On the basis of analyzing urban SDGs monitoring and evaluation, this paper expounds the conceptual connotation of geospatial enabled monitoring and its differences from traditional statistical-based monitoring for urban SDGs. Meanwhile, through document comparison and analysis, the development and latest progress of urban SDGs monitoring and evaluation has been revealed, suggesting a transformation of urban SDGs monitoring and evaluation from traditional statistical-based monitoring to geospatial enabled monitoring. In addition, this paper systematically analyzes the research progress and current situation of geospatial enabled monitoring from the aspects of monitoring index system, geospatial data acquisition for monitoring, and monitoring ideas and methods. Results showed that the number of urban SDGs indicators is too large and the relationship is complex, with the lack of clear core and key indicators, which need to be optimized and improved according to the specific situation. The lack of standard, public and directly available data requires the development of appropriate methods for spatial data generation and multi-source data utilization, and the establishment of data products for urban SDGs monitoring and evaluation. Besides, the lack of scientific and efficient monitoring and evaluation methods is also one of the main problems facing the current urban SDGs studies. Finally, through the analysis of current challenges in urban SDGs monitoring, future research in geospatial enabled monitoring for urban SDGs are proposed, including the establishment of scientific and efficient monitoring and evaluation methods, the establishment of a standardized and unified monitoring index system, the construction of data production sharing and monitoring and evaluation knowledge service platform, and the strengthening of the application research of big earth data and related disciplines support for the monitoring and evaluation of urban SDGs.
This study focuses on the Lower Yellow River (LYR), which has experienced continuous erosion since the operation of Xiaolangdi Reservoir in 1999, and its complex spatio-temporal variation process. Using the single-step mode of the Delayed Response Model (DRM), we derive a calculation formula for the accumulated erosion and deposition volume in the LYR. The coefficient of determination R2 between the simulated and observed values from 2000 to 2020 is 0.99. Currently, the LYR is undergoing continuous erosion, but the erosion rate is gradually slowing down, and the difference between the equilibrium value and the calculated value of accumulated erosion and deposition volume gradually decreases, which means that the riverbed erosion is approaching equilibrium. Additionally, we derive a formula for the spatial distribution of main channel accumulated erosion volume per unit river length in the LYR based on the non-equilibrium suspended sediment transport equation. The coefficient of determination between the fitted value and observed value from 2003 to 2015 is about 0.98-0.99, with a relative error of approximately 6.2%. Our findings suggest that under the current conditions of decreasing sediment inflow and continuous scouring, it takes around 3.0 years for the riverbed to achieve half of the erosion and deposition adjustment and approximately 13.0 years to achieve 95% of the adjustment. Moreover, the spatial distribution of accumulated erosion volume in the LYR tends to become more uniform with the continuous development of erosion. These results provide valuable reference for analyzing the complex spatio-temporal variation process of the LYR.
The development of the urban sub-center in Tongzhou District, Beijing involves new city planning and construction that include the relocation of the city's administrative centers. While reshaping the spatial pattern, it also bears the responsibility of high-quality development demonstration. By using the synthetic control method and the panel data from 2002 to 2020, this study examined the impact of Beijing's sub-center construction on the high-quality development of the relocation area from the five dimensions of innovation, coordination, greenness, openness, and sharing. The results show that the construction of the sub-center has improved the output efficiency of Tongzhou, promoted energy conservation and emission reduction, but reduced the level of medical service supply. The development had no significant impact on the improvement of industrial structure, the utilization of foreign investment, the increase of residents' income, and the increase of education service supply. These heterogenous results indicate that observing high-quality development from different dimensions is more comprehensive than simply evaluating the total economic output. Targeted measures should be taken to address the changing characteristics of different dimensions of high-quality development. First, infrastructure, population migration, industrial planning, and public services should be matched to improve the level of public service supply. Second, the new sub-center should quickly improve the level of modern service industry to provide support for the upgrading of its industries. Third, the sub-center should fully leverage its role as a window for opening up to the outside world, providing a benchmark of openness for other regions.
The military-civilian government system was a key strategy employed by the central government to manage the ethnic frontiers during the Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties. The system was particularly prevalent in the southwest, where it was implemented for over half a millennium. The Ming Dynasty saw the system mature and adapt to the realities of the border areas, building on the foundation laid by the Yuan Dynasty. During the mid to late period of Ming Dynasty, six new military-civilian governments named Yongchang, Liping, Zunyi, Pingyue, Guiyang, and Anshun were established. These governments disrupted the tradition that local officials manage the local people and transformed the relationship between the government and the frontier guards. The evolution of the military-civilian government system in Ming Dynasty was shaped by various stakeholders, including the frontier guards, the Bingbei Dao (regional military command), and the chieftain. These factors contributed to the maintenance of military and political order in southwestern China and ultimately contributed to the creation of a new politico-geographical pattern.
The tiers of prefectures and counties are important indicators that reflect their political status, population and economic importance. By using historical quantitative analysis and GIS analysis methods, this paper unpacks the spatiotemporal changes of 339 prefectures and 1 607 counties in Tang Dynasty. The results show that: (1) The number of prefecture tier Fu (府), Fu (辅), Xiong (雄) and county tier Chi (赤), Ji (畿), Ci-Chi (次赤) and Ci-Ji (次畿) was relatively stable in Tang Dynasty, while the number of Shang (上), Zhong (中), Xia (下) prefectures and counties changed drastically. In the late Tang Dynasty, the number of upgraded prefectures and counties was more than that of degraded prefectures and counties, with the most significant hierarchical change took place from Kaiyuan (713-741) to Yuanhe (806-820). (2) The spatio-temporal changes of prefectures and counties in Tang Dynasty was “high in the north and low in the south”. Guanzhong Plain was the highest area in the prefecture and county level. The temporal change was “falling in the north and rising in the south”. The Plain of Hubei and Hunan, Poyang Lake Plain and Taihu Plain in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River rose most significantly. (3) The tiers of prefectures and counties in the vicinity of the capital of the Tang Dynasty were most affected by political factors, while the tiers of the frontier fortresses and traffic throats were most affected by military factors. Other prefectures’ and counties’ tiers were mainly affected by economic factors, especially population size. (4) The spatio-temporal changes of the tiers of prefectures and counties in Tang Dynasty reflected the eastward and southward movement of the national political, demographic, urban and economic centers after the An-Shi Rebellion in the middle of the Tang Dynasty.
Throughout the 19th century, the British dispatched surveyors, spies, and frontier officials to conduct large-scale illicit surveying and mapping, with a focus on the river system, in Southeast Tibet. By the end of the century, geographical knowledge of the lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River and its main tributaries had gradually improved. Information about the primary and secondary relationships, downstream flow direction, course, and source of the Chayu, Dihang, and Subansiri rivers helped to fill many gaps on the world map, and the knowledge of the river system in this area was formed. Simultaneously, the surveying and mapping activities during this period also provided much needed geographical knowledge facilitated the British invasion of the Tibetan territory and served as an important means of colonial territorial expansion.
This paper compiles panel data on prefectural land and labor tax for the years 1717, 1748, 1784, and 1820 based on historical data, and uses geographic information system to analyze its spatially divergent patterns. The spatial panel model is used to explore the role of topographic factors on these characteristics. The results show that: (1) The distribution of land and labor tax is significantly limited by altitude, and the high tax distribution is all located below 600 meters above the sea level. (2) There was a significant positive spatial correlation of land and labor tax. The local Moran index showed an uneven development pattern. High-high clustering mainly in eastern China and low-low clustering mostly in western and southwestern China. The gravity model shows that the formation of a spatially positive autocorrelation pattern of taxes is most influenced by the agglomeration effect of the Yangtze River Delta region, as well as some northern provinces. (3) Spatial panel regression results show that population is positively correlated with land and labor tax, and altitude and slope are negatively correlated with it. (4) The influence of topographic factors on tax amount distribution gradually decreased, while the influence of governance factors gradually increased.
In response to global climate change, China has incorporated carbon peaking and carbon neutrality into its overall economic and social development. National-level new areas are critical strategic carriers for high-quality regional economic development in China, playing an essential role in promoting carbon reduction. Objectively evaluating the carbon-emission-reduction effect of national-level new areas can help accumulate and promote China's low-carbon construction experience, and thus, comprehensively facilitate greening and ecological civilization construction. In this study, the impact of the establishment of national-level new areas on carbon emissions in their respective cities were investigated using the difference-in-difference method. The findings show that: 1) the establishment of a national-level new area can significantly minimize the carbon emissions in the city in which it is located, and after three years of establishment, it will have a significant long-term inhibitory effect on the carbon emissions of the city. This conclusion is still valid after a series of robustness tests, such as propensity score matching + difference-in-difference; 2) The national-level new area policy mainly reduces carbon emissions in a city through technological and energy-saving effects but cannot yet reduce them by adjusting the industrial structure. 3) The impact of the establishment of national-level new areas on the carbon emissions of surrounding cities shows an "∽" trend of increasing first, then decreasing, and subsequently increasing. It has a significant carbon-reduction effect on cities within the range of 200-250 km, indicating that national-level new areas can help promote carbon-emission reduction in surrounding cities. 4) The national-level new area policy has a higher carbon-emission-reduction effect on northern cities than on southern cities. The single-city layout model of the national-level new area has a significant carbon-emission-reduction effect on the host city, whereas the dual-city layout model does not significantly reduce the carbon emissions in the host city. This study investigated the carbon-emission-reduction effect of national-level new area policies and examined carbon-emission reduction in the national-level new areas of pilot cities through technological and energy-saving effects. This study helps to improve the theoretical understanding of national-level new area policies and carbon-emission impact mechanisms and provides a policy reference for China's promotion of the "dual-carbon" strategy.
The autonomy and travel conditions for older adult tourists have significantly improved, leading to a diversification of their tourism activities. Among these, the concept of a free and comfortable sojourn has gained popularity. Despite the complex concept of older adult sojourns being established in related research, the concepts often overlap and are fragmented, leading to a disjointed understanding of the phenomenon. This study aims to incorporate the life-span theory of control and its optimization strategy framework from a life-span development perspective in older adults. By deeply connecting research on older adults with tourism research through life-span development thinking, we aim to explore methods of coordinating and analyzing older adult sojourns. This approach will allow us to systematically reshape existing conceptual knowledge. Based on the results of this coordinated analysis, we aim to gain a systematic understanding of older adult sojourns and propose future research directions. The study revealed that older adult tourism exhibits strategic traits consistent with the life-span theory of control, where resource allocation and willpower investment are crucial elements. This forms a resource-willpower investment framework that categorizes 16 different older adult tourism behavior patterns. Using this framework, by comparing the characteristics of older adult travel with the 16 classification results, the resource and willpower investment framework is focused on the amount of resources invested in the destination and the distance of the trip. This further refines the corresponding older adult travel patterns into four types: relatively high investment in travel to distant areas, relatively high investment in travel to nearby areas, relatively low investment in travel to distant areas, and relatively low investment in travel to nearby areas. The study reveals that the four categories represent varying lifestyle demands and participation limitations for older adults. Those who invest more and travel longer distances tend to face greater participation challenges, have fewer companions, require more from their destinations, and have limited choices. Conversely, those who invest less and travel shorter distances experience the opposite. The four categories of older adult travel display different scene transitions and state changes, each with unique participation challenges, social choices, and destination requirements. Overall, the categorization of older adult tourism types and the comprehensive analysis of older adult travel types constitute a process of knowledge creation. The research employs deductive methods for progressive exploration, building a comprehensive classification framework. This framework lays a cognitive foundation for future research and provides key directions. The innovative research approach, in conjunction with the life-span theory of control, provides a method for pattern analysis to understand ongoing tourism behaviors and phenomena that are constantly evolving and enriching. Older adult sojourn is one of the few forms of tourism that is notably age-friendly. The prospects for research and industrial development of this phenomenon are promising, but there is currently a lack of discussion about the phenomenon itself. Future research can build upon this initial understanding to further investigate behavioral characteristics, values related to aging, and local response needs. By examining behavior, subject, and space, a study can be conducted on behavior, motivation, space, and their interactive results, leading to more systematic findings and enhancing the practical value of the guidance.
The prediction of rainstorms and floods in small and medium-sized watersheds, as well as the synthesis of related parameters, plays a pivotal role in preventing flood disasters. Environmental changes have led to an increase in hydrological extremes such as rainstorms and floods, presenting unprecedented challenges for small and medium-sized river basins. In this review, we systematically categorize, and summarize the processes involved in predicting rainstorms and floods in these watersheds, along with advancements in correlated parameter synthesis research. Furthermore, we analyze and discuss the most commonly employed runoff and confluence estimation methods and their associated parameters in practical applications, as well as their limitations. First, we establish the concept of small- and medium-sized watersheds across various academic disciplines. From a hydrological perspective, these watersheds typically exhibit slope confluence and have relatively small catchment areas. In terms of eco-hydrology, the ecological water demand of the basin must be calculated based on the different communities occupying the river basin and divided by area according to the ecological samples from each district after the investigation. Thereafter, we summarized the methods and types of runoff calculation and parameter synthesis in small- and medium-sized basins, and the methods and principles of runoff analysis, such as rainfall–runoff correlation diagram, infiltration curve method, deduction method, runoff coefficient method, and hydrological model method as well as the methods of parameter synthesis, such as rainfall-runoff correlation diagrams and loss methods are introduced. Second, we summarize and discuss the assessment of confluence and its associated parameters in small- and medium-sized river basins. This encompasses background information and various calculation methods, such as the instantaneous unit line, comprehensive unit line, inference formula method, and empirical formula method. We also examine how the three major elements of parameter synthesis convergence influence confluence parameters. We emphasize that combining radar rainfall measurements, high-resolution remote sensing, high-performance computing, and deep learning can facilitate research on simulating and forecasting rainstorms and flood processes in small- and medium-sized basins. However, a significant portion of these basins lacks data, limiting the application of simulation and flood forecasting. To address this, integration with geographical parameters specific to small- and medium-sized basins is necessary to enhance regional reliability and forecasting accuracy. Additionally, when applying deep learning to simulate basins with limited or no data, the significance of parameter synthesis becomes even more pronounced. Finally, we discuss the problems and challenges associated with storm flood calculations and parameter synthesis methods in small- and medium-sized basins and offer predictions regarding future research and technical developments. We recommend strengthening the use of emerging technologies for watershed runoff and runoff parameter calculations and advocate for their application in storm flood design.
Memory is an essential structure of the tourism experience. Tourism memory construction is not only an individual's review and sublimation of on-site experience, but also the pursuit and introspection of self-meaning. Although tourism memory is unique and critical, it has not yet been fully examined in local tourism studies, resulting in the focus on on-site experience while ignoring the special role of tourism memory in shaping the landscape and constructing individual self-cognition. In this study, based on theories of autobiographical memory and self-expansion, the Grounded Theory and Structural Equation Model were adopted to investigate the influence mechanism of tourism memory construction on tourists' self-concept expansion based on excavating the dimensions of tourism memory construction. The results showed that: 1) Tourism memory is an unforgettable autobiographical memory formed by individual screening and construction after tourists' on-site experience. Its construction dimensions comprise three basic structures: cognitive appraisal, interactive perception, and affective involvement. Specifically, cognitive appraisal refers to the cognitive feelings generated by tourists based on the objective environment of destinations in their memory. Interactive perception is the participatory perception of the interaction between the host and guest and the interaction between tourists. Affective involvement reflects the emotional properties of memory, which is the corresponding emotional reaction of tourists based on cognitive appraisal and interactive perception. These three elements are interrelated and jointly shape and interpret the landscape constructing tourist' self-identity. 2) Cognitive appraisal, interactive perception, and positive affective involvement in tourism memory help promote tourism-sharing behavior, which significantly and positively influences the individual and social self-expansion of tourists. This finding confirms that cognitive and interactive memories contribute to tourism-sharing behavior. In particular, positive and negative affective involvements are remembered by tourists, but many tourists are more willing to share "positive energy" and express the positive side of tourism memories. In addition, through self-narration and self-expression, tourism sharing deepens reflection of the overall self-perception. 3) Among the direct effects of tourism memory construction on self-concept expansion, cognitive appraisal and interactive perception significantly and positively affect individual and social self-expansion, whereas positive affective involvement only positively affects individual self-expansion and indirectly affects social self-expansion by tourism sharing. Furthermore, this paper theoretically clarifies the dimensions of tourism memory construction, complements the theoretical deficiencies of post-travel memory in previous tourism experience studies, and reveals the subjective significance of tourism memory to self. This paper also introduces the concept of self-expansion in tourism research and complements self-expansion studies in nonrelational contexts. Finally, this study is a practical reference for memory marketing in destinations.
The acceleration of high-quality development in the revolutionary old areas has played a pivotal role in advancing coordinated regional development in China. The 20th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party proposed a development strategy for implementing regionally coordinated development, building a new development pattern, promoting high-quality development, and accelerating the rejuvenation and development of special areas such as the revolutionary old regions. However, there is an overemphasis on economic development metrics, a disregard for local practices and characteristics, and a blending of processes and outcomes associated with the high-quality regional development evaluation indicators. To solve these issues, it is essential to establish a set of tailored indicators to evaluate and guide the high-quality and differentiated development of counties in the old revolutionary base areas. Harnessing the essence of high-quality development concept, this study proposes a logical framework for constructing an evaluation index system for high-quality development in counties within the revolutionary old areas. Using the old revolutionary base areas in Southern Jiangxi and Western Fujian as the study areas, a three-level coding process based on grounded theory was employed. This rigorous approach enabled the scientific construction of an evaluation index system for high-quality development in the revolutionary old areas. This index system comprises seven dimensions, namely, innovation-driven, economic development, urban-rural coordination, people's well-being, ecological civilization, internal and external openness, and red culture, encompassing 40 indicators. Furthermore, a critical understanding of high-quality development in the revolutionary old areas, emphasizing the need to inherit, preserve, and promote red culture as a contemporary task guided by new developmental concepts, was gained. The aim was to facilitate enhancing both the scale and structure of economic development. This indicator system uses the entropy method to ascertain the indicator weights and subsequently performs a comprehensive evaluation of the study areas. The findings indicate that innovation-driven factors play a significant role in driving the differences in the high-quality development of the revolutionary old areas. In contrast, ecological civilization is yet to exhibit sufficient potential as a driving force for high-quality development at the current stage. Notably, significant disparities exist in the level of high-quality development between the demonstration areas of Ganzhou and the old revolutionary base areas of western Fujian. These disparities are most evident in the spatial core-edge structure. Additionally, counties at the provincial boundaries demonstrate relatively low levels of high-quality development, warranting increased attention to future high-quality revitalization and development efforts. In comparison to previous research, this study contributes in three key ways. First, an evaluation index system has been constructed using a combined top-down and bottom-up approach, incorporating indicators that account for local practices and characteristics, offering a novel perspective for establishing a high-quality development index system. Second, the national strategic positioning of county-level research units in urban-rural integration development, rural revitalization, and urbanization is highlighted, with county towns identified as pivotal carriers. Urban-rural coordination was identified to be the focus of coordination at the county level. Finally, by extending the core connotations of high-quality development, this study enriches the existing understanding of high-quality development. The research findings hold significant implications for expediting the revitalization and development of revolutionary old areas and for the systematic implementation of high-quality development concepts.
The deepening development of globalization and the transformation of regionalization are driving the continuous reshaping of the global political and economic pattern, while overseas strategic pivots, with their prominent geographical influence, play a supporting role in a country's global strategic deployment. This research combined geopolitical theory, new state space theory and location theory to reveal the impact mechanism and logical framework of spatial selection of China's overseas strategic pivots (COSPs) at different scales. On this basis, it preliminarily constructed the spatial selection model of COSPs, and then proposed an action path to put the model into practice from the perspective of actors. The results show that: (1) Geopolitical theory, new state space theory and location theory respectively dominate the spatial selection of COSPs at higher scale, mesoscale and lower scale. Specifically, the five underlying motivations derived from the three-dimensional perspective of "power-capital-space" have driven the rimland between land and sea powers to become the soil for cultivating COSP regions and countries; as a specific form of state spatial selectivity, COSP areas should be selected from strategic functional areas in COSP countries that are deeply supported by state spatial projects and strategies; owing to superior location conditions and location demand, coastal or border hub cities, international ports and parks in COSP countries have become the spatial selection range of COSP cities, ports and parks. (2) Each of the above three theories has its own emphasis, that is, they respectively dominate the spatial selection logic of COSPs at different scales; and they are also nested with each other, which means that the spatial selection of COSPs at various scales will inevitably be influenced by the geopolitical environment, state spatial selectivity and location conditions, thus shaping the logical framework of spatial selection. (3) The spatial selection model of COSPs has the characteristics of interlocking and multi-directional flow. In practice, the basic concept of "government domination and multiple actors initiation" should be adopted to strengthen top-level design, decision-making assistance and technical breakthroughs. The results can enrich the strategic pivot research framework and provide theoretical reference and policy inspiration for enhancing China's geopolitical influence.
With the continuous improvement of human production innovation, the ontological cognition of ocean as a resource has gradually expanded from 'territorial' ocean to the field of high seas. The sustainable development of marine resources in the high seas is facing multiple threats. The delineation of protected areas on the high seas has become an important issue of global marine governance. From the perspective of human-ocean relationship, this paper studies the geo-setting system of high seas protected areas under the BBNJ, and puts forward the analytical thoughts and methods of high seas protected areas with geographical characteristics that China needs at present. First of all, this study deconstructs the human-ocean relationship in the high seas protected areas into the bottom layer and the operation layer. It reveals the human domain behavior of repair, maintenance and potential competition in the bottom layer, as well as the attributes of public, volumetric and dynamic ocean ontology. We simulate the human-ocean interaction process in the high seas protected areas in the operation layer, deconstruct the three links in the interaction process: foundation and support of human-ocean interaction, core of human-ocean interaction, premise and reflection of human-ocean interaction, and cover four subsystems: natural system, artificial system, relational system, and conceptual system. This leads to the marine geo-setting system of the high-seas protected areas, which is the core of human-ocean interaction. Secondly, this paper analyzes the marine geo-setting system of the high seas protected areas. According to the multiple interactions between human territorialization behavior and marine ontological attributes of the high seas protected areas, the paper summarizes the characteristics of the marine geo-setting system of the high seas protected areas into four aspects: subject diversity, spatial limitation, complex sensitivity and pattern variability and proposes that the marine environment is the supporting force; rules and institutions are the driving force; marine geo-relationships and geo-structure are the powering force; marine technology is the guarantee capability of evolution mechanism. Finally, according to the contents discussed in this study, combined with the current situation and the actual needs of China's participation in global marine governance, the policy suggestions for China's involvement in the demarcation of high seas protected areas are put forward.
The analysis of geo-economic relations from an industrial scale provides valuable insights into comprehending the formation of the prevailing international industrial division of labor pattern and the distribution of interests among nations. Therefore, it becomes imperative to introduce a more microscopic industrial scale into geo-economic analysis to gain a deeper understanding of these dynamics. Taking the nations surrounding the South China Sea as the research object, using national trade data, based on the geo-economic tightness model and the industrial structure similarity coefficient model, this paper calculates the geo-economic connection tightness and industrial coopetition relationship on the national and industrial scales of the nations surrounding the South China Sea from 2003 to 2021, and uses the fixed-effect model to analyze the potential influencing factors. The results reveal several significant findings. Firstly, the overall geo-economic tightness among the nations surrounding the South China Sea exhibits an upward trend, accompanied by a gradual shift in the core area from the southern to the northern region. Within the context of the industrial scale, the tightness of geo-economic relations displays an overall growth trajectory; however, notable variations in growth rates are observed across different industries. Notably, the machinery and transport equipment industry experiences a substantially higher growth rate compared to other sectors. Moreover, the geo-economic tightness within the marine industry presents a three-core pattern, characterized by opposing dynamics between the northern, southern, and eastern regions. Secondly, the industrial competition and cooperation relationship between nations surrounding the South China Sea demonstrates a multipolar development trend, with significant disparities observed among nations. The coopetition relationships across various industries exhibit relative stability on the whole, lacking any evident trend towards competition or cooperation. Nevertheless, there exists an upward trend in the disparities among industries. Furthermore, the coopetition relationship within the marine industry displays notable variations among nations, with the overall level remaining relatively high; however, the scope for geo-economic cooperation remains limited. Finally, this paper emphasizes the influence of spatial factors, natural endowment factors, institutional factors, and cultural factors on geo-economic tightness and industrial coopetition relationships across different scales and industries. It is important to note that these factors exhibit distinct variations and exert varying degrees of impact in different contexts.
Government grain reserves are the ballast for national food security, and local government grain reserves are the first line of defense to safeguard national food security and market stability. Bordering India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, and the Kashmir region, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is China's strategic front for national defense, and it is of great significance to examine the scale and spatial distribution of grain reserves on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. This study proposed a demand-based method to measure the scale of grain reserves. Considering the grain storage conditions and the characteristics of grain production and consumption on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, we applied the model and revised the key parameters to calculate the scale of grain reserves on the plateau. On this basis and using the road network analysis method, we further discussed the spatial location of grain storage infrastructures. The results show that: 1) The total scale of required grain reserves on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was about 815100 t, which was equivalent to 24.04% of the total annual grain consumption, and the ratio of grain reserves to consumption was higher than the minimum safe level recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), which is 17%-18%. 2) Grain production, consumption, and reserves on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau were unbalanced. Only 27.19% of the counties could achieve a balance between grain production, consumption, and storage, and most counties had grain shortages. 3) The total grain deficit on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was about 1.82 million t, and the grain deficit in agricultural areas, pastoral areas, and semi-agricultural and semi-pastoral areas were 1.24 million t, 331600 t, and 241400 t, respectively. 4) The grain storage infrastructure system on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau consisted of three vertical levels: two first-level nodes (Xining and Lhasa), 15 second-level nodes, and 114 third-level nodes. 5) In reality, the scale of local grain reserves on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was 26.39% lower than the theoretical value. Therefore it is urgent to further increase the scale of local grain reserves. The results can provide policy references for the reform of the grain reserve system in Tibet and Qinghai.
Cross the Yangtze River passages are of great significance in promoting integration of metropolitans, supporting the development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt and realizing the flow of elements between the north and the south of China. This paper sorts out the development of cross the Yangtze River passages on the Yangtze River mainline, and evaluates the regional connectivity of cross the Yangtze River highways using accessibility and weighted betweenness centrality. The study shows that: 1) according to the quantity, type and socio-economic development background, the construction process of passages can be divided into the initial stage (1957—1995), the speed-up expansion stage (1996—2010) and the multi-functional expansion stage (2011—). By June 2021, the ratio of passages in the upper, middle and lower the Yangtze River reaches is 54.7∶23.4∶21.9, while in terms of economic scale and resident population, the density of passages in the lower the Yangtze River reaches is much lower than that in the upper and middle reaches. 2) The accessibility of cross the Yangtze River highways has been significantly improved from 19.73 h to 6.09 h, and the time cost gap between the upper, middle and lower the Yangtze River reaches is narrowing; 3) The level of connectivity is substantially strengthened. The shortest path across the Yangtze River changes from highly dependent on several highways to multiple sharing. The high betweenness centrality highways are mainly located in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, while the connectivity of highways in the upper reaches is generally weak.
Accurate evaluation of the spatial convergence effect of major transportation projects is an important basis for engineering decision-making. The Shanghai-Zhoushan-Ningbo Cross-Sea Channel connects Shanghai, Zhoushan and Ningbo. It is an important part of the coastal transportation channel and a key project of the Yangshan Deepwater Port, and of great significance to the regional integration of the Yangtze River Delta. Considering the optimization of the future regional transportation networks, the impact of adjacent major transportation projects, differences between the passenger and freight transportation, and differences in travel modes, this paper evaluated the spatial convergence effects of the Shanghai-Zhoushan-Ningbo Cross-Sea Channel in multiple scenarios and multiple dimensions. Results show that, firstly, due to the competition and substitution effects of the Shanghai-Ningbo Cross-sea Channel, the Shanghai-Zhoushan-Ningbo Cross-Sea Channel has less impact on travel activities. Moreover, the Shanghai-Zhoushan-Ningbo Cross-sea Channel mainly serves intercity travel activities of Zhoushan, and has the potential to become a tourist channel connected Zhoushan, Shanghai, Suzhou and Nantong. Secondly, the Shanghai-Zhoushan-Ningbo Cross-sea Channel can enhance the competitive advantage of the Yangshan Deepwater Port in Zhejiang Province and the competitive advantage of Ningbo-Zhoushan Port in Jiangsu Province, which is conducive to the further cross-integration of the hinterlands of these two ports. Further, the impact of the Shanghai-Zhoushan-Ningbo Cross-sea Channel on the Yangshan Deepwater Port is significantly higher than that on Ningbo Zhoushan Port. Thirdly, compared with the Shanghai-Ningbo Cross-Sea Channel, the Shanghai-Zhoushan-Ningbo Cross-Sea Channel has advantages in freight transportation. In the future, the transportation demand forecast and scientific demonstration of the Shanghai- Zhoushan-Ningbo Cross-Sea Channel should focus on its freight function.
As a trunk railway in Southwest China, Sichuan-Xizang Railway has improved the transportation infrastructure in the western China, and is of great significance to the integration and coordinated development. This paper takes Sichuan-Xizang Railway as the research object, and calculates the accessibility of cities along the railway based on the network of roads and railways. Combined with the particularity of Sichuan and Xizang, the influence of Sichuan-Xizang Railway on urban accessibility and regional development is analyzed from the national scale, in order to provide reference for the coordinated development of China's trans-regional transportation infrastructure and regional development. The research results show: First, the construction of the Sichuan-Xizang Railway has notably enhanced accessibility for cities along the route. The once scattered circular layout has evolved into a corridor structure running parallel to the railway. Second, in comparison to Sichuan, the Sichuan-Xizang Railway has a more profound impact on the accessibility of cities in Xizang, particularly in the central locations like Linzhi and Changdu. Moreover, this impact extends beyond the railway route, enhancing connections between cities in Xizang and the rest of the country, particularly with the southwestern and southern regions. This suggests that the influence of the Sichuan-Xizang Railway extends throughout the entire Xizang. Third, Sichuan and Xizang are characterized by its concentration of economically disadvantaged counties and a diverse population of ethnic minorities, all while boasting abundant tourism resources. The railway significantly improves accessibility to border regions, impoverished counties, and autonomous counties inhabited by ethnic minorities. This has considerable implications for national security, ethnic unity, and regional integration and development. Finally, when viewed from an organizational network perspective, the introduction of train services along the Sichuan-Xizang Railway has enhanced the structural characteristics of the national high-speed rail network, with particular benefits for the southwest region. As the coverage of direct train services expands, cities in Xizang and Sichuan become more closely interconnected. In summary, the construction of the Sichuan-Xizang Railway is instrumental in facilitating connections between the southwest region, and eastern and central regions, with significant implications for national security, ethnic unity, and the promotion of regional integration and development.
This paper established an analysis framework of regional cross-border governance from politics of scale, then selected two cases of broken road between the central city and peripheral in the Yangtze River Delta, and finally conducted empirical research through participatory observation and semi-structured interview. Case study indicated that before the integration of the Yangtze River Delta became a national strategy, the phenomenon of broken roads were not only the absence of public affairs governance at city-region scale, it is also the development strategy of rational local government after trading off. In regional cooperation characterized with strong-weak combination, the asymmetry of discourse power and local selfishness lead to subjective obstacles of cooperation, and regional development and local financial strength differences, planning adjustment difficulties bring about objective obstacles. After the integration of the Yangtze River Delta became a national strategy, the central government incorporated broken roads connection into the work of local governments by compiling legally binding regional plans, and the public opinion urged the local government from bottom-up, which both make regional cooperation as the mainstream policy discourse. In this context, the local governments established a materialized regional coordination platform with both horizontal and vertical coordination functions, in order to break the information asymmetry between governments at the same and different levels, and promote the implementation of cooperation projects into the annual construction design plans of local governments through the preparation of regional cooperation action plans, which breaks the objective obstacles of construction land index and construction fund shortage. In this sense, the regional coordination platform becomes an effective supplement to the existing administrative management system.
At present, the empirical analysis of regional dual-nuclei structures at the national level is still relatively rare. How to define the provinces with the characteristics of dual-nuclei structures and analyze their impact needs further empirical discussion. In this paper, the spatial Dubin model and the data of 259 prefecture-level cities are used to analyze the distribution characteristics of regional dual-nuclei structure in China and its influence on provincial development. The empirical results show that 11 provincial-level regions (hereafter provinces) in China show the characteristics of dual-nuclei structure. The regional dual-nuclei structure plays a significant role in promoting the economic development of the province, but the northern and southern regions show great differences. The regional dual-nuclei structure has a promoting effect on provincial industrial agglomeration and helps to promote the improvement of local scientific and technological innovation. In general, compared with some single-core provinces with small scale and weak radiation driving force in some provincial capitals, the regional dual-nuclei structure can make up for these shortcomings to a certain extent by virtue of the number of central cities and spatial distribution, which is more conducive to driving local economic development and scientific and technological innovation.
Resilience study has long been a focal point in various fields of geography, social science, urban studies, and psychology. Recently, resilience study from multiple disciplines has scrutinized at individual scale. As an important behavior in daily life of human beings, travel behavior is of spatial dependence, spatio-temporal dynamics, and individual heterogeneity. Moreover, how to understand interaction between travel behavior (demand) and traffic supply and their dynamics is a fundamental question in transport studies when transport systems encounter unexpected disturbance. Based on fundamental theories from multiple disciplines including ecology, traffic engineering, and psychology, this paper refines the definition of travel behavior resilience. Also, this paper proposes a conceptual theoretical framework of travel behavior resilience based on dynamic equilibrium characteristics of traffic supply and demand. In general, travel behavior presents three stages of variations, namely, dramatic reduction, rapid growth, and fluctuation recovery, which has been helpful to capture travel behavior resilience triangle. Then we construct a corresponding evaluation methodology, which is suitable for multi-scale and multi-dimensional perspectives. We emphasize that the evaluation of travel behavior resilience should be process-oriented with temporal continuity or capture inflection points of travel behavior. Using multi-source big data such as mobile phone signaling data and smart card data, this paper offers empirical studies on travel behavior resilience, and explores its spatial heterogeneity and group differences. With the location-based analysis, we confirm that people show the greater travel behavior resilience at places where people are engaged in various socio-economic activities. With the group-based analysis, we find that age, socio-economic attributes of mobility groups significantly affect travel behavior resilience. Overall, travel behavior resilience can be one pillar and also offer geographic perspectives to broaden resilience studies. In future, the study of travel behavior resilience on multiple scales and perspectives can explore spatial heterogeneity of traffic re-equilibrium, transport modal differences, and then contribute to urban spatial structure studies. Indeed, the study of travel behavior resilience can provide scientific and technological support for urban management and resilient city construction.
The community is the space unit most closely related to the daily life of residents. Developments in information and communication technology (ICT) have affected the daily activity patterns of urban residents and the way they use community service amenities. A new form of community life circle characterized by the interaction of virtual and physical spaces has emerged. Against this backdrop, it is urgent to innovate planning methods of community life circles, and explore the approaches of evaluating and optimizing the layout of community life circle amenities based on the interaction between virtual and physical spaces. These explorations will help tackle with practical challenges related to insufficient community amenities facilities, low efficiency of public service and mismatch between service provision and the needs of local residents. This paper first reviews the research progress regarding quantitative approaches of evaluating and optimizing community life circle amenities. Future research directions regarding the planning of communitiy life circle based on the perspective of virtual-physical space interactions are then proposed. Specifically, future research should focus on the mechanisms of how virtual service impact residents' activities and community space, the dynamic evaluation method of amenities based on the interaction of virtual and real space and the simulation method for optimizing the spatial layout of service amenities. This paper will enrich our understanding of community life circle and facilitate the empirical research and the practice of planning community life circle from the new perspective.
Land use transitions are the processes of pursuing the maximization of land use benefits. Using theoretical analysis, literature research and case study method, the land use, mechanism of land use transitions, the "coordination-conflict-coordination" alternating evolution mode of land use morphology and the optimization effects of land use transitions on territorial spatial development patterns are discussed from the perspective of the spatial functions of land use benefits. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The spatial function of land use benefits reflects the pattern of output of regional land use benefits. The spatial function of land use benefits of each land use type jointly determines the benefits relative advantage areas of each land use type. (2) The action path of regional land use transitions from underlying to surface can be summarized as "three-dimensional original driving forces-recessive morphology changes-benefits functions changes-spatial conflict and coordination-dominant morphology changes". Land use transitions pursue not only the optimal coupling between the recessive morphology of regional land use and the "natural environment-economic society-management system" (recessive morphology optimization), but also the optimal coupling between the dominant morphology of land use and the spatial functions of land use benefits (dominant morphology optimization), thus transforming the strong spatial conflicts of land use types into weak conflicts (coordination), and close to achieving the maximum total benefits of land use morphology (benefits optimization). (3) The changes of the spatial functions of land use benefits are the upper reaches and driving link of the "coordination-conflict-coordination" alternating evolution of land use morphology, the final benefits output of land use is its downstream response, and land use transitions are the long-term result of the above alternating evolution. The total benefits output of regional land use morphology is the bond and link between specific land use morphology and specific socio-economy development stage. (4) Land use transitions have service advantages for the optimization of territorial spatial patterns in smaller regions and scales, and need to interact and connect with the larger scale of territorial spatial planning to realize the optimization effects.
Territorial ecological restoration highly emphasizes ecosystem integrity. For watersheds, complete natural geographical units, territorial ecological restoration will play an important role in the construction of ecological civilization in the new era. According to the context of "one core-two dimensions-three connections", the theoretical cognition of watershed-based territorial ecological restoration is deepened. Among them, "one core" refers to "water" as the core element of watershed ecological protection and restoration. "Two dimensions" includes two scales of time and space, among which temporal scale focuses on the balance in the short term and long term, and the dynamic adaptation, while the spatial scale emphasizes regional integration and inter-regional cooperation. "Three connections", proposed from the perspective of "social-ecological systems", refers to the coordination of ecological functions and human well-being, the coordination of natural boundaries and administrative boundaries, and the coordination of natural restoration and artificial restoration. Combined with the systematic cognition of watershed-based territorial ecological restoration, four key points of watershed ecological restoration planning are proposed, including quantitative characterization of the relationship between human and water, clarity on connection between spatial and temporal scales, implement governance by zoning and classification, and strengthening of planning sustainability by nature-based solutions. The research results can provide scientific support for the construction of sustainable pattern of watershed territorial development and protection.