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    Contribution of Urban Trees to Offset Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Transportation Sector in the Ring Road Area of Kathmandu Valley, Central Himalaya
    JOSHI Nabin Raj, JOSHI Rajeev, MISHRA Jay Raj
    Journal of Resources and Ecology   
    Accepted: 15 June 2023

    Delimiting Ecological Space and Simulating Spatial-temporal Changes in Its Ecosystem Service Functions based on a Dynamic Perspective: Case Study on Qionglai City of Sichuan Province, China
    OU Dinghua, WU Nengjun, LI Yuanxi, MA Qing, ZHENG Siyuan, LI Shiqi, YU Dongrui, TANG Haolun, GAO Xuesong
    Journal of Resources and Ecology   
    Accepted: 30 March 2022

    Characteristics and Carbon Storage of a Typical Mangrove  Island Ecosystem in Beibu Gulf, South China Sea
    WU Bin, ZHANG Wenzhu, TIAN Yichao, LIANG Mingzhong, XU Jun, GU Guanhai
    Journal of Resources and Ecology   
    Accepted: 28 February 2022

    Evolution of industrial comparative advantages and its driving mechanism of knowledge flow of cities in the Yangtze River Delta under the background of digital economy
    WANG Tengfei, MA Renfeng, ZHUANG Rulong
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2024, 43 (2): 203-214.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2024.02.001
    Abstract39)   HTML4)    PDF (5826KB)(25)      

    Many evolutionary economic geography studies emphasize the role of local capabilities in industrial development based on the path dependence theory. With the rapid development of new-generation information technology and infrastructure such as high-speed rail, the cross-regional flow of knowledge is becoming increasingly common and has a significant impact on regional and industrial evolution. Therefore, in the era of the knowledge economy, the multi-scale knowledge interaction network is crucial to the evolution mechanism of industrial comparative advantages. This study used patent citation big data and other statistical data, such as the total output value of the 2-digit manufacturing industry of 41 cities in the Yangtze River Delta in 2011, 2016 and 2021 and the Logit model to analyze the evolution of industrial comparative advantages and its knowledge dynamics. The research found that: 1) With the increasingly close intercity knowledge flow network in the Yangtze River Delta, the industries with comparative advantages in cities are becoming increasingly diverse as a whole. 2) Under the premise of controlling for local capabilities and other related variables, the evolution of urban industrial comparative advantages is also significantly influenced by the advantageous industries of cities with strong knowledge flows. In other words, a city is more likely to develop its own industrial comparative advantage in the specialized field of another city that has a strong knowledge correlation with it. 3) There is a significant knowledge network correlation in the evolution of the industrial comparative advantage structure of cities in the Yangtze River Delta. The stronger the knowledge flows, the higher the similarity of industrial comparative advantage structure between cities. To some extent, this study deepens the understanding of the knowledge dynamics and multi-scale related variety of the evolution of industrial comparative advantages in the digital economy era and helps to provide a theoretical basis for regional innovation and industrial upgrading policies.

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    The Influence of Airport Service Quality on Air Travel Choices: A Case Study of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
    Wang Liao, Xiaoshu Cao, Tao Li, Xingchuan Gao
    Tropical Geography    2024, 44 (2): 195-211.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003819
    Abstract80)   HTML8)    PDF (2459KB)(44)      

    High-quality air service is important for achieving high-quality aviation development. As the primary customers of air travel services, passengers are the most important evaluators of the service. Therefore, research on their air travel choices is key for promoting the coordination of multi-airport regions. Based on stochastic utility psychological perception theories, this study discusses the impact of the key dimension of airport service quality on air travel choices using the structural equation model-logit model. The results show that air travel choice is not a simple linear extension of behavioral intentions as there are two key dimensions of airport service quality: First, mandatory service processing is inevitably the most time-consuming and tedious process for passengers at airports. This waiting time is perceived as a sign of low airport service capability, whereas the level and quality of service provided by staff in this process is an intangible factor for passengers. This in turn affects the level of passengers' ratings of airport services, especially for business travelers. Therefore, airports need to recognize the time and resource constraints of passengers and work with airlines to streamline the check-in process, ensure security control, and reduce waiting time. One solution is to use shared self-service devices or automated robots that allow any passenger of any airline or flight to check-in and check-out on the same device. Second, while facilities, equipment, and environment are not universal considerations for passengers, differences in passenger perceptions are evident between airport types. Within multi-airport regions, the facilities, equipment, and environment of major airports are above passengers' psychological expectations, while auxiliary or other airports need to pay more attention to this service, which illustrates that the improvement of airport service quality requires changes to unidimensional and monolithic thinking but also focus on passengers' overall perception of service experience from a multidimensional perspective, as well as consideration of the spatial and temporal characteristics of different airport types in the multi-airport region to make targeted improvements. Moreover, passengers do not have an obvious preference for particular airlines, but low-cost airlines still hold a certain appeal for passengers when they take off from regional airports, which also means that low-cost airlines ' entry into the market has anti-risk properties for regional airports. Within the limits of China's aviation controls, the presence of low-cost carriers can still improve the chances of an airport being chosen. Therefore, different airport types within the same multi-airport region often need to compete differently to achieve regional synergistic development. To enhance airport service quality, it is essential to fine tune service quality standards, based on airport's types. The improvement of airports' performance should include a phased integration of assessments of service experience settings. Airports should adopt differentiated spatial designs for their service functions based on the goal of airport integration, with a view to achieving optimal management at minimal cost while being able to effectively guide passengers in their air travel choices.

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    Accessibility of Healthcare Resources to Public Housing in Shenzhen, China: Indirect Map Service and Optimized Two-Step Floating Catchment Area Method
    Lirong Hu, Shenjing He, Shiliang Su
    Tropical Geography    2024, 44 (2): 226-235.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003824
    Abstract48)   HTML3)    PDF (1752KB)(23)      

    In China, the equal accessibility of social infrastructure, especially public housing and healthcare, has become a prominent concern in solving the problems of rapid but uneven growth-oriented urbanization in the post-reform era. However, few studies have focused on the accessibility of various healthcare resources to different types of public housing using different transport modes. Utilizing Internet map services, this study first calculated the travel time from talent, economically affordable, and public rental housing to hospitals using three transport modes—walking, public transport, and driving—in Shenzhen, China. Subsequently, the optimized two-step floating catchment area method (2SFCA) was employed to comprehensively evaluate the accessibility of healthcare resources to public housing and explore differences in healthcare accessibility among different populations. The results reveal that: (1) Public housing is located far away from healthcare resources, with 15% of public housing unable to access AAA hospitals within 30 minutes by car, and only 10% able to access ordinary hospitals within 15 minutes. (2) Accessibility of healthcare resources to public housing exhibits spatial heterogeneity, gradually declining from special to non-special economic zones. (3) Talent housing experiences the best accessibility, followed by affordable and public rental housing. (4) Public transportation and walking exhibit greater spatial variation in accessibility than driving. Theoretically, the current public housing accessibility in Shenzhen reflects the common problems of public housing accessibility throughout the country. In the process of promoting the equal accessibility of basic public services, focus on its accessibility should be emphasized. This study proposes an optimized 2SFCA by introducing a Gaussian distance decay function, establishing a multilevel search radius, considering supply and demand-side competition effects, and using real-time traffic big data. Our methodological framework simultaneously considers differences among various types of public housing, hospitals with different service capacities, and diverse travel modes. This provides a new research perspective for a comprehensive and thorough understanding of the equal accessibility of basic public services.

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    Endogenous Problem of Fishermen's Livelihood in South China Sea: Based on Field Work of Naozhou Island in Guangdong
    Facheng Gao
    Tropical Geography    2024, 44 (2): 248-257.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003768
    Abstract49)   HTML7)    PDF (743KB)(21)      

    Using fieldwork, this study investigated the endogenous issues of fishermen's livelihood vulnerability on Naozhou Island, Guangdong. Existing literature shows that current studies focus on external factors such as the resource reduction, climate impact, policy changes, and fishermen's mode of operation to explore the vulnerability of fishermen's livelihoods to reveal the resource-based impacts of fishermen's livelihood difficulties and to explain the impacts of exogenous factors on fishermen's livelihoods. However, to some extent, these studies have neglected fishermen's internal problems and failed to understand fishermen's perspective on whether the improvement of capital can offset fishermen's production inputs and improve their production relations. The study on Naozhou island found that the existing studies have ignored the endogenous problems of the fishermen's livelihood vulnerability; in the era of collective economy, each fisherman's family had a small boat, but the fishermen joined together to work for the "state" on a big boat. Currently, the market economy has ordered this type of cooperative relationship to disappear. Owing to the characteristics of marine fishing operations, everyone must help each other in cases of difficulties when going to sea. In the same boat, the crew members may be immediate or distant family members to avoid malicious harm. However, if production tools require high investment and fishery resources are scarce, cooperation is no longer important. Whoever has more money to purchase large ships has a greater opportunity to control the scarce fishery resources, which is essentially the change in production tools that led to a breakdown in production relations. Although fishermen still talk about traditional relatives' contact, the situation of "As soon as the ship arrives, there is nothing left" has made fishermen realize that competition is the essence of relationships in their fishing villages. Fishermen's mobility, combined with the outflows and reflows created by various realities at the time of the survey, further demonstrates that fishermen, as the labor force, are not able to participate in the market competition of labor factors, nor are they able to get rid of the fishing skills inherited from their parents. They want to leave behind their status as fishermen but have to rely on the status of fishermen for basic labor security. All of these aggregate into endogenous forces, ranging from the inputs of fishermen's production tools and their own skills to the ambiguity of their age and identity. This constitutes an endogenous mechanism for the vulnerability of fishermen's livelihoods, which offers a disincentive effect of institutional arrangements on fishermen's withdrawal from marine production and exacerbates the predatory exploitation of marine resources fueled by modern consumer markets. Consequently, it is difficult to determine the effectiveness of marine ecological protection policies. Research has shown that, based on Marx's theory of Productivity and Relations of Production, the vulnerability of fishermen's livelihoods is inherent in their own insurmountable rapid increase in productivity and their failure to establish relations of production that are adapted to the needs of productivity, which creates tensions in human–sea relations. Therefore, to solve the vulnerability of fishermen's livelihoods, it is necessary to start from the cultural specificities of fishermen, reform their relations of production from the inside out, update their skills, establish effective organizations, and gradually alleviate the tensions in human–sea relations to construct a community with a shared future for mankind and the ocean.

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    Theoretical Elaboration and Policy Typologies of Specialty Towns: Evidence from Zhejiang, China
    Xiaohui Hu, Tanchen Lin, Tianyao Zhang, Xuliang Zhang
    Tropical Geography    2024, 44 (2): 269-279.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003830
    Abstract41)   HTML2)    PDF (1377KB)(16)      

    The construction of specialty towns is positioned as an important breakthrough and down-to-the-ground path in the implementation of China's new-type urbanization strategy. It highlights the roles of place-based industrial specialization and agglomeration economics. In this process, the Chinese government plays a supportive and guiding role in enabling and aligning multiple actors to engage with to build new platforms for innovation and entrepreneurial activities that integrate the functions of production, living, and ecology. The specialty towns construction strategy is aimed at promoting people-based urbanization and the regional ability of endogenous development. Given the "top-down" and standardization-led nature of the specialty towns policy program, implementation and practices at the local level are both challenging and problematic. This paper adopts perspectives and concepts from evolutionary economic geography and agglomeration economics to explore the antecedents and mechanisms of urbanization. It emphasizes the geographical spatiality of the program in local implementation. Taking 134 provincial specialty towns of Zhejiang province as research cases, the paper refers to a mixed set of methodologies of on-site, interview-based fieldwork; an online survey; and a document analysis to identify the historical foundations, industry attributes, and development objectives of the specialty towns. It also generates a typology of the 134 specialty towns, as well as a typological guideline regarding policy intervention for the broader implementation of specialty towns in China. Three main types of specialty towns are identified in our study: The first type is built on the basis of state-led, sci-tech industrial parks/new towns, whose development aims are oriented toward the development of new industrial paths. The second type is based on firm-led specialized markets located in small administrative towns that support the upgrading and renewal of existing local traditional industries. The third type is featured by the local presence of place-specific natural or sociocultural resources, and it is based on scenic spots. It is oriented to the development of the tourism economy. In conclusion, this study promotes the incorporation of evolutionary economic geography perspectives into the policy implementation of specialty towns and calls for taking the concepts of history, space, and place into account for a better understanding of these towns. By so doing, future policy methods will not be standardized, quota-based, and top-down.

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    Progress in Research on Port Geography in China
    Renrong Xiao, Pengjun Zhao, Zhangyuan He, Ge Li
    Tropical Geography    2024, 44 (2): 350-364.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003828
    Abstract46)   HTML5)    PDF (853KB)(23)      

    Port geography is an important aspect of transportation geography. To reveal the context and characteristics of port geography research in China, we selected 24 high-quality Chinese journals published by The Geographical Society of China and China Society of Natural Resources. 552 papers related to Port Geography from these journals between 1982 and 2022 were analyzed, the results showed that research on Port geography in China has been through initial, exploration, rapid development, and research perspective transformation stages. This field has five main themes: hinterland studies, the systems, networks, and development of ports, and port-city relationships. Research on port hinterlands focuses on the integrated development of port hinterlands. However, there is still a need for further exploration because the measurement of port system centralization and decentralization is the focal point of port systems. With the development of multimodal transportation, changes in port systems have intensified the competition among ports, which scholars have tended to interpret from a macroscopic perspective. The structure of port networks involves topics such as topological spatial arrangements, changes in network structure, and network security assessments. Scholars place particular emphasis on the impact of port networks on China's development. Prior development studies have been based on comprehensive planning that considers natural, economic, and societal conditions, port layout, and site selection as crucial research subjects. However, in recent years, some emerging development strategies have started to investigate port logistics and enterprises, and port terminals, offering recommendations and considering the interests of businesses; The research on port-city relationships centers on the development of the port-city interface, and analysis of waterfront areas also captures the interest of scholars. The economic relationship between the port and the city is relatively complex, and scholars have not yet reached a consensus on it. Overall, research focusses on the impact on the national economy, but theories are relatively lacking. Port geography research in China has paid little attention to society, institutions, culture, or supply chains that are popular in Western research. In future, we should pay attention to the impact of extreme weather and geopolitics, deepen research on ports' internal wharves and enterprises, promote the application of Automatic Identification System data, and construct theories on port logistics.

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    The evolution and optimized reconstructing analysis of rural settlement system in Guangdong province
    YANG Ren, DENG Yingxian
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2024, 79 (2): 281-298.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202402001
    Abstract417)   HTML140)    PDF (4474KB)(291)      

    According to the strategic direction of urban-rural integration and rural revitalization, the spatial reconstruction of rural settlement system is the spatial organization foundation of future urban-rural integration development. This paper focused on the hierarchical scale and spatial organization characteristics of the rural settlement system. It comprehensively revealed the evolution process and regional characteristics of rural settlement systems of 111 administrative units in Guangdong province from 1990 to 2020, and discussed their evolutionary mechanism and spatial optimizing and reorganizing regional modes. The results show that: (1) There were significant regional differences in the hierarchical scale distribution of the rural settlement system in Guangdong. The patches of rural settlements show the characteristics of concentric aggregation and distribution centered on the geometric barycenter of each administrative unit. The spatial distribution pattern of the rank cumulative size coefficients of rural settlement system was "high in the southwest, but low in the northeast" and "high in coastal areas, and low in the inland". The decreasing region of the rank cumulative size coefficient was concentrated on the east bank of the Pearl River Estuary and coastal areas of eastern Guangdong, while the increasing region was mainly distributed on the west bank of the Pearl River Estuary. (2) The influencing factors such as natural background, economic development, urbanization development, transportation and location, institutions and policies jointly drove the development and evolution of the rural settlement system. Rural settlement system of urban areas is small in scale in the mature stage of urbanization, which will gradually die out and integrate into the city. Driven by urbanization, industrialization and policies, rural settlement system of suburban areas has experienced survival of the fittest and maintains a stable scale, but the mixed distribution of urban and rural land makes the spatial organization of rural settlements increasingly loose. Driven by the continuous outflow of production factors, exurb rural settlements appear to be "hollowing out". The villagers returning to build new houses and the lack of homestead exit mechanism have led to a continuous and stable growth in rural settlement scale, and their spatial distribution is characterized by more peripheral diffusion. Rural settlement system with poor location in mountainous areas develops slowly under the support of policies, and the aggregation characteristic along the transportation line is significant. (3) Facing the integrated development of urban and rural spaces, four models of spatial optimization and reorganization of rural settlement system are proposed: urban-rural integration development, dual-core-driven development, central place hierarchical system development, and pan-center chain-connecting cluster development.

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    Construction and application of multi-regional population spatial equilibrium model in the Yangtze River Delta region
    CHENG Chen, DING Jinhong, GU Gaoxiang, TIAN Yang
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2024, 79 (2): 390-401.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202402007
    Abstract177)   HTML30)    PDF (1405KB)(105)      

    Population equilibrium development is the valuable guide and ideal pursuit of China's population policy and has significant implications for regional equilibrium development. However, there are still misunderstandings about interpreting population spatial equilibrium, and its scientific connotation requires further explanation and promotion. Population spatial equilibrium gives the meaning of space based on population equilibrium, which can be understood as the spatial equilibrium of population distribution. When other factors remain unchanged, the net migration between regions is zero; that is, the total number of immigrants of each region are equal to its total number of emigrants to achieve the dynamic equilibrium of population distribution among regions. A migration stream will exist between regions in an equilibrium state. Migration and equilibrium can coexist, but the population distribution between regions remains dynamic and stable, and the population spatial distribution structure will not change. Specific conditions cause the inherent stipulation of population spatial equilibrium. The equilibrium point will also change with economic, social, resource, and environmental changes. Equilibrium is a relative concept derived from the instantaneous concept; instantaneous equilibrium is an ideal state in the long term. The population spatial distribution is constantly changing from disequilibrium to equilibrium and from equilibrium to disequilibrium. This paper describes a theoretical model of multi-regional population spatial equilibrium based on the regional wage rate, human climate suitability index, urban crowding degree, and distance. Using the Yangtze River Delta as an example, the study analyzes the equilibrium population spatial distribution under current economic, social, environmental, and population conditions. The study found that the population of the study area is concentrated along the river and the coast, mainly in the south of Jiangsu, along the coast of Hangzhou Bay, and the canal from Nanjing to the north of Jiangsu. By comparing the equilibrium population with the current distribution, the Yangtze River Delta can be divided into quasi-equilibrium, attractive, and repulsive areas. The attractive areas, such as Shanghai, Nanjing, and Hangzhou, have large population agglomeration potential. In contrast, the repulsive areas are mainly located in northern and western Anhui, northern Zhejiang, and other areas close to the quasi-equilibrium area. This suggests that under free migration, the population will further concentrate in the areas of Shanghai, Nanjing, Hangzhou, and southern Jiangsu.

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    Advance in simulation of social-ecological system coupling under the perspective of ecosystem services
    GAO Yang, SHEN Zhen, ZHANG Zhonghao, XIONG Juhua
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2024, 79 (1): 134-146.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202401009
    Abstract259)   HTML34)    PDF (1275KB)(193)      

    Social-Ecological System (SES) is a collection of social subsystems, ecological subsystems, and the interactions between them. It is a common difficulty of cross-multidisciplinary fields to predict the changes in human-earth systems and support the relevant management decisions through clarifying the interaction between the ecological environment and human society. The framework of ecosystem service provides a new perspective for revealing the transmission and the role of various elements in SES. Taking ecosystem service as an entry point, this study follows the context of "Ecological System Supply-Ecological Coupling Human Intervention-Promoting Social Development". And the research progress and trends of existing coupling simulation methods related to SES are summarized. This article argues that in the conduction research of the ecosystem services cascade, the academic cognition has emphasized the "impact of natural ecosystem to social-economic system" rather than the "interaction and feedback mechanisms for ecosystems and social systems". In terms of research content, scholars have trsnsformed their focus from "changes in ecosystems and environmental effects" to "social-economic system and the effect on different groups". The focus of research has shifted from the theoretical inquiry of the "internal mechanism and power mechanism" to the applied practice of "optimization and regulation strategy" among the coupling systems. Future research of SES should strengthen the simulation of social-ecological coupling with equal emphasis on nature and humanities. It is the focus of breakthroughs to comprehensively understand the internal interactions and feedback of complex systems.

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    Updated scheme for eco-geographical regionalization in China
    WANG Fang, LI Bingyuan, TIAN Siyu, ZHENG Du, GE Quansheng
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2024, 79 (1): 3-16.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202401001
    Abstract199)   HTML30)    PDF (4186KB)(134)      

    With the increasing global warming over the past three decades, the climatic zones and eco-geographical regions characteristics in China have changed. This study used the climatic data of 641 meteorological stations over the past three decades (1991-2020), as well as the high-precision data of eco-geographical elements to optimize the eco-geographical regions in China. The study updated the map of eco-geographical regionalization in China (2023) and increased the scale to 1:4000000. The new map divided China into 11 temperature zones, 22 dry and wet regions, and 50 natural regions. The results show that compared with eco-geographical regionalization in 2007, the overall pattern of eco-geographical regions in China has not changed significantly over the past three decades, but the boundaries of temperature zones, dry and wet regions, and eco-geographical regions (natural regions) in some areas have changed to some extent. Firstly, the boundary change of temperature zones is more obvious in the east. Particularly, in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the northward shift of the temperature zone boundary between the northern subtropical and the mid-subtropical zones is obvious. Secondly, the boundary between dry and wet regions has changed, and that between semi-arid and arid regions in the north of the second-order landform step has shifted slightly to the west. In addition, the boundary between semi-arid and sub-humid regions in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has shifted slightly to the southeast, reflecting a slight expansion of the scope of semi-arid regions. Finally, boundary changes in natural regions in some areas vary greatly. This study can provide a macro-regional framework for guiding ecological conservation and restoration in different regions.

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    Research on performance evaluation of spatial development under the system of spatial planning: Framework construction and several reflections
    CHENG Yao, WANG Qi-xuan
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2024, 39 (2): 274-286.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20240203
    Abstract166)   HTML20)    PDF (1373KB)(97)      

    After the national territory spatial planning system was established, the relevant work about performance evaluation of spatial development should be carried out scientifically and systematically, and it will become an important support for spatial development and land use control in territory spatial plannings at all levels. Based on the spatial performance evaluation in the existing practice, the study tries to explain the connotation of performance evaluation of spatial development in the context of territory spatial planning system, and then combines the ongoing practices at various levels to propose a framework system and key issues. According to the study, the topic about performance evaluation of spatial development originates from the serious problems existing in traditional spatial development models and the long-term strategic demand for optimizing the spatial pattern. It has become an important research direction in the field of spatial development in new development stage, and will contribute to the optimization and high-quality development of various types of space patterns in territory spatial planning. At the same time, the performance evaluation and improvement of spatial development should be coordinated with territory spatial planning at all levels, forming a multi-level framework from macro- to micro-perspective. The performance evaluation of spatial development can provide comprehensive ideas for guiding the improvement of spatial performance in territory spatial planning, as well as inspiration for the formulation of corresponding policies such as spatial redevelopment.

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    The research progress and prospect of marine geoeconomics
    GUO Jian-ke, DONG Meng-ru, HAN Zeng-lin, QIN Ya-feng
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2024, 39 (2): 287-306.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20240204
    Abstract99)   HTML9)    PDF (2418KB)(72)      

    On the basis of putting forward the connotation of marine geoeconomics, this paper combs the development process, research hotspots and research priorities of Chinese scholars, summarizes the research characteristics and existing shortcomings of marine geoeconomics, and looks forward to the future research trends. (1) Marine geoeconomics derives from geoeconomics and marine geopolitics, and is influenced by geopolitics. The core theme of the study is the economic and trade linkages of sea related countries. (2) The evolution process of marine geoeconomics thought can be divided into four stages: the embryonic period of thought, the initial formation period, the rise and development period, and the steady exploration period. The hotspots of the research are from the germination of marine geo-thought which stays at the ideological level, to strategic thinking around the struggle for sea power, to the qualitative exploration under the system of geo-economic theory, and to the quantitative analysis which is becoming more diversified and clearer. (3) China's research focus mainly includes marine geo-economic theories, marine geo-economic activities, marine geo-economic relationship, marine strategic resources competition pattern, marine geoeconomic strategies, high seas protected areas, etc. (4) At present, the study of marine geoeconomics in China is still in its initial stage of exploration, and the relevant basic theoretical research and quantitative analysis from multi-scales and multi-perspectives are relatively lacking, and the disciplinary characteristics of geography and resource science have not been fully reflected. However, it has gradually attracted the attention of multidisciplinary scholars, and the research content shows a trend of diversification. In the future, it is necessary to strengthen the research on the theoretical paradigm and decision-making support of marine geoeconomics research, the development, utilization and protection of high seas resources and its spatial effect, the community of human maritime destiny and the sustainable development and utilization of international marine resources, the security of maritime transport channels and the resilience of port and shipping supply chain, and China's marine geoeconomic environment under the background of the construction of a maritime power.

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    Research on the delineation and optimization of ecological protection redline based on the perspective of ecological security pattern in typical black soil areas of Northeast China
    FENG Lin, LEI Guo-ping
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2024, 39 (2): 426-445.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20240212
    Abstract90)   HTML5)    PDF (4630KB)(49)      

    The typical black soil areas of Northeast China is facing problems such as degradation of ecosystem service functions, fragmented landscape patterns and conflicts between agriculture and ecological space. The scientific formulation of guiding framework for the delineation and optimization of ecological protection redline in black soil areas is of great significance in ensuring food security and ecological safety. This study clarified the meaning of ecological protection redline based on the perspective of ecological security pattern, and proposed the idea of systemic ecological protection redline delineation based on the importance of ecological protection, coordination of agriculture and ecological space, and coordination of natural and social system, and identified ecological protection redline optimization areas by considering the fragmentation and connectivity of ecosystem. The results show that: (1) On the premise of guaranteeing that no high-quality cropland was allocated (the threshold value was 10%), 69646.00 km2 of the preliminary delineation area of the ecological protection redline were determined by overlaying extremely important areas for ecosystem services, extremely sensitive areas for ecological environment, and areas with mismatch between supply and demand of ecosystem services, and extracting 34760.16 km2 of ecological source land; (2) A total of 10980.90 km2 of ecological corridors and 77 ecological nodes were identified based on the ecological source and construction of a comprehensive ecological resistance surface, and their buffer zones and ecological protection areas together constituted an ecological protection redline area of 76234.54 km2; (3) Based on the optimization thresholds of fragmentation (0.20) and connectivity (80), approximately 25.48% of the ecological redline area was in urgent need of optimization. The results of the study improve the scientific and systematic nature of ecological protection redline delineation and optimization, and provide an important basis for the precise control of land space and strengthening ecosystem sustainability management in typical black soil areas of Northeast China, as well as important guidance for small and medium-scale regions with highly intensive land use and scarce ecological space.

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    Observation and Cognition of Sea Tides During the Han-Tang Period
    Lu Xiqi
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (4): 1-19.  
    Abstract65)   HTML5)    PDF (1255KB)(44)      

    There were two main paths for the exploration and understanding of sea tides in the Han-Tang period. The first was the empirical understanding from observations, mainly about the tide level and tide time. It was recognized that there existed a relationship between tidal changes and the contraction of the moon, based on which people designed the table to estimate the time of ebb and flow of tide. Another path was imagination and deduction: they put forward theories such as the heavenly river entering the sea, the sun entering the sea and generating tides, and the earth’s movement causing tides, etc. The former was empirical knowledge, coastal people with experience of marine life; and mainly came from and used by the latter was conceptual knowledge, mainly came from the intellectual elites. These two kinds of knowledge complemented with each other and together constituted the knowledge system of sea tides in the Han-Tang period.

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    Mutual Protection: A Research on the System of Fortresses on the Border of Hedong Lu in Northern Song Dynasty
    Ma Wei
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (4): 110-124.  
    Abstract53)   HTML6)    PDF (1923KB)(23)      

    During the confrontation between the Northern Song and the Liao dynasties, the song army attached great importance to the northern border defense system of Hedong Lu. The defense line runs for more than 400 miles, along which a defense system with Daizhou as the center, and Fanshi and Guxian as the East and West wing respectively, has been formed. It mainly consists of citadels and fortresses and the aim is to deter the southward attacks through the Xiagu road of the Liao army. The fortresses are surrounded by defensive facilities such as square fields, protective forests, stone walls, ditches, and beacon towers. Taken together, they form a defense system integrating the functions of monitoring, reconnaissance, counter-attacking, military information transmission and so on. Horizontally, the distances between fortresses in different regions ranged from eight to seventy miles, with the majority at around thirty. Vertically, they rely on hinterland counties and towns, thus forming a three-tier defense system, which played a key role in the border defense system of the Northern Song Dynasty.

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    The Spatial and Temporal Process of Economic Structure Diversification in Suiyuan Area During the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China
    Fan Rusen, Li Yanyan
    Historical Geography Research    2023, 43 (4): 96-109.  
    Abstract42)   HTML5)    PDF (2506KB)(26)      

    During the period of the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China, Suiyuan, which was located in the western part of the Northern Agricultural Pastoral Ecotone, underwent diversified changes in its industrial structure in response to changes in the situation at home and abroad. Diversification became a prominent feature of local economic geography. By the 1930s, it was mainly reflected in the non-local primary industries of agriculture, industry, commerce and transportation, which infiltrated, superimposed and transformed with the local native nomadic economy into a modernity and diversified regional economic system. Before that, it could only be called piecemeal changes, rather than full scale changes. Thereafter, Suiyuan had evolved from a nomadic landscape of cattle and sheep throughout the territory in the early Qing Dynasty, to a new pattern of diversified industries in the late Republic of China, which was characterized by pastoral farming, numerous industrial enterprises, prosperous domestic and foreign trade, and interlaced roads and railways. It had become a common home for Mongolian and Han peoples with a prosperous regional economic and harmonious inter-ethnicity relations.

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    Geography in future: Prospects for the developing trends of Geography
    Wang Jian, Zhang Guoyou
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2024, 44 (1): 1-8.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.20230881
    Abstract163)   HTML17)    PDF (518KB)(149)      

    The future development trend of Geography has received widespread attention but opinions are divergent. Systematic analysis and elaboration of the future development trends of Geography have important theoretical and practical significance for promoting the development of Geography. The demand for Geography in socio-economic development determines the direction and possibility of Geography’s development. The effects of scientific and technological progress on Geography determines the extent and feasibility of Geography development. The inherent requirement of the development of Geography itself is the inevitability of the development of Geography. On the basis of sorting out domestic and foreign perspectives, this paper elaborates on the development trends of Geography from the perspectives of the demand for Geography from social and economic development, the effects of scientific and technological progress on Gography, and the internal logic of the discipline’s own development. With the globalization of economy, informatization of society, ecologization of civilization, and geographization of the world, Geography, as a core discipline in the study of human-earth relations, is inevitably pushed to the forefront of solving major global natural and social problems due to its intersection with natural and social sciences. It will play an increasingly important role in economic and social development and human life. The development of aerospace and remote sensing technology has greatly expanded human vision for Earth observation, promoting the possibility of global research. The development of transportation technology and information networks has led to changes in the spatiotemporal scale of the world. The development of observation technology and analytical experimental technology not only increases the quantification level of geographical analysis, but also greatly enhances the ability of Geography to serve the society and economy. Earth science is developing towards the direction of Earth system science, while Geography is developing towards geographic science and Earth surface system science. From the perspective of disciplinary development trends, the scientific, systematic, and global nature of Geography is strengthening. With the development of society and economy, the progress of science and technology, and the evolution of Geography disciplines, Geography will move towards scientific Geography, technological Geography, philosophical Geography, systematic Geography, unified Geography, global Geography, the Geography for social development, and the Geography for daily life. In the development of Geography, there is still a trend of more complex research objects, more diverse research dimensions, more diverse research scales, more diverse and integrated research methods, and more high-tech research means. It puts forward higher requirements for future geographers: they not only need to have a global perspective, the concept of interaction between people and the environment, interactions between earth spheres, regional interaction and sustainable development, but also have abilities of multi factor integration, multi perspective observation, multi-dimensional analysis, multi-scale research and integrate application.

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    Adjusting territorial and economic zoning of China to build a high-quality regional spatial pattern
    Li Guoping, Zhu Ting, Sun Yu
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2024, 44 (1): 20-29.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.20231164
    Abstract75)   HTML10)    PDF (1665KB)(59)      

    The adjustment of economic zoning is of significant importance in constructing a regional spatial pattern conducive to high-quality development. This paper reviews the economic zoning schemes in China since 1949, and finds that the economic zoning is characterized by the socio-economic conditions and should meet the needs of economic and social development. This study analyzes the division logic and impact of the 4 major economic zones, which is eastern, central, western, and northeast zones since the reform and opening up, observing that these divisions have, to some extent, fostered regional coordinated development. The factors driving regional economic growth have shifted from the first geographical factors such as natural endowments to secondary geographical factors like spatial agglomeration formed by scale economy, specialized division of labor, and knowledge elements. In recent years, the development faces challenges such as the weak economic growth in the “Three Norths” (which means the northeast, north and northwest zones), expanding regional disparities, and a shift in regional economic growth from an “east faster-west slower” to a “south faster-north slower” pattern. With central cities and urban clusters becoming the main spatial form for carrying developmental elements, China’s economic development model has shifted from export-oriented to coordinated development of inward-oriented and export-oriented. The economic spatial pattern also needs to be adjusted accordingly. This paper proposes a new scheme of dividing China into 5 major economic zones: southeast, southwest, northeast, north, and northwest zones of China, so as to strengthen the intra-zone connections and better harnesses the radiating and leading role of regional central cities, aligning with the construction of a high-quality regional spatial pattern. Finally, the paper offers policy recommendations to address the issue of regional economic growth disparities. These include intensifying the construction of education, science and technology infrastructure in the northeast, notrthwest and southeast zones, strengthening the construction of national central cities and metropolitan areas in those zones, and formulating differentiated regional development policies based on the unique characteristics of each zone.

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    Human and Physical Geography: Can We Learn Something from the History of Their Relations?
    Christian Kesteloot, Lorenzo Bagnoli, Yannan Ding, Ning An
    Tropical Geography    2024, 44 (1): 1-12.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.temp.003791
    Abstract123)   HTML16)    PDF (719KB)(67)      

    A short overview of the history of academic geography since the 19th century shows that there has never been a unity of physical and human geography in the past, at least in the form that is strived for today to justify the relevance of geography in coping with the present problems faced by humanity. But the fact that the limits of positivism start to be recognized in physical geography opens a way to collaboration for addressing the pressing problems affecting our planet today. The paper ends with some examples of how such a collaboration might look like and advocates greater attention to a political chorological approach, concentrating on the diversity of regions in the world, by taking both their internal and external relationships in terms of power structures into account.

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    Physical Geography and Human Geography: Each Tries Its Best to Solve the Serious Issues Together
    Yunlong Cai
    Tropical Geography    2024, 44 (1): 13-15.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003797
    Abstract69)   HTML4)    PDF (480KB)(43)      

    The differentiation of physical geography and human geography is consistent with the differentiation of science, which is always in progress. Both have their advantages, and both have made contributions to scientific cognition and practical application. However, they also share common interests and means, which can give full play to their advantages and provide unique academic support for understanding and solving numerous social and environmental problems and challenges faced by contemporary human beings.

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    On the Basis of the Integration of Physical Geography and Human Geography: A Response to the Article by Christian Kesteloot and Lorenzo Bagnoli
    Shangyi Zhou
    Tropical Geography    2024, 44 (1): 16-19.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003795
    Abstract58)   HTML5)    PDF (528KB)(27)      

    Inspired by the article co-authored by Christian Kesteloot and Lorenzo Bagnoli, this paper proposes three bases for the integration of physical geography and human geography. First, the ontologies faced by the two academic groups need to be close; second, the two academic groups must embrace each other's methodology; and third, the organization of scientific research operation should be conducive to integration. In order to better demonstrate these three integration bases, this paper considers the case of color control in the central city of Beijing, and analyzes the difference research approaches of physical geographers and human geographers when they face this practical issue in the absence of these three bases, as well as trends in their divergence.

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    Integrated Geography: Perspectives from Environmental and Regional Studies
    Jinshe Liang
    Tropical Geography    2024, 44 (1): 20-23.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003808
    Abstract62)   HTML5)    PDF (516KB)(46)      

    The environment is a common research subject of physical and human geography, serving as a bridge toward the integration of these two sub-disciplines within geography. In order to study the interaction between human and physical geographical processes and the complex earth landscape it generates, incorporating the concept of region and corresponding research methods can be a possible direction to simplify the complexity of the problem. I argue that the division and analysis of regions should be based on geographical processes, emphasizing the discovery of chain reactions within these processes. Although there is a degree of subjectivity in the division of region among geographers, a good regional delineation should uncover more important and objective facts, reveal deeper truths, and therefore gain higher recognition. The unity of physical and human geography is evident in the cognitions and actions that human societies take regarding the interactions between physical and human geographical processes, which the comprehensive study of geography should able to explore, analyze, organize, and interpret.

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    Understanding the Integration of Physical and Human Geography in Chinese Academic Pursuits
    Jigang Bao, Shixiu Weng
    Tropical Geography    2024, 44 (1): 24-27.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003816
    Abstract69)   HTML5)    PDF (450KB)(36)      

    The 21st century has seen an exponential growth in the number of papers published by Chinese geographers, yet this surge in publication has not corresponded to a commensurate increase in societal impact. The voices of geographers, particularly those of the younger generation, have diminished when confronted with substantial scientific and societal challenges. A pivotal factor contributing to this phenomenon is the academic evaluation system, which places significant emphasis on the quantities of papers and projects. This system significantly impedes cohesive progress in the field of Chinese geography, leading geographers, especially the younger generation, to diverge from the fundamental principles of the discipline. Consequently, there is a gradual neglect of the "comprehensiveness" and "regionality" dimensions that geography traditionally employs to tackle significant issues. To augment the capacity of geography to confront crucial challenges and enhance its standing within both the disciplinary and societal realms, Chinese geography should embark on a trajectory of consolidated development. This includes crucial steps such as strengthening geography education, establishing a leading problem-oriented framework, outlining pathways for integrating physical and human geography, and utilizing initiatives such as the "Top Ten Research Progresses in Chinese Geographical Science" to guide synthesized geographic development.

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    Status and strategic thought on Country Geography in the new era: From the perspective of National Natural Science Foundation of China
    Gao Yang, Li Xin, Zhang Zhonghao, Liu Jian, Xiong Juhua
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2024, 44 (1): 9-19.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.20230954
    Abstract78)   HTML7)    PDF (2768KB)(77)      

    As the world’s second largest economy, China today is integrating into the world at an unprecedented rate. In order to serve the national foreign development strategy, better understand and integrate into the world, and inject new disciplinary imputes into the development of geography discipline, it is necessary to emphasize the development of Country Geography. Based on the data of Country Geography projects funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) from 1986 to 2022, this paper analyzed the application and funding status of projects about country geography from the perspective of the NSFC, examined the distribution of its research hotspots, presented its current problems and shortcomings, further explored its conceptual connotation and positioning in the whole Geography disciplinary system, revealed the mechanism for country geography supporting the development of Geography, and finally proposed development strategies for the discipline of Country Geography on this basis. Results show that: 1) The number of application and funding of Country Geography projects is relatively low, and the matching degree between the regional pattern of the research and the overall layout of the national strategy is not enough, which can not meet the needs of national geographic services to serve the national policy. 2) The NSFC received a total of 344 applications for Country Geography projects from 1986 to 2022, distributed in four major fields of geopolitics, natural environment, energy economy and social culture, and there are obvious differences in spatial and temporal scales among the three major subdisciplines of Physical Geography, Human Geography and Information Geography for the research of Country Geography. 3) Country Geography serves the needs of the national foreign strategy, provides abundant and diverse materials for geography theory innovation, and presents new application fields for the data-driven research paradigm of geoscience, thus injecting new dynamics into the development of geography discipline and is the major growth point for geography discipline. 4) Country Geography should strengthen the study of key countries and regions in the future with the improvement from organization of teams, interdisciplinary integration, and dynamic models.

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    New urbanization promoting the construction of water ecological civilization:Mechanism of influence and spatial effects
    ZHANG Shengwu, HAN Ri, LI Xiaosheng, SONG Malin, LIU Haimeng
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2024, 43 (1): 1-16.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2024.01.001
    Abstract194)   HTML29)    PDF (7032KB)(134)      

    New urbanization is an important carrier of ecological civilization construction. How to promote the construction of water ecological civilization through new urbanization is a major practical problem facing the Huaihe River Eco-economic Belt in the process of modernization in which people and nature live together in harmony. This study empirically examined the mechanism of influence and spatial effects of urbanization on the construction of water ecological civilization using a spatial econometric model based on the urban panel data of the Huaihe River Eco-economic Belt from 2006 to 2020. The results are as follows: 1) The impact of comprehensive urbanization and population urbanization on the construction of water ecological civilization in the Huaihe River Eco-economic Belt follows a typical environmental Kuznets curve, exhibiting a "U"-shaped relationship. The urbanization restrains the construction of water ecological civilization in its early stage of development. Once the level of urbanization reaches a certain threshold, this effect will become positive. 2) The urbanization of population in each city has reached the inflection point value in 2014, while the comprehensive urbanization level has not yet reached the inflection point, therefore it is necessary to speed up the conversion of the transferred agricultural population into urban residents and effectively promote the new urbanization with people as the core. 3) The urbanization of the Huaihe River Eco-economic Belt has a significant inverted "U"-shaped spillover effect on water ecological civilization construction. Meanwhile, water ecological civilization construction in the region exhibits a negative spatial spillover effect. Therefore, the Huaihe River Eco-economic Belt should establish a sound system for the protection of water ecological civilization and strengthen the coordinated construction of urbanization and water ecological civilization in order to enhance the quality of new urbanization development and create an ecological demonstration belt that is harmonious between humans and water. This study offers a new perspective for analyzing the interplay between urbanization and water resource, and provides theoretical reference and empirical evidence for leveraging the new urbanization to promote the construction of water ecological civilization.

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    Urban-rural integrated development in China in the New Era: Challenges and paths
    JIN Xiao-bin, YE Chao, YUE Wen-ze, MA Li-bang, LUO Zhen-dong, YANG Ren, LYU Xiao, WANG Cheng, LI Chuan-wu, ZHANG Guo-jun, FAN Ye-ting
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2024, 39 (1): 1-28.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20240101
    Abstract187)   HTML14)    PDF (908KB)(172)      

    Urban-rural integrated development is an important way to coordinate the national strategies of new urbanization and rural revitalization. It is also crucial for Chinese-style modernization. To comprehensively tackle challenges facing the current urban-rural integration in China, explore the path of coordinated urban-rural governance, and clarify the strategies for urban-rural integrated development, experts from various fields were cordially invited to engage in in-depth discussions on pressing issues related to urban-rural iintegrated development. These issues include the trends and pathways of urban-rural integration in contemporary China, Innovation of institutions and mechanisms for urban-rural integration, implementation pathways for territorial spatial planning, emerging rural business models and rural transformation pathways, high-quality development pathways for urban-rural integration in different regions, and the path of promoting urban-rural integrated development through comprehensive land consolidation. These discussions aimed to advance theoretical research and practical planning of urban-rural integrated development in China. Attentions need to be paid in urban-rural integrated development in the New Era on: (1) The primary obstacles and innovative pathways in the institutions and mechanisms of urban-rural integrated development guided by comprehensive coordination and regional interconnectivity. Constructing an infrastructure and public service system that effectively connects and complements urban and rural areas, accelerating the coordinated development of urban and rural areas using counties as the carrier, and promoting the flexible governance of this population while concurrently achieving integrated governance of urban-rural natural and social system. Promoting cross-border governance, encouraging cooperation and assistance between eastern and western regions, and achieving regional-scale coordinated development between urban and rural areas. Underdeveloped regions in both Central and Western China should strengthen the linkage role of counties and small towns. This involves enhancing their attractiveness for the inflow of talent, technology, and capital, and driving the transformation of industrial structures towards digitization, intelligence, and low. In contrast, developed regions in the Eastern China should establish a spatial structure system with multiple focal points, network layout, and clear hierarchies. They should expand the breadth and precision of urban-rural factor mobility, and promote the transformation and upgrade of traditional infrastructure and public services, aiming for inclusive development. (2) Optimizing the allocation of resource elements driven by the "planning-utilization-consolidation" cycle in territorial spatial management to achieve shared urban-rural governance and rural reconstruction. Anchoring the spatial pattern of urban and rural development through territorial spatial planning, optimizing the urban-rural spatial layout during planning implementation. Ultimately, improving the spatial quality organic renewal and driving bidirectional flows of diverse elements between urban and rural regions. Place emphasis on rural functional provision, resource utilization orientation, and industrial development models, uncovering multifaceted rural functions including production, lifestyle, ecology, and landscapes. Exploring regionally adapted industrial integration models that enhance agricultural and rural development vitality through distinctive features and high efficiency gains. We also should enhance the leading role of comprehensive land consolidation policies, incentivize and support active private capital involvement, promote resource integration and value enhancement. Strengthening urban-rural industrial synergy and integrated development, and facilitating the orderly flow of urban-rural resource elements. (3) Enhanced awareness and innovative practices in targeted urban-rural governance and rural transformation supported by digital technology and intelligent platforms. Establishing an urban-rural data sharing platform helps bridge the "digital divide" in urban-rural integrated development and enables refined governance across urban and rural areas. Deeply apply the technologies like 5G, Internet of Things (IoT) to support the transformation and upgrade of conventional infrastructure. Expanding the coverage of digital devices in rural basic facilities, and utilizing digital technology to integrate cultural resources across urban and rural areas. Promoting the deep integration of the digital economy and the physical economy involves linking consumer markets through the internet and digital technology, establishing diverse channels for agricultural product distribution, and stimulating the transformation of consumption patterns and the enhancement of consumption capabilities for both urban and rural residents. Embedding digital technology into rural industry development and social governance processes to facilitate the intelligent transformation of agricultural production, digitalization of rural industry development, smartification of rural administrative affairs, and establishment of a digital grid for rural social governance. The aforementioned viewpoints can provide theoretical support and decision-making foundations for achieving the goal of urban-rural integrated development oriented towards Chinese-style modernization.

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