices enhances sustainable land management through strategic decision-making in Seychelles and other island states. A suitable approach for assessing stakeholders’ preferences of agroforestry is the implementation of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) approach in combination with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. The entry point of this study is an extensive literature review process, during which 28 SWOT factors were identified. These SWOT factors were deliberated on during a half-day workshop with agricultural experts who agreed on 20 SWOT factors that reflect the local realities of the Seychelles through a consensus approach. Using the SWOT-AHP approach, focus group discussions were conducted to examine the perceptions of researchers and extension workers about the adoption of agroforestry in Seychelles. The results indicated that the positive aspects of smallholder agroforestry outweigh the negative aspects. For example, increased agricultural production, control runoff and soil erosion receive the highest scores among the strength factors perceived by researchers and extension workers, respectively. The willingness of international organizations to fund agroforestry-related projects and the existence of native tree species on farmlands have the highest scores among the opportunity factors. The lack of education, information, and communication between the government and farmers, and the small land size and crop competition have the highest scores among the weakness factors. Lastly, change in government policies on land use has the highest score among the threat factors by researchers, whereas the most significant threat is climate change and variability for the extension workers. The provision for a 30-year land lease agreement in the National Agroforestry Policy of Seychelles is viewed by both groups as an incentive that could potentially drive the adoption and acceptability of agroforestry. Furthermore, better coordination of various efforts to promote agroforestry and more substantial extension services for farmers, especially the role of technologies for optimal production on small plots of land, can enhance climate resilience in Seychelles and other small island developing states.

  • LI Guoyi, LIU Jiahong, SHAO Weiwei
    Regional Sustainability. 2023, 4(3): 332-348. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regsus.2023.08.004

    With accelerated urbanization and climate change, urban flooding is becoming more and more serious. Flood risk assessment is an important task for flood management, so it is crucial to map the spatial and temporal distribution of flood risk. This paper proposed an urban flood risk assessment method that takes into account the influences of hazard, vulnerability, and exposure, by constructing a multi-index urban flood risk assessment framework based on Geographic Information System (GIS). To determine the weight values of urban flood risk index factors, we used the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Also, we plotted the temporal and spatial distribution maps of flood risk in Zhengzhou City in 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020. The analysis results showed that, the proportion of very high and high flood risk zone in Zhengzhou City was 1.362%, 5.270%, 4.936%, 12.151%, and 24.236% in 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020, respectively. It is observed that the area of high flood risk zones in Zhengzhou City showed a trend of increasing and expanding, of which Dengfeng City, Xinzheng City, Xinmi City, and Zhongmu County had the fastest growth rate and the most obvious increase. The flood risk of Zhengzhou City has been expanding with the development of urbanization. The method is adapted to Zhengzhou City and will have good adaptability in other research areas, and its risk assessment results can provide a scientific reference for urban flood management personnel. In the future, the accuracy of flood risk assessment can be further improved by promoting the accuracy of basic data and reasonably determining the weight values of index factors. The risk zoning map can better reflect the risk distribution and provide a scientific basis for early warning of flood prevention and drainage.

  • SUBEDI Ashma, RAUT Nani, GURUNG Smriti
    Regional Sustainability. 2023, 4(4): 378-389. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regsus.2023.11.001

    Climate change can have significant impacts on crop yields and food security. This study assessed the linkages between climate change and crop yields to obtain a better understanding on the drivers of food security. The study was conducted in Pasagaun village of Lamjung District in Nepal, where household surveys and focus group discussions (FGDs) were used to collect data including crop cultivation, irrigation facilities, and adaptation strategies. Moreover, climate data (temperature and precipitation) from 1992 to 2020 were collected from the Khudi Bazar meteorological station and crop yield data were obtained from the Agri-Business Promotion and Statistics Division. Trend analysis of temperature and precipitation was conducted using Mann-Kendall trend test and Sen’s slope method, and the results showed an increase in the average temperature of approximately 0.02°C/a and a decrease in the annual precipitation of 9.84 mm/a. The cultivation of traditional varieties of rice and foxtail millet (Kaguno) has vanished. Although, there was no significant impact of the maximum temperature on the yield of rice and maize, the regression analysis revealed that there are negative relationships between rice yield and annual minimum temperature (r= -0.44), between millet yield and annual precipitation (r= -0.30), and between maize yield and annual minimum temperature (r= -0.31), as well as positive relationship between rice yield and annual precipitation (r=0.16). Moreover, average rice yield and millet yield have decreased by 27.0% and 57.0% in 2000-2020, respectively. Despite other reasons for the decrease in crop yield such as the lack of irrigation facilities, out-migration of farmer, and increased pest infestation, respondents have adopted adaptation strategies (for example, shifts in cultivation time and changes in crop types) to minimize the impacts of climate change. More investigation and community-based farming education are needed to understand and alleviate the harmful impacts of climate change on crop yield, as effective adaptation coping strategies are still insufficient. This study provides insights into the adaptation strategies that are necessary to keep food security in the face of climate change.

  • Binsheng LIU, Xiaohui ZHANG, Junfeng TIAN, Ruimin CAO, Xinzhang SUN, Bin XUE
    Regional Sustainability. 2023, 4(4): 390-404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regsus.2023.11.004

    Sustainable development is the central theme of modern global development. With the arrival of the urban era, the vulnerability and instability of rural areas have significantly increased, and rural sustainable development faces serious challenges. To address these issues, the study took the Zaozhuang Innovation Demonstration Zone in China under the National Sustainable Development Agenda as a case, combined with economic, social and land use data during 2016-2020, and applied Granger causality test method to explore the theoretical and practical pathways of “innovation-driven rural sustainable development”. The results showed that rural sustainable development and economic sustainability displayed a trend of synergistic change, with “explosive” growth from 2018 to 2020. The social sustainability steadily increased from 2016 to 2020. Ecological and spatial sustainability continuously declined during the study period. Moreover, the rural innovation capacity of the Zaozhuang Innovation Demonstration Zone displayed rapid growth during 2016-2020. Although the rural innovation capacity of the Zaozhuang Innovation Demonstration Zone has rapidly improved, it has a weak driving effect on rural sustainable development and economic sustainability. There are two primary challenges that must be overcome to ensure the rural sustainable development of the Zaozhuang Innovation Demonstration Zone. The first challenge is the imbalance among the multi-dimensional relationships in the process of rural sustainable development, and the second challenge is the weakening of rural innovation capacity to drive rural sustainable development. To overcome these challenges, this study proposed a systematic pathway for rural sustainable development in the Zaozhuang Innovation Demonstration Zone from multi-dimensions, such as policy actions, technologies, projects, and institutional guarantees, and formed a universal and representative “Zaozhuang model”. This study expands the theoretical foundation of rural sustainable development and provides theoretical and practical support for innovation-driven rural sustainable development.

    Regional Sustainability. 2023, 4(4): 416-424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regsus.2023.11.006

    This study aims to assess the small ruminant value chain in Al-Ruwaished District, Jordan, to identify the potential intervention areas that could improve the production efficiency and guarantee the sustainability of the small ruminant sector in this area. Sheep breeding is the source of livelihood for most of the people in Al-Ruwaished District, which is characterized by the large number of sheep and goats. We surveyed 5.0% of the small ruminant holders in the study area and conducted individual interviews and surveys with the potential actors in the value chain to undertake a small ruminant value chain analysis. From the survey, we found that the small ruminant value chain consists of five core functions, namely, input supply, production management, marketing, processing, and consumption. Despite the stable impression given by the large number of holdings in the small ruminant sector, the surveyed results show a clear fragility in the value chain of small ruminants in this area. The small ruminant production system is negatively impacted by climate change, especially continuous drought. In addition, the high prices of feed that the farmer cannot afford with clear and real absence of the governmental and non-governmental support activities also impact the development of the value chain. The results of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis reveal that the major constraints faced by this value chain could be divided into external and internal threats. Specifically, the most prominent external threats are the nature of the desert land and continuous drought, while the major internal threats are the absence of appropriate infrastructure, shortage of inputs, and weakness in the production management and marketing. We proposed solutions to these challenges to ensure the sustainability and effectiveness of the sector, such as the formulation of emergency response plans to severe weather, qualifying farmers’ skills, and establishment of agricultural cooperative societies.

  • Fan WU, Youjia LIANG, Lijun LIU, Zhangcai YIN, Jiejun HUANG
    Regional Sustainability. 2023, 4(4): 425-440. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regsus.2023.11.005

    Optimizing the function of ecosystem services (ESs) is vital for implementing regional ecological management strategies. In this study, we used multi-source data and integrated modelling methods to assess the spatiotemporal variations in eight typical ESs on the Chinese Loess Plateau from 2000 to 2015, including grain production, raw material provision, water conservation, carbon storage service, soil conservation, oxygen production, recreation, and net primary productivity (NPP) services. Then, we divided the ecosystem service bundles (ESBs) according to relationships among the eight ESs, obtaining four types of eco-functional areas at the county (city or banner or district) level based on the spatial clustering of similarities in different ES types. We also identified and assessed the contributions of influencing factors to these eco-functional areas using principal component analysis (PCA) across spatiotemporal scales. We found that the spatiotemporal variations in different ESs were noticeable, with an overall increase in grain production and soil conservation services, no significant change in carbon storage service, and overall decreases in raw material provision, water conservation, oxygen production, recreation, and NPP services. From 2000 to 2015, the number of significant synergistic ES pairs decreased, while that of significant trade-off pairs increased. To the changes of ESBs in the eco-functional areas, the results indicated that the indirect loss of these ESs from forest and grassland due to urban expansion should be reduced in ecological development area (ESB 2) and multi ecological functional area (ESB 3). Meanwhile, crop planting structures and planting densities should be adjusted to reduce ES trade-offs associated with water conservation service in grain-producing area (ESB 4). Lastly, ESB-based eco-functional zoning can be used to improve ecological restoration management strategies and optimize ecological compensation schemes in ecologically fragile area (ESB 1).

  • WANG Tao, ZHOU Daojing, FAN Jie
    Regional Sustainability. 2024, 5(1): 100108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regsus.2024.03.002

    The county (city) located on the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains is the primary area to solidify and extend the success of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China in poverty alleviation. Its Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are intertwined with the concerted economic and social development of Xinjiang and the objective of achieving shared prosperity within the region. This study established a sustainable development evaluation framework by selecting 15 SDGs and 20 secondary indicators from the United Nations’ SDGs. The aim of this study is to quantitatively assess the progress of SDGs at the county (city) level on the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains. The results indicate that there are substantial variations in the scores of SDGs among the nine counties and one city located on the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains. Notable high scores of SDGs are observed in the central and eastern regions, whereas lower scores are prevalent in the western areas. The scores of SDGs, in descending order, are as follows: 62.22 for Minfeng County, 54.22 for Hotan City, 50.21 for Qiemo County, 42.54 for Moyu County, 41.56 for Ruoqiang County, 41.39 for Qira County, 39.86 for Lop County, 38.25 for Yutian County, 38.10 for Pishan County, and 36.87 for Hotan County. The performances of SDGs reveal that Hotan City, Lop County, Minfeng County, and Ruoqiang County have significant sustainable development capacity because they have three or more SDGs ranked as green color. However, Hotan County, Moyu County, Qira County, and Yutian County show the poorest performance, as they lack SDGs with green color. It is important to establish and enhance mechanisms that can ensure sustained income growth among poverty alleviation beneficiaries, sustained improvement in the capacity of rural governance, and the gradual improvement of social security system. These measures will facilitate the effective implementation of SDGs. Finally, this study offers a valuable support for governmental authorities and relevant departments in their decision-making processes. In addition, these results hold significant reference value for assessing SDGs at the county (city) level, particularly in areas characterized by low levels of economic development.

  • Walid CHOUARI
    Regional Sustainability. 2024, 5(1): 100111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regsus.2024.03.005

    The abandonment of date palm grove of the former Al-Ahsa Oasis in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia has resulted in the conversion of delicate agricultural area into urban area. The current state of the oasis is influenced by both expansion and degradation factors. Therefore, it is important to study the spatiotemporal variation of vegetation cover for the sustainable management of oasis resources. This study used Landsat satellite images in 1987, 2002, and 2021 to monitor the spatiotemporal variation of vegetation cover in the Al-Ahsa Oasis, applied multi-temporal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data spanning from 1987 to 2021 to assess environmental and spatiotemporal variations that have occurred in the Al-Ahsa Oasis, and investigated the factors influencing these variation. This study reveals that there is a significant improvement in the ecological environment of the oasis during 1987-2021, with increase of NDVI values being higher than 0.10. In 2021, the highest NDVI value is generally above 0.70, while the lowest value remains largely unchanged. However, there is a remarkable increase in NDVI values between 0.20 and 0.30. The area of low NDVI values (0.00-0.20) has remained almost stable, but the region with high NDVI values (above 0.70) expands during 1987-2021. Furthermore, this study finds that in 1987-2002, the increase of vegetation cover is most notable in the northern region of the study area, whereas from 2002 to 2021, the increase of vegetation cover is mainly concentrated in the northern and southern regions of the study area. From 1987 to 2021, NDVI values exhibit the most pronounced variation, with a significant increase in the “green” zone (characterized by NDVI values exceeding 0.40), indicating a substantial enhancement in the ecological environment of the oasis. The NDVI classification is validated through 50 ground validation points in the study area, demonstrating a mean accuracy of 92.00% in the detection of vegetation cover. In general, both the user’s and producer’s accuracies of NDVI classification are extremely high in 1987, 2002, and 2021. Finally, this study suggests that environmental authorities should strengthen their overall forestry project arrangements to combat sand encroachment and enhance the ecological environment of the Al-Ahsa Oasis.

  • Ratan PAL, Buddhadev HEMBRAM, Narayan Chandra JANA
    Regional Sustainability. 2024, 5(1): 100112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regsus.2024.03.006

    Human activities to improve the quality of life have accelerated the natural rate of soil erosion. In turn, these natural disasters have taken a great impact on humans. Human activities, particularly the conversion of vegetated land into agricultural land and built-up area, stand out as primary contributors to soil erosion. The present study investigated the risk of soil erosion in the Irga watershed located on the eastern fringe of the Chota Nagpur Plateau in Jharkhand, India, which is dominated by sandy loam and sandy clay loam soil with low soil organic carbon (SOC) content. The study used the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and Geographical Information System (GIS) technique to determine the rate of soil erosion. The five parameters (rainfall-runoff erosivity (R) factor, soil erodibility (K) factor, slope length and steepness (LS) factor, cover-management (C) factor, and support practice (P) factor) of the RUSLE were applied to present a more accurate distribution characteristic of soil erosion in the Irga watershed. The result shows that the R factor is positively correlated with rainfall and follows the same distribution pattern as the rainfall. The K factor values in the northern part of the study area are relatively low, while they are relatively high in the southern part. The mean value of the LS factor is 2.74, which is low due to the flat terrain of the Irga watershed. There is a negative linear correlation between Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the C factor, and the high values of the C factor are observed in places with low NDVI. The mean value of the P factor is 0.210, with a range from 0.000 to 1.000. After calculating all parameters, we obtained the average soil erosion rate of 1.43 t/(hm2•a), with the highest rate reaching as high as 32.71 t/(hm2•a). Therefore, the study area faces a low risk of soil erosion. However, preventative measures are essential to avoid future damage to productive and constructive activities caused by soil erosion. This study also identifies the spatial distribution of soil erosion rate, which will help policy-makers to implement targeted soil erosion control measures.

  • QIU Luyi, Sharina OSMAN, HUA Yidi
    Regional Sustainability. 2024, 5(1): 100115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regsus.2024.100115

    Coordinative development across various systems, particularly the economic, social, cultural, and human resources subsystems, is a key aspect of urban sustainability and has a direct impact on the quality of urbanization. The Hangzhou Metropolitan Circle, comprising Hangzhou City, Huzhou City, Jiaxing City, and Shaoxing City, was the first metropolitan circle approved by the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) as a demonstration of economic transformation in China. To evaluate the coupling coordination degree of the four cities and analyze the coordinative development in three systems (including digital economy, regional innovation, and talent employment), we collected panel data during 2015-2022 from these four cities. The development level of the three systems was evaluated by the standard deviation method and comprehensive development index. The results are as follows: (1) the level of coupling coordinated development of the three systems in the Hangzhou Metropolitan Circle was relatively low; (2) the coupling coordination degree of the four cities in the Hangzhou Metropolitan Circle showed significant regional differences, among which Hangzhou City was in the leading position, and Huzhou, Jiaxing, and Shaoxing cities made steady but slow progress in the coupling development of the three systems; and (3) the development of digital economy and talent employment needs to be strengthened. This study contributes to the coordinative development of Hangzhou Metropolitan Circle by innovatively focusing on the coupling coordination relationship among digital economy, regional innovation, and talent employment, which also meets the industrial layout of Hangzhou Metropolitan Circle. In this way, the optimal allocation and sustainable development of digital economy, regional innovation, and talent employment in the Hangzhou Metropolitan Circle can be achieved.

  • 理论与方法探索
    方创琳, 孙彪
    地理学报. 2024, 79(6): 1357-1370. https://doi.org/10.11821/dlxb202406001


  • Xinyu Dong, Xiaoya Li, Yanmei Ye, Dan Su, Runjia Yang, Angela Lausch
    地理学与可持续性(英文). 2024, 5(3): 329-342. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geosus.2024.02.004
    Understanding the spatial interaction among residents, cooling service, and heat risk area in complex urban areas is conducive to developing targeted management. However, traditional urban thermal environment assessments typically relied on simple linear integration of associated indicators, often neglecting the spatial interaction effect. To explore the spatial interaction among the three elements, this study proposes an accessibility-based urban thermal environment assessment framework. Using Zhengzhou, a rapidly urbanizing city, as an example, remotely sensed images from three periods (2010, 2015 and 2020) were applied to extract urban green space (UGS) and hot island area (HIA). An improved two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method and bivariate local Moran’s I were employed to explore whether residents’ clustering locations are more likely to access cooling service or to be exposed to heat risk. The results demonstrate that the UGS in the city has been expanding, whereas the HIA shrank within the inner city in 2015 and then increased in 2020. Even though the urban thermal environment may have improved in the last decade, the spatial interaction among the residents, cooling service and heat risk area could be exacerbated. Spatial autocorrelation shows an increase in locations that are disadvantageous for resident congregation. Even when sufficient cooling services were provided, residents in these areas could still be exposed to high heat risk. The developed urban thermal environment framework provides a novel insight into the residents’ heat risk exposure and cooling service accessibility, and the findings could assist urban planners in targeting the improvement of extra heat exposure risk locations.}
  • Dawa Zhaxi, Weiqi Zhou, Steward T. A. Pickett, Chengmeng Guo, Yang Yao
    地理学与可持续性(英文). 2024, 5(3): 357-369. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geosus.2024.03.004
    There are urgent calls for new approaches to map the global urban conditions of complexity, diffuseness, diversity, and connectivity. However, existing methods mostly focus on mapping urbanized areas as bio physical entities. Here, based on the continuum of urbanity framework, we developed an approach for cross-scale urbanity mapping from town to city and urban megaregion with different spatial resolutions using the Google Earth Engine. This approach was developed based on multi-source remote sensing data, Points of Interest – Open Street Map (POIs-OSM) big data, and the random forest regression model. This approach is scale-independent and revealed significant spatial variations in urbanity, underscoring differences in urbanization patterns across megaregions and between urban and rural areas. Urbanity was observed transcending traditional urban boundaries, diffusing into rural settlements within non-urban locales. The finding of urbanity in rural communities far from urban areas challenges the gradient theory of urban-rural development and distribution. By mapping livelihoods, lifestyles, and connectivity simultaneously, urbanity maps present a more comprehensive characterization of the complexity, diffuseness, diversity, and connectivity of urbanized areas than that by land cover or population density alone. It helps enhance the understanding of urbanization beyond biophysical form. This approach can provide a multifaceted understanding of urbanization, and thereby insights on urban and regional sustainability.}
  • Yansong Jin, Fei Wang, Quanli Zong, Kai Jin, Chunxia Liu, Peng Qin
    地理学与可持续性(英文). 2024, 5(3): 370-381. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geosus.2024.03.001
    Urban vegetation in China has changed substantially in recent decades due to rapid urbanization and dramatic climate change. Nevertheless, the spatial differentiation of greenness among major cities of China and its evolution process and drivers are still poorly understood. This study examined the spatial patterns of vegetation greenness across 289 cities in China in 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2018 by using spatial autocorrelation analysis on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI); then, the influencing factors were analyzed by using the optimal parameters-based geographical detector (OPGD) model and 18 natural and anthropogenic indicators. The findings demonstrated a noticeable rise in the overall greenness of the selected cities during 2000–2018. The cities in northwest China and east China exhibited the rapidest and slowest greening, respectively, among the six sub-regions. A significant positive spatial correlation was detected between the greenness of the 289 cities in different periods, but the correlation strength weakened over time. The hot and very hot spots in southern and eastern China gradually shifted to the southwest. While the spatial pattern of urban greenness in China is primarily influenced by wind speed (WS) and precipitation (PRE), the interaction between PRE and gross domestic product (GDP) has the highest explanatory power. The explanatory power of most natural factors decreased and, conversely, the influence of anthropogenic factors generally increased. These findings emphasize the variations in the influence strength of multiple factors on urban greenness pattern, which should be taken into account to understand and adapt to the changing urban ecosystem.}
  • 台风气候背景与区域特征
    李铮, 邱兰兰, 王伟, 何斌, 吴绍洪, 贺山峰
    热带地理. 2024, 44(6): 973-986. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.20230936

    基于中国气象局热带气旋最佳路径数据集,对1949—2022年北上台风的时空变化特征进行统计分析,并探讨了厄尔尼诺-南方涛动(El Niño-Southern Oscillation, ENSO)对北上台风活动的影响。结果表明:1)74年间共有275个北上台风活动,频数的年际变化呈不显著上升趋势,但北上台风占西北太平洋生成台风总数的比例呈现显著的上升趋势;2)北上台风主要集中在7—9月生成,8月份进入定义区数量最多,生命期强度以超强台风、台风等高强度等级居多,且高强度等级北上台风出现的几率近些年有增加趋势;3)共有159个北上台风在中国登陆,未登陆转向路径台风大多在30°N、125°―130°E附近向东转向。北上台风生成位置大多集中在10°―20° N、130°―150° E,登陆类北上台风的生成位置更加偏西,消散类台风的生成位置纬度更高;4)Niño 3.4指数与北上台风频数和生命期强度分别呈显著的负相关和正相关关系,同时其对北上台风的生成位置也具有明显影响。与厄尔尼诺年相比,拉尼娜年生成的北上台风数量更多,生成位置更加偏西、偏北,但厄尔尼诺年发生的北上台风强度更高。