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  • Regional Development
    XIA Tian, XIA Ying, LIU Xiaoyu, SUN Jiuwen
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(8): 1904-1919.

    Despite the initial development goals achieved, China's macro-economy is still deeply affected by the external environment and stuck in its own structure at the same time. In retrospect, not until 1949 with the founding of the People's Republic of China did China's budding regional economy witness the prominence of a fixed development pattern shifting from a spontaneous to an actuating one. After comparing the three regional economic practices, this paper finds that each development stage has its corresponding development strategy. At the same time, several development patterns, namely, the coastal and inland areas, the three regions, and four plates were formed accordingly. Furthermore, through combing the literature and historical facts, this paper determines the historical starting point, division criteria and division scheme of China's regional economic development before summarizing three main lines and also contradictions therein: the government-market relations against the background of market reform, the coastal-inland relations against the tide of economic zonation, and the urban-rural relations against the trend of urbanization. Based on the above, the paper constructs a three-dimensional model out of the spatio-termporal process of China's regional development before proposing new historical stages from the perspective of economic system modernization. These historical stages are: industrial economy, special zone economy, district economy, regional economy and urban network economy. Finally, from the urbanization angle, this paper concludes that for different urbanization stages, regional policies should be industrial policies, factor policies, fiscal and tax policies sequentially.

  • Regional Development
    GE Dazhuan
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(8): 1849-1868.

    Deconstructing rural spatial characteristics is the precondition for building rural spatial governance system in the new era, and multi-scale rural spatial characteristics and its governance path would effectively support the modernization of the national governance system. Based on the comprehensive, regional and mobile thinking paradigm of geography, this paper deconstructs the multi-scale rural spatial characteristics, identifies its internal operating logics, summarizes its governance dilemmas, constructs a multi-scale rural spatial governance framework that is based on geographical analysis paradigm, explores feasible governance paths, and constructs a multi-scale rural spatial governance system research plan, namely, "characteristics identification-dilemma analysis-governance framework-governance path". The paper finds that: (1) to analyze the operating logics of the multi-scale rural space through the comprehensive, regional and mobile analytical thinking of geography, it is necessary to understand the mechanism of action of scale synthesis, scale differentiation and scale flow to the multi-scale rural spatial characteristics, highlighting the comprehensive characteristics of rural space, strengthening rural spatial heterogeneity, and integrating rural spatial mobility. (2) The lacking urban-rural spatial overall planning, unsmooth spatial mobile network and not-reflected different types of rural spatial value are the key dilemmas in the rural spatial governance, which need to be addressed. (3) The multi-scale rural spatial governance framework of "comprehensive spatial governance-spatial zoning governance-spatial mobile governance" could effectively solve the problems of urban-rural spatial integration, regional spatial coordination and spatial network blockage. (4) Integrating urban-rural comprehensive governance, innovating regulation control to improve regional governance and balancing the configuration of spatial development right to achieve mobile spatial governance are feasible paths for multi-scale rural space governance. In conclusion, clarifying the multi-scale rural spatial characteristics in the new era and constructing a scientific governance system could provide theoretical support to promote integrated urban-rural development and rural vitalization strategy.

  • Land Use and Carbon Peak & Carbon Neutrality
    ZHANG Jie, LIU Yujie, ZHANG Ermei, CHEN Jie, TAN Qinghua
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(9): 2105-2127.

    The land conversion processes concerning non-agricultural and non-grain production areas have prominently decreased arable land availability, which substantially impacted grain production capacity and threatened national food security. Thus, it is critical to establish a novel scientific approach to identify spatio-temporal evolution patterns of land conversion and its influencing factors in different stages. This study evaluates the evolutionary characteristics of non-agricultural and non-grain fields by constructing a comprehensive index system that considers factors like cultivated land resources, social and economic conditions, and farmers' subjective perspectives, using a county as the basic research unit. For a comprehensive analysis, a geographical detector model was utilized to quantify driving factors in different stages. The results indicated spatial clustering effects for non-agricultural and non-grain fields throughout China, particularly in the eastern region beyond the "Hu Huanyong Line". Further analysis revealed a spatial pattern for non-grain conversion phenomenon was more intense in the southwestern than the northeastern fields. Over the past four decades, non-agricultural fields recorded an area expansion, but the year-wise area increase was gradually reduced, while non-grain areas exhibited a "growth-stable" change pattern. Although progress in non-grain was less in primary producing areas over the last 40 years, an increase of 1.49 times and 1.33 times was recorded from 2010 to 2020 in PSB (production and sales balance area) and Mrt (marketing) areas, respectively. Compared to the period 1980-2000, the rate of non-agricultural conversion in primary producing areas decreased by 77% during 2010-2020, while the rate of non-agricultural conversion increased by 1.63 and 4.65 times for PSB and Mrt regions, respectively. Based on these findings, this paper puts forward suggestions, such as setting control rules and subsidy mechanisms according to area classification, promoting control policies based on regional considerations, strengthening dynamic monitoring and risk warning, as well as enhancing supervision and assessment.

  • Industry and Regional Development
    DAI Hongwei, HU Xifei
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(10): 2375-2391.

    At present, the empirical analysis of regional dual-nuclei structures at the national level is still relatively rare. How to define the provinces with the characteristics of dual-nuclei structures and analyze their impact needs further empirical discussion. In this paper, the spatial Dubin model and the data of 259 prefecture-level cities are used to analyze the distribution characteristics of regional dual-nuclei structure in China and its influence on provincial development. The empirical results show that 11 provincial-level regions (hereafter provinces) in China show the characteristics of dual-nuclei structure. The regional dual-nuclei structure plays a significant role in promoting the economic development of the province, but the northern and southern regions show great differences. The regional dual-nuclei structure has a promoting effect on provincial industrial agglomeration and helps to promote the improvement of local scientific and technological innovation. In general, compared with some single-core provinces with small scale and weak radiation driving force in some provincial capitals, the regional dual-nuclei structure can make up for these shortcomings to a certain extent by virtue of the number of central cities and spatial distribution, which is more conducive to driving local economic development and scientific and technological innovation.

  • Global Energy and World Regional Studies
    ZHANG Xiaohong, CHEN Hao, HUANG Yu, XU Jianping, CHEN Fahu
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(9): 2358-2372.

    Ladakh is located in the northwest of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the western section of the Himalayas, and the upper reaches of the Indus River valley. It is now part of Indian-controlled Kashmir. Since ancient times, Ladakh has been the "key point" from northwest South Asia to the Ngari Prefecture of Xizang and southern Xinjiang. However, most existing research on Ladakh focuses on its local history and culture. Although there are some related works on geopolitical relations, few have studied the historical changes of this region and its subordinate relationship and geographical value with China over a long time scale and analyzed the geographical significance of Ladakh. At the same time, some erroneous views and geographical maps have been disseminated on the Internet at home and abroad, which urgently needs a comprehensive correction from the academic level. Based on a variety of historical documents, map data, and a detailed review of previous research results, this paper demonstrates the changes in place names, historical evolution, and regional scope of Ladakh from the 1st to the 21st century and analyzes its significance in the homeland security of western China. The results show that: (1) As the native land of China's Xizang Ladakh was part of the Tubo Dynasty until the 9th century. After the collapse of the Tubo Dynasty in the middle of the 9th century, Ladakh was an essential part of the Ngari local administration established by the descendants of the Tubo Royal family. In the 13th century, Ladakh was again united within the territory of China's Yuan Dynasty and continued through the Ming and Qing dynasties. It remained until the mid-19th century when the Prince-state of Jammu in southern Kashmir invaded it and incorporated it into the British Indian colony. It was then occupied by the Indian army in 1947. (2) Ladakh region has a tortuous history with many changes in place names. However, when Jammu annexed it in modern times, Ladakh only referred to the upper reaches of Indus Valley between the Western Himalayas and the Karakoram Mountains, with Leh as the center. (3) The complexity of the historical and geographical processes in the Ladakh region makes it the central area of conflicts created by India in the western section of the China-India border. Therefore, China should adopt active strategies to avoid India's continuous "assimilation" policy.

  • Integrated Urban-rural Development
    YANG Ren, DENG Yingxian
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2024, 79(2): 281-298.

    According to the strategic direction of urban-rural integration and rural revitalization, the spatial reconstruction of rural settlement system is the spatial organization foundation of future urban-rural integration development. This paper focused on the hierarchical scale and spatial organization characteristics of the rural settlement system. It comprehensively revealed the evolution process and regional characteristics of rural settlement systems of 111 administrative units in Guangdong province from 1990 to 2020, and discussed their evolutionary mechanism and spatial optimizing and reorganizing regional modes. The results show that: (1) There were significant regional differences in the hierarchical scale distribution of the rural settlement system in Guangdong. The patches of rural settlements show the characteristics of concentric aggregation and distribution centered on the geometric barycenter of each administrative unit. The spatial distribution pattern of the rank cumulative size coefficients of rural settlement system was "high in the southwest, but low in the northeast" and "high in coastal areas, and low in the inland". The decreasing region of the rank cumulative size coefficient was concentrated on the east bank of the Pearl River Estuary and coastal areas of eastern Guangdong, while the increasing region was mainly distributed on the west bank of the Pearl River Estuary. (2) The influencing factors such as natural background, economic development, urbanization development, transportation and location, institutions and policies jointly drove the development and evolution of the rural settlement system. Rural settlement system of urban areas is small in scale in the mature stage of urbanization, which will gradually die out and integrate into the city. Driven by urbanization, industrialization and policies, rural settlement system of suburban areas has experienced survival of the fittest and maintains a stable scale, but the mixed distribution of urban and rural land makes the spatial organization of rural settlements increasingly loose. Driven by the continuous outflow of production factors, exurb rural settlements appear to be "hollowing out". The villagers returning to build new houses and the lack of homestead exit mechanism have led to a continuous and stable growth in rural settlement scale, and their spatial distribution is characterized by more peripheral diffusion. Rural settlement system with poor location in mountainous areas develops slowly under the support of policies, and the aggregation characteristic along the transportation line is significant. (3) Facing the integrated development of urban and rural spaces, four models of spatial optimization and reorganization of rural settlement system are proposed: urban-rural integration development, dual-core-driven development, central place hierarchical system development, and pan-center chain-connecting cluster development.

  • Regional Development
    ZHENG Yuhan, LONG Hualou
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(8): 1869-1887.

    Urban-rural integrated development is an advanced stage in the evolution of the urban-rural relationship, and it is also the basic path and main goal for the implementation of rural revitalization. Scientifically understanding and identifying the integration stage and its current level of urban-rural development in China is the prerequisite basis for promoting urban-rural integrated development and rural revitalization. Based on the concept connotation, this paper constructed a multi-dimensional evaluation system of urban-rural integrated development at the prefecture level. The process status and spatiotemporal divergent characteristics of urban-rural integrated development in 336 prefecture-level regions in China from 2000-2018 were portrayed and revealed. The results show that: (1) The current state of urban-rural integrated development in China is generally at a low-to-middle level, showing a heterogeneous spatiotemporal pattern with apparent gradient divergence. The integrated development level of the Pearl River Delta, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, and the Shandong Peninsula is high, but the regions distributed to the west of the "Hu Line" develops slowly. (2) According to the level and characteristics of integrated development, the 366 prefecture-level regions can be divided into four types: integrated development, tending integration, imbalanced development, and lagging development, with a more active transformation between the latter three types. (3) The development level of urban-rural economic integration is higher than that of demographic and social integration, while the development process of urban-rural spatial and ecological integration shows some natural zonal divergent characteristics. Finally, we identified the problem areas for different types of integrated development and explored the regional promotion path of urban-rural integrated development, which could provide scientific references for the strategies of regional urban-rural development and rural revitalization.

  • Theoretical and Research Frontiers
    MAO Xiyan, HE Canfei
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(12): 2905-2921.

    Economic globalization has reshaped the world economy's spatial pattern while simultaneously changing the context for developing economic geography theories. This study revisited the changing features of economic globalization and investigated its geographical implications. Next, it summarized the new trends in economic geography studies in response to the changing economic globalization. Lastly, this study proposed a research agenda for domestic economic geography studies by combining the requirements of global trends and national strategies. The main findings include the following: The scale of geographical integration during economic globalization keeps shrinking, leading to a pattern of regionalization. The driving forces of economic globalization have gradually shifted from cost-saving to innovation. Accordingly, the benefits of economic globalization will be reallocated between developed and developing countries. The trade-offs between efficiency and resilience alter the global value chain, shifting outsourcing from off-shoring to re-shoring or near-shoring. The changing economic globalization has witnessed the rising effects of geographical distances, institutions, and resilience on increasing the inequality of the global economic geography. In economic geography, the scalar structures shifted from the global-local to the global-national-local. The relational networks evolved toward a multi-level, multi-agent, and multi-scale one. The role of the nation has been revisited. More attention has been paid to geopolitical hotspots. Overall, economic geography's institutional, cultural, relational, and evolutionary turns exhibit an emerging trend to convergence. In such a setting, domestic economic geography should find a new balance between global trends and national strategies. This study proposed seven research issues, including: (1) the practice of the Belt and Road and the pattern of inclusive globalization; (2) the economic geography of dual circulation; (3) the paths and resilience of regional development in response to the global production network restructuring; (4) the evolution and competitiveness of industrial clusters; (5) the building of multi-level innovation systems; (6) the regional sustainable development within the global environmental governance system; and (7) the impact of geo-economics on national economic security and interests.

  • Urban and Rural Development and Population Mobility
    FU Runde, YANG Zhenshan
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2024, 79(4): 819-836.

    The quality of development is crucial for China to comprehensively build a socialist modern country. Drawing on related concepts of development in quality, the paper conceptualizes a city in high-quality development and proposes a stylish framework with five dimensions to evaluate it, in line with the New Development Philosophy, which is composed of innovation, coordination, greenness, openness and sharing. Using the methods of spatial analysis, club convergence test and spatial Durbin model, the paper identified the spatial evolution of the quality of city development in China and associated determinants during 2005-2020. On average, the level of city development quality increased by 48.4% during the study period. The number of cities at low-level of quality in development decreased dramatically, accompanied by a profound transformation in the spatial pattern of city development quality, which presents significant spatial aggregation. The spatial imbalance remains for cities with different development qualities, and the challenge is still huge to narrow the gap. With significant role differentiation among cities, a "pioneering-catching up" pattern emerges, and the 11 pioneering cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Shenzhen have become the pioneers of high-quality development in China. Key determinants for cities achieving high quality in development includes urbanization level, public investment, digital economy, environmental regulation and economic growth, while there is inverted U-shaped relationship between city size and development quality. To achieve the goal of high-quality city development in the new era, it is necessary to focus on the development of cities in the central and western regions, making full use of the demonstration role of pioneers, promoting quantitative growth, strengthening environmental regulations, cultivating the new forms of digital economy, and optimizing the city size hierarchy.

  • Land Use and Carbon Peak & Carbon Neutrality
    TONG Rongxin, LIANG Xun, GUAN Qingfeng, SONG Yu, CHEN Yuling, WANG Qinyi, ZHENG Lina, JIN Qun, YU Yanping, HE Jie, XIONG Xuehui, LIAO Weilin
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(9): 2209-2222.

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and soil carbon sinks play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle of terrestrial ecosystem. However, many previous studies of soil carbon storage and sinks utilized low-resolution land use dataset, with limited focus on soil carbon sinks from farmland and grassland management. To address this issue, this study employed a series of accounting models to estimate the carbon sink from farmland and grassland management, the carbon sink from forest management, changes in soil carbon storage, changes in carbon storage due to land use conversion from 2000 to 2020, as well as the soil carbon storage in China in 2000 and 2020 using a 30 m-resolution land use dataset. The results showed that the national carbon sink from farmland management in China was approximately 17.918 Tg C a-1 and the carbon sink from grassland management was approximately 20.171 Tg C a-1 during 2000-2020. The carbon sink from forest management in China was approximately 81.622 Tg C a-1 during 2000-2020. The soil carbon storage (0-100 cm) in China increased from 86.074 Pg C in 2000 to 86.771 Pg C in 2020. The soil carbon storage increased by approximately 34.850 Tg C a-1 from 2000 to 2020. The land use transformation during the study period resulted in a decrease of approximately 17.621 Tg C a-1 in soil carbon storage. The findings of this study can help researchers understand China's carbon storage and provide scientific data to China's 2060 Carbon Neutrality Target.

  • Interview with Experts
    ZHOU Guo-hua, LONG Hua-lou, LIN Wan-long, QIAO Jia-jun, TAN Hua-yun, YANG Kai-zhong, YUE Wen-ze, YUN Wen-ju, HUANG Xian-jin, LU Han-wen, LI Xun
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(8): 1919-1940.

    "Three rural issues" (issues concerning agriculture, rural areas, and farmers) is an important mainline of the CPC's centennial course of party building and China's urban-rural development. In order to solve the "three rural issues" in the New Era and promote the implementation of rural revitalization strategy, we hereby invite ten experts in the research field of "three rural issues" and rural revitalization research to conduct interviews. The interview mainly focuses on three perspectives: Historical process and institutional context, urban-rural system and cross scale space, and the integration of policy theory, technical methods, and rural construction practice. It revolves three main lines: The strategic stage and institutional changes of "three rural issues", the essence of "three rural issues" and the ways to solve new "three rural issues", and the rural revitalization mechanism and rural construction practice. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The essence, key areas, and institutional mechanism innovation of the "three rural issues" in the context of spatio-temporal processes and institutional contexts. It is necessary to grasp the laws of "three rural" (agriculture, rural areas, and farmers) and diagnose the "three rural issues" from the perspective of urban and rural regional systems and even the global perspective space. The "three rural issues" is an optimization decision-making problem for improving the functions of rural regional systems within the overall framework of urban and rural regional systems. The imbalance in urban-rural development and insufficient rural development are the concentrated reflection of the "three rural issues" in the New Era. The crux of the "three rural issues" lies in the uncoordinated development of "human, land, and industry". The core goal of China's "three rural issues" in the new development stage is to move towards the common prosperity of farmers and rural areas. The corresponding development system and working mechanism of "agriculture, rural areas, and farmers" need to grasp the two "bottom lines", do a good job in the two "connections", and promote the two "integrations" in key areas such as national food security, farmers' livelihood development, modern agriculture and rural development, rural revitalization, and urban-rural integration development. (2) The theory of rural revitalization and the rural spatial planning under the requirements of urban-rural system interaction and people's common prosperity. The research and solution of China's "three rural issues" are rooted in the geographical theory of territorial system theory of human-environment interaction and location theory, the sector economy theory and the economic cycle theory, as well as the theory of development economics, sociological function theory and social conflict theories. In the research practice of the "three rural issues", land use transformation theory, rural reconstruction theory, rural development multi-body and multi-pole theory, interface theory, rural attraction theory, and rural sustainability have also been developed. The urban-rural integrated development and the common prosperity of the people should be the result of balanced regional development and Chinese path to modernization. The folk expression of "making rural life attractive" and the strategic goal of "basically realizing rural modernization by 2035" are mutually "exterior-interior" relationship, which can be comprehensively explained from the following three aspects: The spatio-temporal differences and path differentiation of rural settlement evolution and multi-functional transformation, and the phenomenon explanation of rural gentrification and the theoretical application of rural attraction in the context of urban-rural interaction, as well as the theoretical significance and practical path of rural modernization under the guidance of rural sustainability science. Improving local quality is an inherent requirement to meet the people's needs for a better life, and it is an essential requirement and general law of rural revitalization driven by innovation. As the edge of the national urban-rural system, rural areas face constraints such as segmentation, remoteness, low density, and insufficient heterogeneity dividends in improving local quality. Therefore, to improve local quality of rural areas, it is necessary to adapt to and alleviate the relative inefficiency of rural geography, and its important promotion paths include the characteristic development based on endowment, digital transformation and rural agglomeration centered around cities and towns. Guided by spatial planning and taking into account the integrated functional development of production-living-ecological spaces in rural areas, as well as the integration of urban and rural space through spatial planning, through promoting the quality of living space through comprehensive land improvement, assisting in the realization of multifunctional value in agricultural space through refined management, ensuring the sustainable use of ecological space through systematic protection and restoration, which is a solid foundation for rural revitalization and the construction of a new urban-rural relationship. (3) The path mechanism and technical support for the comprehensive rural revitalization and rural construction under the new needs of ecological civilization construction and governance modernization. Comprehensive rural revitalization requires the revitalization of industries, the reform of land, the development of human well-being, and the intelligent updating of technology. First, the essence of operating rural areas is the rational allocation of resources as the object of factors. It is necessary to integrate the high-quality development of agriculture with the high-quality and livable rural areas, promote the interaction and integration of urban and rural systems, actively link natural science, engineering technology innovation, and institutional innovation from the perspective of the big food concept, and implement food safety and important agricultural product supply security. Second, facing the new demand of rural sustainable development and governance modernization, we should innovate the property right governance integration mechanism of rural land system, especially actively build a rural green development mechanism with farmers' participation and an external benefit sharing mechanism of ecological environment governance. Third, it is urgent to break through the barriers that farmers share the gains from the appreciation of rural assets, fill the gap between small farmers and modern agriculture, and establish a concept of county governance that meets the needs of Chinese path to modernization. Fourth, rural construction is an organic combination of the governance of public spaces by the state and the daily life practices of farmers. Through the theory and technology of "computational" rural areas, effective connection and information sharing between the state and rural areas can be achieved, promoting coordinated development from micro to macro, and from local to whole. And we should achieve the aim of building livable, suitable for work, and beautiful rural areas, through multi-level main body co-construction, co-governance, and management. To sum up, the interview views can provide theoretical reference and decision-making reference for the "three rural issues" work innovation and rural revitalization practice towards Chinese path to modernization.

  • Industry and Regional Development
    ZHANG Xuebo, FU Wenshuo, MA Haitao
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(10): 2392-2411.

    Regional economic resilience is closely related to the state of the regional industrial structure. During the process of the region undergoing and recovering from external shocks, whether and how the spatio-temporal correlation between economic resilience and the evolution of the established industrial structure should be further explored. The micro and mesoscopic views of enterprises and industries, multi-year economic growth data, and enterprise status in the counties of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region were employed to measure regional economic resilience at the county level and divide its economic development stages. In addition, a spatio-temporal correlation between regional economic resilience and industrial structure was appropriately tested, and the main industries affecting regional economic resilience were distinguished. Finally, the coupling mechanism of regional economic resilience and industrial structure evolution was analyzed. The major findings are as follows: (1) The periods of rapid and slow economic growth occur alternately in the study region, and the economic resilience shows a fluctuating growth trend. Meanwhile, central urban areas such as Beijing, Tianjin, and Shijiazhuang exhibited high economic resilience, and a typical center-periphery structure gradually took shape. (2) There was a significant spatial correlation between regional economic resilience and industrial structure. In economically developed regions, such as Beijing and Tianjin, the agglomeration of high economic resilience and high industrial structure was evident. There was a two-way causal correlation and consistency in time-series changes. (3) The industrial structure in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region had gradually improved. Compared to the effect of industrial structure, the effect of competitiveness contributed more to economic resilience. Primary industries as well as those pertinent to consumer services and social services have played a pivotal role in improving regional resisting economic resilience. Besides, the development of consumer services and social services leads to the strengthening of the region's recovering economic resilience. (4) The evolution of the industrial structure achieved the evolution of the development path, which was revealed in the distinction of economic resilience at the county level. In addition, the coupling correlation between regional economic resilience and the evolution of industrial structure in the study region was mainly revealed in the time scale, which had not yet led to the fundamental restructuring of the regional spatial structure, and the center-periphery structure is still relatively significant.

  • Global Change Impact and Adaptation
    ZHANG Jing, HAO Fanghua, WU Zhaofei, LI Mingwei, ZHANG Xuan, FU Yongshuo
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(9): 2241-2255.

    Global climate change caused by human activities results in frequent extreme climate events, and shifts the physiological processes of plants, and the carbon, water cycle and energy balance of terrestrial ecosystems. Vegetation phenology is the most sensitive biological indicator to climate change. In recent years, the responses of vegetation phenology to climate change mainly focus on the mean state of the climate, while the response mechanisms of vegetation phenology to extreme climate are still unclear. In this paper, the response of vegetation spring and autumn phenology to various extreme climatic events and their mechanisms were reviewed. We found that extreme low temperature and extreme precipitation directly delayed the vegetation green-up date and advanced the leaf senescence, while extreme high temperature and extreme drought led to stomatal closure, inhibited photosynthesis and transpiration, and thus advanced leaf senescence at middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. Currently, the studies on the response of vegetation phenology to extreme climate events pay less attention to compound extreme climate events, and there are only few studies on the lag effect of vegetation phenology response to extreme climate events and the recovery process of vegetation after the occurrence of extreme events. Under future climate change scenarios, it is necessary to modify the vegetation phenological models by considering the impact of extreme climate events and couple it into the dynamic global vegetation models to improve the simulation accuracy of the carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystems.

  • Population and Urban Studies
    LI Jiaming, SUN Dongqi, JIANG Yanpeng
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(8): 1955-1968.

    The study of the new economic geography has paid attention to the polarization and balanced development of urban systems. In reality, however, transport accessibility is subject to great uncertainty in explaining the polarization and balance of the urban system. In fact, the polarization or equilibrium of the regional urban system is not only unique in China, but also a general phenomenon in countries with different development outcomes, political systems and degrees of marketization. From the perspective of industrial heterogeneity, this study empirically analyzes the process and mechanism of the industrial structure of regional central cities on the population growth of neighboring cities in China from 1980 to 2020, and examines the influence of industrial structure on the polarization and equilibrium development of the regional urban system. The results show that, firstly, the manufacturing sector strengthens the spillover effect from the core city and promotes the population growth in neighboring cities, while the service sector weakens the spillover effect and hinders the growth in neighboring cities. Secondly, the manufacturing-oriented cities have relatively small city scale, while the service-oriented cities are relatively large. Therefore, the driving effect of manufacturing-oriented central cities on the neighboring cities is larger, which tends to produce a relatively balanced regional city system. Correspondently, the spillover effect of service-oriented central cities on the neighboring cities is smaller, which tends to form a relatively polarized regional city system. Finally, as the share of services in the industrial structure of central cities continues to rise, China's urban system may become more polarized rather than balanced. Certainly, the higher the proportion of manufacturing in the central city, the more balanced the regional urban system is. In fact, the empirical results show that the industrial structure and the spillover effect of the core city have an inverted U-shaped relationship, i.e. a high proportion of manufacturing or services weakens the driving effect of the core city on surrounding cities. The reasons for this vary. The high proportion of manufacturing and the small size of the central city have a limited spillover effect on the neighboring cities and therefore can hardly drive their growth; while the high proportion of service industry and the negative effect of the service industry on the spillover effect lead to the slow development of the neighboring small-and-medium-sized cities. It is worth noting that because of the significant spatial impact of industry on the urban system, the future regional urbanization strategy should be coordinated with the industrial strategy. More importantly, with the gradual liberalization of the household registration system, industry selection can become an effective policy option for macro-control of the regional urban system.

  • Surface Process
    SHEN Yi, $\boxed{\hbox{WU Baosheng}}$, WANG Yanjun, QIN Chao, ZHENG Shan
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(11): 2735-2749.

    This study focuses on the Lower Yellow River (LYR), which has experienced continuous erosion since the operation of Xiaolangdi Reservoir in 1999, and its complex spatio-temporal variation process. Using the single-step mode of the Delayed Response Model (DRM), we derive a calculation formula for the accumulated erosion and deposition volume in the LYR. The coefficient of determination R2 between the simulated and observed values from 2000 to 2020 is 0.99. Currently, the LYR is undergoing continuous erosion, but the erosion rate is gradually slowing down, and the difference between the equilibrium value and the calculated value of accumulated erosion and deposition volume gradually decreases, which means that the riverbed erosion is approaching equilibrium. Additionally, we derive a formula for the spatial distribution of main channel accumulated erosion volume per unit river length in the LYR based on the non-equilibrium suspended sediment transport equation. The coefficient of determination between the fitted value and observed value from 2003 to 2015 is about 0.98-0.99, with a relative error of approximately 6.2%. Our findings suggest that under the current conditions of decreasing sediment inflow and continuous scouring, it takes around 3.0 years for the riverbed to achieve half of the erosion and deposition adjustment and approximately 13.0 years to achieve 95% of the adjustment. Moreover, the spatial distribution of accumulated erosion volume in the LYR tends to become more uniform with the continuous development of erosion. These results provide valuable reference for analyzing the complex spatio-temporal variation process of the LYR.

  • Surface Process
    ZHOU Kehan, WANG Xiaqing, LIU Fenggui, ZHOU Qiang, WAN Dejun, LYU Feiya, HUANG Ping'an
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(11): 2781-2796.

    Sedimentary DNA has been widely used in the studies of climate change, ecological function, and environmental archaeology, because it can provide biological dynamic information with temporal dimension in geographical environment. However, the surface processes and impact factors of sedimentary DNA within the catchments are still not fully understood, which limits the accuracy of sedimentary DNA data interpretation. In this study, topsoil DNA concentrations at the Buha River catchment in northwest Qinghai Lake, which was suitable for DNA preservation, were firstly measured based on domestic new sedimentary DNA laboratory. Meanwhile, soil physical and chemical compositions, including grain size, elements, loss on ignition and TOC, were determined. Subsequently, the abiotic factors which had impact on spatial distribution of topsoil DNA concentration were analyzed by combing the status related with climate, vegetation cover, and land use at the Buha River catchment. The results showed that the average concentration of topsoil DNA at the whole catchment was 0.91 μg/g, with the higher values in the middle reaches of the Buha River and its tributary Jilmon River, while the lower ones in the lower reaches near the Qinghai Lake. In addition, topsoil DNA concentrations at the catchment were positively correlated with the contents of clay and organic matter, but negatively correlated with sand content and the intensity of weathering and leaching. Besides, high vegetation cover and frequent grazing activities contributed to the enrichment of the topsoil DNA, while strong weathering and leaching under warm and wet environment, river transportation and crop cultivation reduced the concentration of the topsoil DNA. All the above results provide a scientific basis for an understanding of the deposition processes of sedimentary DNA and their impact factors in the Buha River catchment, which are helpful for revealing sedimentary DNA compositions and evolution processes of ecological environment and human-environment relationship in regions west of the Qinghai Lake.

  • Review and Theoretical Exploration
    BAI Jianjun, CHEN Jun
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(11): 2647-2658.

    On the basis of analyzing urban SDGs monitoring and evaluation, this paper expounds the conceptual connotation of geospatial enabled monitoring and its differences from traditional statistical-based monitoring for urban SDGs. Meanwhile, through document comparison and analysis, the development and latest progress of urban SDGs monitoring and evaluation has been revealed, suggesting a transformation of urban SDGs monitoring and evaluation from traditional statistical-based monitoring to geospatial enabled monitoring. In addition, this paper systematically analyzes the research progress and current situation of geospatial enabled monitoring from the aspects of monitoring index system, geospatial data acquisition for monitoring, and monitoring ideas and methods. Results showed that the number of urban SDGs indicators is too large and the relationship is complex, with the lack of clear core and key indicators, which need to be optimized and improved according to the specific situation. The lack of standard, public and directly available data requires the development of appropriate methods for spatial data generation and multi-source data utilization, and the establishment of data products for urban SDGs monitoring and evaluation. Besides, the lack of scientific and efficient monitoring and evaluation methods is also one of the main problems facing the current urban SDGs studies. Finally, through the analysis of current challenges in urban SDGs monitoring, future research in geospatial enabled monitoring for urban SDGs are proposed, including the establishment of scientific and efficient monitoring and evaluation methods, the establishment of a standardized and unified monitoring index system, the construction of data production sharing and monitoring and evaluation knowledge service platform, and the strengthening of the application research of big earth data and related disciplines support for the monitoring and evaluation of urban SDGs.

  • Global Change Impact and Adaptation
    JIANG Weiguo, ZHANG Ze, LING Ziyan, DENG Yawen
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(9): 2223-2240.

    Wetland is an important natural resource for human beings and plays an irreplaceable ecological function in the terrestrial ecosystem. In order to curb the continued loss of wetlands around the world, international organizations and many countries have taken a series of major protection and restoration measures. This paper reviews the wetland protection and restoration measures of international organizations and some countries, comprehensively interprets China's wetland protection and restoration management experience, and proposes that future research on wetland resources should be carried out from the aspects of international frontier and national strategy, social economy and intelligent services. The results show that: (1) The 27 International Wetlands Day from 1997 to 2023 provide new goals and tasks for the protection and management of wetlands in corresponding years. The important topics and outcomes of the 14 International Convention on Wetlands Conferences from 1980 to 2022 provide new directions and new challenges for wetland development in the coming period. In the future, we should enhance ecological functions of wetlands, promote the sustainable development of wetlands, and overcome the technical bottleneck of ecological restoration of fragile wetland ecosystems from 2020 to 2035. (2) During the 30-year period from 1992 to 2022, China embarked on a new phase of wetland protection and restoration. The overall experience of wetland protection and restoration with Chinese characteristics has been formed through "national strategic deployment-legal policy establishment-project planning and implementation". Emphasis was placed on the need to provide for and prepare planning for the long-term protection of wetlands at the national legal level, to innovate restoration and management techniques and application systems, and to effectively address the complex issues of wetland protection and restoration through collaborative division of labor among multiple departments. (3) The research on the future trend of wetlands should be directed towards the exploration and practice of "United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and several international conventions" in support of the sustainable development of wetlands. Wetland protection, restoration and management services should be promoted for "national strategic needs and local social and economic high-quality development". Research on the cross-integration and academic innovation development also should be enhanced for "disciplinary development - global supervision - comprehensive assessment-intelligent decision-making".

  • Population and Urban Studies
    LEI Weiqian, JIAO Limin
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(8): 1969-1982.

    As a product of certain type of social interaction, urban scaling laws assume that urban attributes such as urban economic outputs are largely determined by urban population size (internal interactions), implying the assumption of agglomeration economies. Urban population agglomeration represents a local network effect, while the global network effect on a larger spatial scale between cities should also be considered in terms of the improvement of social productivity. Taking 275 Chinese cities at prefecture level and above as the research object, we constructed an urban human mobility network by Baidu migration data and portraied the degree of external interaction by human mobility between cities. We comparatively analysed the non-linear relationship between population size within cities and external interaction and urban economic outputs under the urban scaling framework. Results show that there is a significant super-linear scaling relationship between urban economic output and external interaction, revealing the higher multiplier effect of external interaction on urban economic outputs. The role of network spatial interaction cannot be ignored and it has become an important complement to agglomeration economies. Further, indicators such as urban population density, agglomeration and network externalities are introduced to quantitatively and comprehensively measure the effects of urban population agglomeration and interurban population mobility and their synergistic effects on urban economic outputs. The agglomeration effect brought about by urban population size remains the main driver of regional economic development, and the ability of cities to benefit from exchange and cooperation on a larger spatial scale has yet to be enhanced. This study contributes to fully understanding the origins of urban scaling laws from taking both internal and external interaction into consideration, deepening the recognization of the agglomeration effect and network effect of regional economic growth. This paper is supposed to support for promoting high-quality integrated urban development and deepening the practice of coordinated regional development.

  • Industry and Regional Development
    WANG Yongsheng, LIU Yansui
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(10): 2412-2424.

    Rural area has abundant ecological resources. Ecological industrialization has become the emerging trends in rural areas and the new driving forces for rural revitalization. This study summarized the evolution of China's ecological environmental policies, and clarified the promotion mechanisms of regional ecological industrialization development to rural revitalization from the perspectives of ecosystem and human society, ecological products and economic development, ecological industrialization and rural revitalization, and discussed the models and pathways of poverty alleviation and rural revitalization by developing modern organic industry based on the regional ecological resources from the case study of Yangxian county in southern Shaanxi province. Three stages of China's ecological environmental policies were summarized, including "Focus on economy and light on environmental protection", "Environmental protection and scientific development" and "ecological civilization construction". Relationship between natural ecosystem and human social welfare reflects the objective needs of social and economic development and subjective initiative of human utilization of nature. The crucial ecological products and economic development was the engine of "nature-ecology-society-economy" in the core of benefits. The core of ecological industrialization and rural revitalization is the guarantee mechanism of "human-land-industry-right". Organic industry development is the typical model and important direction of ecological industrialization. In Yangxian county, the organic production paradigm of "product-industry-production area" promotes the transformation of organic practitioners from single subject management to multi-agent operation, and the transformation of land use type from resource optimal allocation to man-land coordination. In the future, coupling of ecological protection and socio-economic development can be realized by the model construction of modern organic agriculture and rural revitalization in Hanjiang River basin from the aspects of improving organic products quality and yield, enhancing organic industrial integration and value, reducing consumption and increasing efficiency in production areas.

  • Population and Urban Studies
    KE Wenqian, XIAO Baoyu, LIN Liyue, ZHU Yu, WANG Yan
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(8): 2041-2057.

    There are important changes in urban-rural structure of population mobility at the late-intermediate stage of urbanization in China, which will have a significant impact on population redistribution, urbanization and regional development. This paper divides the interprovincial urban and rural floating population into four mobility types by using the 2010 and 2020 censuses data, and on the basis of identifying the mainstream types, their spatial patterns evolution and the relationship with regional economic development are investigated through the mobility ratio indexes and regression models. The study results can be summarized as follows. (1) The urban and rural floating population is large and grows rapidly. Meanwhile, rural-urban mobility keeps the dominant position, and urban-urban mobility rises rapidly, these two population mobility types have become the mainstream ones of interprovincial urban and rural floating population in China. (2) In terms of the net mobility pattern of urban-urban floating population, the net-inflow areas are further concentrated in the three major coastal centers of Beijing, Shanghai and Guangdong, and Liaoning, Xinjiang and Yunnan are also maintained at a certain net-inflow rate, but most of the provincial-level regions are in the net-outflow areas. The major changes of the net mobility pattern of urban-urban floating population have shaped a spatial connection network. The main features of this network can be described as three cross-regional flow circles of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta in coastal China. At the same time, the space connections within the regions are strengthening in northeast China, northwest China and southwest China. (3) The net mobility pattern of rural-urban floating population shows that in coastal areas, the net-inflow rate rises or decreases during the study period, while in inland areas, the increase in the net-inflow rate of Liaoning and Xinjiang leads to the decline in the net-outflow rate of their neighboring provinces. The changes of the net mobility pattern of rural-urban floating population depict the dual characteristics of continuous formation and different changes of the coastal flow circle, and the development of the inland flow circle in Xinjiang and Liaoning. (4) There is a mutual relationship between urban-urban and rural-urban population mobility and regional economic development. For regional economic development of both population mobility types, the impact is significantly positive and has been increasing. When we add the floating stock into the models, the positive effect of this variable has decreased in urban-urban mobility's model, while it still plays the first-place positive effect in rural-urban mobility's model. The two population mobility types have a positive effect on the national economic development and the inflow areas' economic development.

  • TANG Yifan, LIN Xiaobiao, LU Yuqi
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH. 2023, 42(9): 2466-2489.

    Religious geography primarily studies the spatial distribution characteristics of religions. However, there is a lack of research on the dynamic processes of religious spatial diffusion and pattern evolution from a temporal perspective. Current studies on the macro-scale diffusion patterns of religions in China are insufficient, and the relationship between religious development, urban scale, and aging levels is understudied. To address this gap, this study uses Point of Interest (POI) data on Taoist, Buddhist, Christian, and Islamic architecture in China. It employs methods such as density field hotspot detection models, gravity migration models, and exploratory spatial analysis to explore the spatial patterns and diffusion modes of the four major religions in China from a spatio-temporal perspective. Additionally, variance analysis is used to reveal the development disparities of religions in different types of cities. The findings of the research are as follows: (1) Buddhism has a wider distribution range, higher density, and more hotspots in China, followed by Christianity, with Taoism and Islam slightly lower. (2) There are significant differences in the spatial diffusion patterns of religions. Buddhism mainly spreads to southeast and southwest China, while Taoism is limited to southeast China. Christianity primarily spreads in China's trading ports and rural areas, while Islam spreads to ethnic minority settlements in western China based on "blood-ethnicity" connections. (3) Religious distribution exhibits significant spatial autocorrelation characteristics, with Buddhism and Christianity showing a higher degree of clustering compared to Taoism and Islam. Hotspots of Taoism, Buddhism, and Christianity are mostly concentrated in eastern China, while Islamic hotspots are distributed in western China. Only Buddhism and Christianity have cold-spot areas in southern China. (4) Religious diffusion exhibits characteristics of neighborhood diffusion, hierarchical diffusion, and leap diffusion, with a mixture of multiple diffusion modes. The diffusion patterns of indigenous and foreign religions differ due to differences in geographical accessibility, with the diffusion speed and geographical accessibility of the four major religions generally higher in rural areas than in urban areas. (5) Religions have the largest number of buildings and the most significant within-group differences in large cities. The development of Islam significantly weakens with the increase in aging levels, while Christianity shows the most vibrant development with an increase in aging levels.

  • Academician Forum
    CUI Peng, ZHANG Guotao, ZHANG Chendi
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(7): 1627-1640.

    Subsurface stormflow is a special form of subsurface flow in the vadose zone of steep slopes in mountainous and hilly regions, and it is also one of the most important runoff generation mechanisms in the process of flash flood formation. However, the systematic summary on the scientific connotation, mechanisms, and disaster-causing characteristics of the subsurface stormflow in current research is very rare and this limits the development of the theoretical system of runoff generation, routing, and modeling methods of flash floods. Herein, we clarify the scientific connotation and definition of subsurface stormflow based on the division of the development periods of the subsurface stormflow research around the world as well as the analysis of physical processes for the runoff generation. Meanwhile, three physical conditions for the occurrence of subsurface stormflow, together with their influences on the nonlinear response process, are highlighted. The influences of the subsurface stormflow on the dynamic development of flash floods, landslides, and debris flow hazards are analyzed and summarized. Finally, three key research directions are proposed: water transport processes and hydrological connectivity mechanism of the macropores in the vadose zone, processes and mechanisms of water exchange at the geotechnical channel interfaces inside the slopes, and the formation mechanism for flash flood from multiple runoff generation processes with complex slope topography conditions. This work can provide new research perspectives for the formation mechanism and hydrological theoretical framework of flash floods in complex mountainous regions, and better support the national scientific and technological needs for flash flood forecast as well as disaster prevention and mitigation.

  • Transportation and Tourism Geography
    HUANG Jie, WANG Jiaoe
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(10): 2507-2519.

    Resilience study has long been a focal point in various fields of geography, social science, urban studies, and psychology. Recently, resilience study from multiple disciplines has scrutinized at individual scale. As an important behavior in daily life of human beings, travel behavior is of spatial dependence, spatio-temporal dynamics, and individual heterogeneity. Moreover, how to understand interaction between travel behavior (demand) and traffic supply and their dynamics is a fundamental question in transport studies when transport systems encounter unexpected disturbance. Based on fundamental theories from multiple disciplines including ecology, traffic engineering, and psychology, this paper refines the definition of travel behavior resilience. Also, this paper proposes a conceptual theoretical framework of travel behavior resilience based on dynamic equilibrium characteristics of traffic supply and demand. In general, travel behavior presents three stages of variations, namely, dramatic reduction, rapid growth, and fluctuation recovery, which has been helpful to capture travel behavior resilience triangle. Then we construct a corresponding evaluation methodology, which is suitable for multi-scale and multi-dimensional perspectives. We emphasize that the evaluation of travel behavior resilience should be process-oriented with temporal continuity or capture inflection points of travel behavior. Using multi-source big data such as mobile phone signaling data and smart card data, this paper offers empirical studies on travel behavior resilience, and explores its spatial heterogeneity and group differences. With the location-based analysis, we confirm that people show the greater travel behavior resilience at places where people are engaged in various socio-economic activities. With the group-based analysis, we find that age, socio-economic attributes of mobility groups significantly affect travel behavior resilience. Overall, travel behavior resilience can be one pillar and also offer geographic perspectives to broaden resilience studies. In future, the study of travel behavior resilience on multiple scales and perspectives can explore spatial heterogeneity of traffic re-equilibrium, transport modal differences, and then contribute to urban spatial structure studies. Indeed, the study of travel behavior resilience can provide scientific and technological support for urban management and resilient city construction.

  • Land Use and Carbon Peak & Carbon Neutrality
    LIU Jing, JIN Xiaobin, XU Weiyi, WANG Shilei, ZHOU Yinkang
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(9): 2163-2185.

    It is of great significance to systematically reveal the multi-scale evolution patterns and future trends of cultivated land landscape fragmentation (CLLF) in China since 1990 for optimizing the utilization and management of cultivated land resources and promoting appropriate scale agricultural management. This paper first discusses the theoretical cognition of CLLF, then systematically analyzes the evolution of multi-scale characteristics and scale nesting effect of CLLF at agricultural, provincial, municipal and county scales in China from 1990 to 2020, and predicts CLLF long-term evolution trend based on the data of China's land use in the study period and the spatial analysis and mathematical statistics methods such as Theil Index, scale variance, and Markov chain. Results showed that: (1) The pattern characteristics of CLLF in China show obvious scale differences, manifested as a ladder pattern along the three steps of China's terrain at the county scale, a cluster pattern of dual core, ring core group and belt area relying on the "Hu Huanyong Line" at the municipal scale, and a gradually strengthened concentric circular layered structure from east to west and from northeast to southwest at the provincial scale. The average contribution of differences in county, municipal, provincial and agricultural scales to the overall difference of CLLF in China is 84.87%, 14.64%, 0.31% and 0.18%, respectively, indicating that the smaller the scale, the better it can reflect the spatial heterogeneity of CLLF. (2) CLLF showed a trend of enhancement on multiple scales during 1990-2020, but the growth rate slowed down over time. Among them, the development of CLLF was the most intense during 2000-2010. (3) CLLF in China during 1990-2020 generally increased in the east and decreased in the west, but there were great differences in spatio-temporal evolution of the trend, intensity and spatial range at different scales. Spatially, major grain-producing areas such as the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, the central and eastern parts of middle-lower Yangtze Plain and the Sichuan Basin became high-value agglomeration areas with increased fragmentation. (4) The long-term CLLF in China will follow the development pattern of a gradual increase from low to high. The counties with low- or relative low level of fragmentation will decrease greatly, while the counties with higher- or high-level will increase significantly. Meanwhile, different neighborhoods will also lead to significant differences in the long-term evolution of CLLF.

  • Academician Forum
    WANG Guangqian, ZHANG Yu, XIE Di, ZHONG Deyu
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(7): 1641-1658.

    Terrestrial recycling of green water, which is created through a continuous cycle of evapotranspiration, atmospheric transport, and terrestrial precipitation, serves as bridges connecting hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and anthroposphere. Limited knowledge of terrestrial recycling may underestimate the impact of human activities on water and ecology. This study focuses on the structure of China's green water recycling (CGWR) and quantifies the contributions of natural and human ecosystems. Results indicate a high green water recycling ratio (50.4%) and a large recycled amount (2.75 trillion m3/a) over China, with significant south-to-north transport structures over eastern China, southwest-to-northeast transport structures from southwestern China to northern China, and high self-recycling structures in western China. The grassland-dominated Qinghai-Tibet Plateau provides the largest amount of green water (about 800 billion m3/a) and serves as the most critical region for CGWR. The forest-dominated southern hilly region and Yunnan-Guizhou-Sichuan region play a crucial role in supplying green water to a wide area of China. The cropland-dominated Middle-Lower Yangtze Plain and the grassland-dominated Loess Plateau are the key hubs for south-to-north and southwest-to-northeast transport of green water. The structure of CGWR is driven by large-scale geosystems such as ecosystems and atmospheric circulation systems, and has strategic implications in the following three aspects. First, CGWR serves as the "domestic cycle" of water, based on which a general domestic-level water governance framework can be established. Second, CGWR is a representative picture of the water-related processes in the Mountain-River-Forest-Farmland-Lake-Grassland-Desert (MRFFLGD) system and serves as a critical pivot to actualize the conservation and improvement of the MRFFLGD system. Finally, CGWR, together with inter-basin water resources transfer and virtual water transfer, forms a complete picture of China's inter-basin water transfer. The scientific coordination and integration of the three processes present a new approach for achieving spatial equilibrium between China's water resources and economic development.

  • Land Use and Carbon Peak & Carbon Neutrality
    ZHANG Qingqing, QU Yanbo, ZHAN Lingyun, SU Desheng, WEI Chuanchen
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(9): 2186-2208.

    Ensuring food security under the "double carbon" goal is an important issue for China to tackle climate change and build a community of human life. This paper employs the life cycle assessment method to gauge the grain production carbon emissions in China and its 31 provincial-level regions from 1997 to 2020, and uses the Dagum Gini coefficient, standard deviation ellipse and kernel density methods to explore the dynamic evolution characteristics. It further identifies the underlying factors of China's grain production carbon emissions, as well as their spatio-temporal impacts, under a comprehensive, period-based, and regional-level decomposition perspective. The results show that: (1) During the inspection period, China's total carbon emissions from grain production showed an upward trend, with an annual growth of 1.30%, yet since 2017 it has been in a continuous downward trajectory. Material inputs and straw burning account for the lion's share of emissions. The total carbon emissions in 2020 amounted to 494.78 million tons. (2) With regard to the three major grain production functional areas and six grain crop planting system areas, the carbon emissions of grain production in the main grain production areas, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and North China provinces have been in the forefront during the investigation period, while those in the main grain sales areas have displayed a diminishing trend. (3) The absolute difference of China's grain production carbon emissions enlarged manifesting as a tendency of high level convergence and widening of regional disparities. (4) China's grain production carbon emissions are jointly affected by economic, social, technological, demographic and natural factors. With gross agricultural output value and gross grain output serving as the key influential factors, they display negative spatial spillover effects; meanwhile, regional economic structure, labor saving technology, and agricultural production composition demonstrate diametrically opposite effects. The stage effect takes the 11th Five-Year Plan period (2006-2010) as the node, and the driving factors tend to be simplified. In the regional effect, the driving factors from the main sales area, the main production area to the balanced production and marketing area tend to be complex. This study provides a theoretical and methodological basis for promoting green grain production under the "dual carbon" strategy.

  • Land Use and Carbon Peak & Carbon Neutrality
    YANG Hua, XU Yong, ZHOU Kan, WANG Lijia, XU Lin
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(9): 2128-2146.

    Construction land is the main carrier of human activities such as production and living. Conducting the suitability evaluation of construction land on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) holds the significant implications for harmonizing the relationship between ecological preservation and human activities, as well as promoting the optimization of population and industrial spatial layout. However, there are no relevant studies which provide a complete assessment of the construction land suitability (CLS) on the QTP. In this paper, we developed a model- based CLS assessment framework coupling of patterns and processes to calculate the CLS across the entire QTP based on the CLS evaluation model. Then, using the land-use data of 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020, we examined the adaptability of existing construction land to the assessment result of CLS through the adaptability index and vertical gradient index, and further analyzed the internal limiting factors of maladaptive construction land. Finally, we calculated the potential of reserve suitable construction land. This article includes four conclusions: (1) The area of CLS classes, including highly suitable, suitable, moderately suitable, marginally suitable, and unsuitable, are 0.33×104 km2, 10.42 ×104 km2, 18.06×104 km2, 24.12×104 km2, and 205.29×104 km2, respectively, accounting for 0.13%, 4.04%, 7.00%, 9.34%, and 79.50% of the total land area, respectively, with the unsuitable class being predominant. The highly suitable, suitable, and moderately suitable classes are mainly distributed in regions such as the Qaidam Basin, Yellow River-Huangshui River Valley, Gonghe Basin, Songpan Plateau, Shigatse Valley, Lhasa-Shannan Valley, and Nyingchi Valley. (2) The construction land adaptability index are 85.16%, 85.93%, 85.18%, and 78.01% in 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020, respectively, with an average adaptability index exceeding 80% on the QTP. The distribution of existing construction land generally conforms to the characteristics of construction land suitable space, but with a significant spatial difference. (3) From 1990 to 2020, the mal-adaptive and low-adaptive construction land on the QTP is mainly composed of rural residential land, transportation land, and special land, the proportions of urban construction land and other construction land are rapidly increasing. The vertical gradient of elevation and slope of construction land have gradually strengthened, and the spatial extent has expanded. Construction land in the southern Qinghai Plateau, western Sichuan alpine canyon region, and Qilian Mountains is subjected to constraints of both elevation and slope, while the main limiting factor in the northern Tibetan Plateau, Gangdise Mountains, and Himalayan Mountains is elevation. (4) The potential area of reserve suitable construction land on the QTP is 12.41×104 km2, constituting 4.81% of the total land area, with suitable and moderately suitable classes dominant. The per capita potential area of reserve suitable construction land is 9928 m2/person. The Qaidam Basin has the richest reserve of suitable construction land, while the Gonghe Basin and Lhasa-Shannan Valley can serve as preferred destinations for ecological migration. The research results can provide decision-making references for ecological migration and optimizing the spatial distribution of human activities on the QTP.

  • Scientific Issues of the Beautiful China Initiative
    WANG Fang, LI Bingyuan, TIAN Siyu, ZHENG Du, GE Quansheng
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2024, 79(1): 3-16.

    With the increasing global warming over the past three decades, the climatic zones and eco-geographical regions characteristics in China have changed. This study used the climatic data of 641 meteorological stations over the past three decades (1991-2020), as well as the high-precision data of eco-geographical elements to optimize the eco-geographical regions in China. The study updated the map of eco-geographical regionalization in China (2023) and increased the scale to 1:4000000. The new map divided China into 11 temperature zones, 22 dry and wet regions, and 50 natural regions. The results show that compared with eco-geographical regionalization in 2007, the overall pattern of eco-geographical regions in China has not changed significantly over the past three decades, but the boundaries of temperature zones, dry and wet regions, and eco-geographical regions (natural regions) in some areas have changed to some extent. Firstly, the boundary change of temperature zones is more obvious in the east. Particularly, in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the northward shift of the temperature zone boundary between the northern subtropical and the mid-subtropical zones is obvious. Secondly, the boundary between dry and wet regions has changed, and that between semi-arid and arid regions in the north of the second-order landform step has shifted slightly to the west. In addition, the boundary between semi-arid and sub-humid regions in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has shifted slightly to the southeast, reflecting a slight expansion of the scope of semi-arid regions. Finally, boundary changes in natural regions in some areas vary greatly. This study can provide a macro-regional framework for guiding ecological conservation and restoration in different regions.

  • Wang Fugang, Wang Yaohui, Jiang Ming, Wang He, Pan Huilin, Wu Mingjie, Cao Yuqing
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2023, 43(7): 1291-1298.

    It is of great significance to explore the formation of water resources and the water balance in Tianchi area for the protection of water resources and ecological environment. Based on the topographic and geomorphologic conditions, the special geological lithology and ring-radial fault structure characteristics of Tianchi area, the water circulation conditions and hydrodynamic characteristics of Tianchi Lake were analyzed. The "hydraulic peak elimination" effect of the ring fault structure and the water conduction effect of the radial fault are clarified, and the possibility of groundwater divide expansion in Tianchi recharge area is demonstrated. Based on the analysis of water circulation and hydrodynamic conditions in Tianchi area, and meteorological and hydrological monitoring data of Tianchi area from 2003 to 2020, the water balance of Tianchi Lake was calculated and analyzed based on the water balance method. The results show that the precipitation conditions in Tianchi area can maintain the water level balance of Tianchi Lake. The water balance of annual excretion of 3.6×107m3 of Tianchi Lake can be maintained when the precipitation is within 850-2 200 m from the outside of the surface watershed around Tianchi Lake. The average surface elevation of the water balance area is 125 m higher than that of Tianchi water surface (2 189.7 m). many ring faults and radial faults in Tianchi area. All the above faults are tensile faults. The ring faults all inclined to Tianchi which provided favorable conditions for groundwater recharge to Tianchi Lake. The formation above 1700 m in Tianchi area is mainly composed of pumice rock and pyroclastic rock, mostly of porosity structure and strong permeability. The special geological structure conditions and stratigraphic lithology in Tianchi area make the surface divide around Tianchi not coincide with the underground watershed in the groundwater recharge area. The dominant seepage conditions of the fault structure around Tianchi constitute the "peak elimination" effect of groundwater potential energy. The ring-radial fault structure and the good permeability of the stratum lithology in Tianchi area make it possible to expand the groundwater watershed. Combined the synthetic analysis result of the of water circulation and hydrodynamic conditions in Tianchi area, and meteorological and hydrological monitoring data of Tianchi area from 2003 to 2020, the water balance of Tianchi Lake was calculated and analyzed based on the water balance method. The results show that the precipitation conditions in Tianchi area can maintain the water balance of annual excretion of 3.6×107 m3 of Tianchi Lake. The distance of the water balance zone boundary is within 850-2 200 m from the outside of the surface watershed around Tianchi Lake. The average surface elevation of the water balance area is 125 m higher than that of Tianchi Lake water surface (2 189.7 m). The factors that may affect the calculation result of water balance, such as precipitation, runoff of Tianchi Lake water, calculation parameter value, condensation water amount and evaporation amount, are analyzed and discussed.