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  • Analyzing Livelihood
    XU Shaohui, DONG Liping
    Journal of Resources and Ecology. 2022, 13(5): 851-859. https://doi.org/10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.009

    Using ArcGIS to analyze the spatial distribution of traditional villages in Yunnan Province in combination with the actual local conditions of traditional villages, the purpose of this study is to determine the development model suitable for their characteristics. The results show several important features of traditional village distribution. (1) The traditional villages in Yunnan Province have spatial structural characteristics of unbalanced cohesive distribution, and they are mainly distributed in the higher-level cities and prefectures such as northwest Yunnan, west Yunnan and south Yunnan. Among them, the traditional villages of Baoshan City have the highest distribution density of 66.33 per 10000 km2. This is followed by Dali Prefecture and Honghe Prefecture, where the densities of traditional villages are 44.13 per 10000 km2 and 37.66 per 10000 km2, respectively. (2) The factors affecting the spatial distribution structure of traditional villages in Yunnan Province are natural geographical factors, humanistic historical factors and transportation factors. Among them, the natural geographical conditions with a large vertical gap in Yunnan Province gave birth to the human settlement environment of traditional villages. The history of a farming civilization that has been passed down from generation to generation has laid a brilliant and splendid humanistic foundation for traditional villages, and the high-altitude areas are relatively primitive. The transportation conditions have delayed the destruction of traditional villages by urbanization and industrialization. In summary, these factors have affected the spatial distribution pattern of traditional villages in Yunnan Province to some extent. (3) According to the law of the spatial distribution of traditional villages in Yunnan Province, it is necessary to explore the activation path of traditional village tourism with regional characteristics and ethnic characteristics, and also to carry out differentiated development according to the different endowment characteristics of local resources, that is to develop a series of activation modes including agricultural tourism, cultural tourism and ecological tourism.

  • Research Articles
    ZHANG Li, LEI Jun, WANG Changjian, WANG Fei, GENG Zhifei, ZHOU Xiaoli
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2022, 32(10): 1886-1910. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-022-2028-z

    This essay combines the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) nighttime light data and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) nighttime light data into a “synthetic DMSP” dataset, from 1992 to 2020, to retrieve the spatio-temporal variations in energy-related carbon emissions in Xinjiang, China. Then, this paper analyzes several influencing factors for spatial differentiation of carbon emissions in Xinjiang with the application of geographical detector technique. Results reveal that (1) total carbon emissions continued to grow, while the growth rate slowed down in the past five years. (2) Large regional differences exist in total carbon emissions across various regions. Total carbon emissions of these regions in descending order are the northern slope of the Tianshan (Mountains) > the southern slope of the Tianshan > the three prefectures in southern Xinjiang > the northern part of Xinjiang. (3) Economic growth, population size, and energy consumption intensity are the most important factors of spatial differentiation of carbon emissions. The interaction between economic growth and population size as well as between economic growth and energy consumption intensity also enhances the explanatory power of carbon emissions’ spatial differentiation. This paper aims to help formulate differentiated carbon reduction targets and strategies for cities in different economic development stages and those with different carbon intensities so as to achieve the carbon peak goals in different steps.

  • YANG Xin, TANG Guoan, YUAN Baoyin, LIU Hailong, HUANG Xiaoli, LI Chenrui
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH. 2021, 40(7): 1870-1886. https://doi.org/10.11821/dlyj020200727

    Gully is characterized by the frequent material exchanges and strong morphological changes in the Loess Plateau. Under the combined action of internal and external forces, various kinds of gullies in different development stages have shaped the unique geomorphologic landscape in the Loess Plateau. And a special loess gully, namely, the spoon-shaped gully is widely distributed in this plateau. At present, there is limited research on its formation, development process, mechanism, and spatial distribution characteristics. Using high-resolution remote sensing images and DEM data, and based on the sufficient field investigation and expert knowledge, this paper put forward the concept of loess spoon-shaped gully, and pointed out that the loess spoon-shaped gully is a kind of permanent discontinuous gully independently developed on the loess slope. Then, the characteristics of loess spoon-shaped gully were analyzed from the aspects of gully shape, confluence relationship, erosion process, and distribution characteristics, which were different from other existing gullies. Furthermore, the loess spoon-shaped gully was classified from the perspectives of development morphology, development scale and development location. Based on the space-for-time substitution theory, the morphological evolution characteristics of the spoon-shaped gully were analyzed quantitatively, and the development process of loess spoon-shaped gully was further discussed. It was proved that loess spoon-shaped gully was the initial stage of loess bank gully. Finally, on the basis of systematical summary on the characteristics of spoon-shaped gullies, the development process of spoon-shaped gullies was deduced, and it was pointed out that the formation of spoon-shaped gullies was closely related to the formation and development of loess sinkholes and dark caves. The further development was accompanied by the process of hydraulic erosion and gravity erosion. The reason for the shrinkage or the disappearence of the tail of the spoon-shaped gully can be attribute to the underground caves, loess permeability, rainfall conditions and surface cover. The results of this paper are expected to contribute to the further understanding of the landform development, erosion process and mechanism of the loess gully, and to provide references for soil and water conservation in the Loess Plateau.

  • Junjun Zhou, Gang Li, Dandan Hong, Feng Xu, Jiahui Xu, Yue Yu, Xiliang Chen
    Tropical Geography. 2022, 42(9): 1430-1442. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003542

    As a crime that threatens public safety and social stability, child trafficking has attracted widespread attention from all sectors of society. Few studies have been conducted on child trafficking, especially in the literature review conducted from the perspective of comparison between China and abroad, which makes it difficult to fully reveal the system and development of current research. This study clarifies the thematic structure and development of child trafficking in China and abroad, based on the "Web of ScienceTM Core Collection" and CNKI data sources, using CiteSpace software. Specifically, the study comparatively examines the progress of child trafficking studies in China and abroad since 2000 and analyzes future development trends from the time of publication, regional and subject distribution, research institutions, and keyword co-occurrence. We hope that this work provides a relatively complete and objective understanding for innovative future research. The results indicate that: (1) the research on child trafficking started earlier abroad, and the theoretical system and research methods are relatively mature. From 2000 to 2020, a total of 215 articles were published in Web of Science, showing two stages of fluctuating and rapid growth, and USA ranks first worldwide. There are 46 core articles published in CNKI, showing two stages of initial exploration and fluctuating growth overall, with a relatively slow growth rate in China. More studies are distributed in the fields of social studies, psychology, pediatrics, family studies and criminology in abroad, while domestic studies are mainly distributed in the field of law, criminology and sociology. In recent years, the research in the field of geography has risen rapidly, and there is ample room for development. (2) Due to the differences in regional environment and national conditions, international child trafficking is part of a study on human trafficking, which is mainly for the purpose of exploitation, including direct and indirect exploitation, involving various topics such as commercial sexual exploitation, labor exploitation, trafficking human organs, child marriage trafficking, and other types of trafficking. Commercial trafficking and sexual exploitation are the main research hotspots of child trafficking. Child trafficking in China is usually discussed in combination with the trafficking of women, focusing on the provincial trafficking for the purpose of adoption, and "family control" and "lured adoption" are common ways of committing crimes. The legal policy and social reasons surrounding child trafficking are hot topics of concern. (3) With the increase in interdisciplinary integration, child trafficking involves suicide risk and well-being, rehabilitation and return to society, child protection and trafficking prevention and control measures, which have become popular topics abroad. The theme of domestic child trafficking has extended from focusing on legal policies and social reasons to spatial-temporal patterns, influencing factors, resettlement, and social integration. In the future, how to integrate the relevant parties involved in child trafficking (criminals, victims or guardians, and other people) with the spatio-temporal environment (social environment, built environment, and surrounding people flow environment), and explore the evolution of geographical factors and the spatio-temporal activity trajectory of child trafficking from the perspective of criminal geography? It is important to deeply analyze the occurrence mechanism of child trafficking from the interactive perspective of time, space, and humans. How to make full use of the modern technological means to track and combat child trafficking in practice, to contribute to the prevention and management of this issue at home and abroad, constitutes a key question.

  • LI Ruzi, HUANG Xiaoling, LIU Yaobin
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(4): 777-791. https://doi.org/10.11821/dlxb202304001

    As China's urbanization has entered the middle and later stage and the improvement of well-being of residents has become a core goal, the transformation from "top-down" system goals optimization on the supply side to "bottom-up" multi-dimensional goals coordination on the demand side has become a new perspective to understand the connotation of urbanization. Based on the perspective of the human living conditions, the humanities environment, and human-city relationship, this paper constructs a connotation framework and index system of urbanization. Furthermore, Theil index is employed to analyze the spatio-temporal differentiation characteristics of China's urbanization before and after the implementation of the new-type urbanization strategy. Finally, in terms of both direct and indirect effect mechanisms, the mechanism framework of urbanization differentiation is constructed, and its evolution pattern is revealed by using Variance Decomposition and Geodetector. The results show that: since the implementation of the new-type urbanization strategy in 2014, China's urbanization has made remarkable achievements, with a steady improvement in human living conditions and human-city relationship, and there is still much room for improvement in the humanities environment. The high-level areas of urbanization are mainly distributed in coastal areas, and expanding to inland areas along the Yangtze River Basin and Yellow River Basin. The regional differences of urbanization gradually decrease, but the contribution rate of inner-regional differences shows an expanding trend. Differences in human living conditions and human-city relationship are the main factors of urbanization differentiation, but the contribution of differences in humanities environment is gradually expanding after 2014. Opening up and scientific & technological innovation are the main influencing factors of the difference in human living conditions. With the implementation of the new-type urbanization strategy, the impact on differences in humanities environment of the government finance gradually diminishes. Resource endowments have a relatively strong influence on differences in human-city relationship. This study can provide theoretical and empirical support for promoting the development of urbanization in China.

  • WANG Weijun, ZHAO Xueyan, LI Hua
    Economic geograph. 2022, 42(5): 165-174. https://doi.org/10.15957/j.cnki.jjdl.2022.05.017
    Livelihood space is an important carrier for farmers' livelihood practices. Promoting the optimization and reconstruction of livelihood space for relocated farmers is not only the key to achieve their sustainable livelihoods,but also an inevitable requirement for promoting rural revitalization. This paper constructs the evaluation index system of livelihood space quality of relocated farmers from the four dimensions of life,production,society and institution. Based on the data of household survey and in-depth interview in the Longnan mountainous area,this paper evaluates the improvement effect of poverty alleviation relocation on farmers' livelihood space,identifies the key obstacles affecting the quality of livelihood space,and reveals the impact mechanism of poverty alleviation relocation on farmers' livelihood space. The results show that: 1) In the initial stage of resettlement,the effect of poverty alleviation relocation on farmers' livelihood space is general,and only about 35% of farmers believe that the improvement effect of livelihood space is better. 2) From different dimensions,the improvement effect of poverty alleviation relocation on living space is the best,followed by social space,while the improvement effect on production space and institutional space is relatively poor. 3) The expansion of farmland area,compression of housing area,reduction of community participation and insufficient non-agricultural employment opportunities are the main obstacle factors affecting the improvement of livelihood space quality of relocated farmers. 4) Poverty alleviation relocation has a double-edged sword effect on farmers' livelihood space. It can not only promote the development of livelihood space in the direction of urbanization and intensification,but also lead to the development of livelihood space in the direction of disorder,marginalization and atomization. Finally,it puts forward the optimized path and countermeasures for constructing sustainable livelihood space.
  • Theoretical and Methodological Exploration
    LIU Yu, WANG Keli, XING Xiaoyue, GUO Hao, ZHANG Weiyu, LUO Qinyao, GAO Song, HUANG Zhou, LI Haifeng, LI Xin, WANG Jiaoe, WANG Jinfeng, ZHU Di
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(3): 517-531. https://doi.org/10.11821/dlxb202303001

    GIScience inherits the spatial analysis tradition of geography. Given that "spatial is special", GIScience needs to highlight spatial effects when constructing methods for geographical analysis. The research presents an explicit definition of spatial effect. By formalizing core GIScience concepts including space, location, field, distance, and region, we identify four types of spatial effects, namely spatial heterogeneity effect, neighbor effect in spatial dependence, distance decay effect in spatial interactions, and scale effect in spatial zoning. A unified framework is constructed to cover the four spatial effects based on the inherent linkages among them. We argue that spatial heterogeneity effect is the most fundamental one. While spatial dependence and spatial interaction are two basic geographical processes that represent the second-order relationships between two locations, neighbor effect and distance decay effect reflect the impacts of space. Scale effect is raised when aggregating attributes using regional units. Hence, the four types of effects form a hierarchical system. From a methodological perspective, this paper summaries related GIScience tools that implement different effects, and emphasizes the value of geospatial artificial intelligence for revealing and quantifying spatial effects.

  • Land Use and Carbon Emissions
    DONG Shijie, XIN Liangjie, LI Shengfa, XIE Hualin, ZHAO Yuluan, WANG Xue, LI Xiubin, SONG Hengfei, LU Yahan
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(1): 3-15. https://doi.org/10.11821/dlxb202301001

    With urbanization and industrialization, cultivated land in hilly regions of China has been gradually marginalized. Abandoned cultivated lands have ranged from inferior sloping land and extended to high-quality terraces. The abandonment of terraces will lead to a series of social and ecological problems, especially with large-scale abandonment. Therefore, the degree and spatial distribution of terrace abandonment should be evaluated scientifically to address the issue of abandonment as well as its effects. This study investigated the extent of terrace abandonment in China via a questionnaire sampling method. Based on 560 village questionnaires from 329 counties in China, the scale of terrace abandonment was calculated and the spatial heterogeneity characteristics and primary reasons for terrace abandonment were further analyzed. Study results showed that: (1) The phenomenon of terrace abandonment was observed throughout China, occurring in 54% of all the villages investigated; 9.79% of the total terraced areas have been abandoned. (2) The degree of terrace abandonment showed a spatial pattern of "high in the south and low in the north". The degree of terrace abandonment was higher in the southern hilly mountains, and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River was the most serious. (3) The primary factors related to terrace abandonment were found to be labor migration, the degree to which terraces have been mechanized, irrigation conditions, and farming traffic conditions. Measures that include improving the degree of terrace mechanization should be enacted to address the problem of terrace abandonment. An orderly "conversion of cropland" could be applied to poor-quality terraces. Changing the planting structure, strengthening new agricultural infrastructure, and encouraging circulation and large-scale operations are options that could be applied to good-quality terraces.

  • Disciplinary Structure and Development of Geographic Science
    CHEN Fahu, LI Xin, WU Shaohong, FAN Jie, XIONG Juhua, ZHANG Guoyou
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2021, 76(9): 2069-2073. https://doi.org/10.11821/dlxb202109001

    The modern international and domestic science advancements have brought forward new opportunities as well as higher requirements to the development of geographic science in China. In planning the disciplinary structure of geographic science in the "Development Strategy of Discipline and Frontier Research in China (2021-2035)", we propose a modified disciplinary structure for the geographic science in the new era. The geographic science in China can be categorized into four secondary disciplines, i.e., integrated geography, physical geography, human geography, and information geography, considering the current situation and development outlook of geographic science. The tertiary disciplines under each secondary discipline are nearly fully developed, and a few quaternary disciplines under tertiary disciplines have already been widely accepted and used. We hope this new disciplinary structure can play a breakthrough role for improving the branches of geographic science, promoting the development of emerging disciplines under the framework of geographic science, and better serving the international and domestic development needs in the new era.

  • Tourism under COVID-19 Pandemic
    TANG Chengcai, ZHANG Honglei, ZHAO Lei, YANG Yuanyuan, WEI Ge
    ECOTOURISM. 2022, 12(1): 169-183. https://doi.org/10.12342/zgstly.20220011

    The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has brought enormous impacts and challenges to global tourism. How to cope with the pandemic has become the focus of attention. This paper analyzes the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism of China from the aspects of residents' travel willingness, tourist site space capacity, operation of tourism market entities, and tourism policy supply. The research results show that: (1) The pandemic has greatly impacted residents' consumer confidence, willingness, and ability to travel, but the potential travel demand still exists. (2) The pandemic has caused great physical and psychological compression to the tourism space environment. The production space capacity of the cultural industry and the entertainment industry, which are closely related to tourism, has also been indirectly affected. (3) The pandemic has had a comprehensive and far-reaching impact on the tourism industry chain and the operation of tourism market entities. (4) Under the normalization of pandemic prevention and control, the tourism policy has mainly been based on "flow control" and "industry rescue". Eventually, based on the response system, spatial response mechanism, and the resilience of tourism enterprises, the responses of China's tourism industry to the pandemic are explored. First, the trinity response system of tourism to resist the pandemic should be constructed from the three dimensions of hierarchical government support, management department drive, and industry organization coordination. Second, the spatial response mechanism of the tourism system based on the three-level collaborative destination (point) - link (line) - network structure (network) under the normalization of pandemic prevention and control is proposed. Third, the countermeasures to enhance the resilience of tourism enterprises are put forward from five aspects: enterprise organization, product service, management and the marketing, and market brand and employee psychology.

  • Ecological Environment and Carbon Emissions
    SHAO Quanqin, LIU Shuchao, NING Jia, LIU Guobo, YANG Fan, ZHANG Xiongyi, NIU Linan, HUANG Haibo, FAN Jiangwen, LIU Jiyuan
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2022, 77(9): 2133-2153. https://doi.org/10.11821/dlxb202209001

    We propose a theoretical framework for assessing the ecological benefits provided by national key ecological projects in China over the past 20 years. A dataset consisting of six primary indicators and nine secondary indicators of ecosystem structure, ecosystem quality, and ecosystem services for the period 2000-2019 was generated using ground survey and remote sensing data. Ecological benefits were quantitatively evaluated following the implementation of national key ecological projects in China. Areas with medium, relatively high, and high degrees of ecological restoration accounted for 24.1%, 11.9%, and 1.7% of the national land area, respectively. Degrees of ecological restoration were higher in areas with a greater number of ecological projects. Areas with relatively high and high degrees of ecological restoration were mainly concentrated in the Loess Plateau, the farming-pastoral zone of northern China, the Northeast China Plain, and an area spanning the border areas of Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Chongqing, and Hunan. The relative contributions of climatic factors and ecological projects to changes in vegetation net primary productivity were 85.4% and 14.6%, respectively, and the relative contributions of climatic factors and ecological projects to changes in water erosion modulus were 69.5% and 30.5%, respectively. The restoration potential of national vegetation coverage was 20%, and the restoration potential percentages of forest and grassland vegetation coverage were 6.4% and 23%, respectively. Climatic conditions can inhibit ecological restoration. Areas with relatively high and high degrees of ecological restoration were mainly distributed in areas with an annual average temperature greater than 0 ℃ and annual precipitation greater than 300 mm. Therefore, the limitations associated with climate conditions should be considered during the implementation of national ecological projects. The implementation of single ecological projects or single ecological restoration measures should be avoided, the use of combined measures should be emphasized, and the benefits of ecological investment funds should be maximized.

  • Regional Development
    XIA Tian, XIA Ying, LIU Xiaoyu, SUN Jiuwen
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(8): 1904-1919. https://doi.org/10.11821/dlxb202308004

    Despite the initial development goals achieved, China's macro-economy is still deeply affected by the external environment and stuck in its own structure at the same time. In retrospect, not until 1949 with the founding of the People's Republic of China did China's budding regional economy witness the prominence of a fixed development pattern shifting from a spontaneous to an actuating one. After comparing the three regional economic practices, this paper finds that each development stage has its corresponding development strategy. At the same time, several development patterns, namely, the coastal and inland areas, the three regions, and four plates were formed accordingly. Furthermore, through combing the literature and historical facts, this paper determines the historical starting point, division criteria and division scheme of China's regional economic development before summarizing three main lines and also contradictions therein: the government-market relations against the background of market reform, the coastal-inland relations against the tide of economic zonation, and the urban-rural relations against the trend of urbanization. Based on the above, the paper constructs a three-dimensional model out of the spatio-termporal process of China's regional development before proposing new historical stages from the perspective of economic system modernization. These historical stages are: industrial economy, special zone economy, district economy, regional economy and urban network economy. Finally, from the urbanization angle, this paper concludes that for different urbanization stages, regional policies should be industrial policies, factor policies, fiscal and tax policies sequentially.

  • Clamate Change and Agricultural Geography
    ZHANG Baiping, YAO Yonghui, XIAO Fei, ZHOU Wenzuo, ZHU Lianqi, ZHANG Junhua, ZHAO Fang, BAI Hongying, WANG Jing, YU Fuqin, ZHANG Xinghang, LIU Junjie, LI Jiayu, JIANG Ya
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2022, 77(9): 2236-2248. https://doi.org/10.11821/dlxb202209007

    Mountain altitudinal belts are the miniature of horizontal differentiation and succession of climatic and vegetational zonation. However, altitudinal belts' vertical range, transition model, inner structure and combining pattern vary from place to place. In Mt. Taibai of the central section of China's north-south transitional zone, we have found an altitudinal belt with the largest range in the world, namely, the montane deciduous broad-leaved forest, which extends continuously from the mountain base to about 2800 m, including basal oak belt, typical oak belt of two sub-belts and cold-tolerant pioneer birch belt of two sub-belts, which could otherwise develop independently. Characterized by a "three layers and five sub-belts" structure, this "super altitudinal belt" is much vertically broader than the threshold of 1000 m for normal altitudinal belts. Its formation is closely related with its transitional geographic location, integral spectrum of altitudinal belts in central Qinling Mountains, rich and diverse species of deciduous woody plants, and their strong competitiveness. The finding of the super altitudinal belt has multiple significance: Its existence is another significant physio-geographic feature of China's north-south transitional zone; it shows that an altitudinal belt may have rather complex inner structure and broad vertical range in some special mountain environment. This broadens our understanding of altitudinal belt structures and their mechanisms, and is of great significance for developing structural theory for montane altitudinal belts. This finding also demonstrates that there are many big questions for us to explore and study in the north-south transitional zone, and it is expected that our finding could trigger in-depth study of local climate and biodiversity responsible for the formation of this super belt, and of the complex structure and ecological effect of China's north-south transitional zone.

  • Regional Development
    GE Dazhuan
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(8): 1849-1868. https://doi.org/10.11821/dlxb202308001

    Deconstructing rural spatial characteristics is the precondition for building rural spatial governance system in the new era, and multi-scale rural spatial characteristics and its governance path would effectively support the modernization of the national governance system. Based on the comprehensive, regional and mobile thinking paradigm of geography, this paper deconstructs the multi-scale rural spatial characteristics, identifies its internal operating logics, summarizes its governance dilemmas, constructs a multi-scale rural spatial governance framework that is based on geographical analysis paradigm, explores feasible governance paths, and constructs a multi-scale rural spatial governance system research plan, namely, "characteristics identification-dilemma analysis-governance framework-governance path". The paper finds that: (1) to analyze the operating logics of the multi-scale rural space through the comprehensive, regional and mobile analytical thinking of geography, it is necessary to understand the mechanism of action of scale synthesis, scale differentiation and scale flow to the multi-scale rural spatial characteristics, highlighting the comprehensive characteristics of rural space, strengthening rural spatial heterogeneity, and integrating rural spatial mobility. (2) The lacking urban-rural spatial overall planning, unsmooth spatial mobile network and not-reflected different types of rural spatial value are the key dilemmas in the rural spatial governance, which need to be addressed. (3) The multi-scale rural spatial governance framework of "comprehensive spatial governance-spatial zoning governance-spatial mobile governance" could effectively solve the problems of urban-rural spatial integration, regional spatial coordination and spatial network blockage. (4) Integrating urban-rural comprehensive governance, innovating regulation control to improve regional governance and balancing the configuration of spatial development right to achieve mobile spatial governance are feasible paths for multi-scale rural space governance. In conclusion, clarifying the multi-scale rural spatial characteristics in the new era and constructing a scientific governance system could provide theoretical support to promote integrated urban-rural development and rural vitalization strategy.

  • Population Geography
    LIU Tao, PENG Rongxi, ZHUO Yunxia, CAO Guangzhong
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2022, 77(2): 381-394. https://doi.org/10.11821/dlxb202202008

    Using data of the latest three decennial censuses, this paper systematically analyzes the overall spatial pattern, changing trends, and influence mechanisms of China's population distribution since 2000. The study reveals that the general population distribution pattern of "dense east and sparse west" in China has not changed, which is determined by the differences in natural geographic environments on the two sides of Hu Line. In the first decade of the century, population concentration was mainly found in the southeastern area, but it has been observed in all regions in the recent decade. Provincial capitals have become the winners of population competition and the advantages of population growth of provincial capitals have been further strengthened in the recent decade compared with 2000-2010. However, the administrative power-led effects of the increasing dominance of provincial capitals will gradually weaken with the development of their provinces. The regional differentiation of population changes is also apparent: coastal region gradually forms a dense belt of population and towns with solid population attraction based on the development of urban agglomerations; the northeast region almost turns to a complete population shrinking status; central provinces still compete fiercely for population based on their capitals; the population of Sichuan, Chongqing, and Guizhou has stopped the decline and returned to growth; and the northwest region faces the risk of population loss. In addition, this paper finds that the driving factors of regional population growth have gradually changed from economic factors to both economic and amenity factors, and the difference of amenities among regions may become an important factor for future changes in China's population geography.

  • Urbanization and Administrative Divisions
    LIU Yansui, YANG Ren, LIN Yuancheng
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2022, 77(12): 2937-2953. https://doi.org/10.11821/dlxb202212001

    The orderly development of county urbanization, as an effective driving force for the integrated development of urban and rural areas in the new era, promotes the interaction and flow of elements between urban and rural territorial system, the optimization and adjustment of industrial structures, the optimal allocation of resources and markets, and the organic integration of urban and rural territorial system. The results show that: (1) From 2000 to 2020, the county urbanization in China developed rapidly, and the regional differences in spatial and temporal dynamics were significant. The county urbanization rate in the eastern coastal, central suburbs and northern border areas was high, while it is low in southwest China, rural areas of the central region and most parts of Tibet and Xinjiang. In 2020, to the east of the Hu Huanyong Line, the northeastern region, northern Hebei, Shanxi-Shaanxi-Henan region, eastern Sichuan, and Yunnan-Guizhou region became high-value areas for urbanization rates at the county level. There are 716 counties with urbanization rates exceeding 50%, including the Pearl River Delta, the Yangtze River Delta, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Chengdu-Chongqing region, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the border areas of Inner Mongolia, and the southeastern coastal areas of Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Fujian, accounting for 38.3% of the country's total. (2) The county urbanization in China is the result of the combined effects of factors such as population, economy, society, and culture. The level of economic development, natural environment conditions, infrastructure construction, geographic locations, public resource supply, professional entrepreneurial clusters, and macro policies affect the direction, scope and depth of county urbanization. It is predicted that by 2035, the urbanization rate of China will reach about 76.04%, and that of counties will be about 64.38%. In the future, we should strengthen the adjustment and optimization of county population, economy, society and spatial organizational structure. (3) There are five types of county urbanization in China, including factor agglomeration urbanization in counties around big cities, industrial agglomeration-driven urbanization in counties with specialized function, agricultural modernization-led urbanization in counties with main agricultural production areas, ecological conservation urbanization in counties with ecological function areas, and concentrated urbanization in counties with population loss. (4) County urbanization takes county and key towns as important spatial carriers for the agglomeration of urbanization elements, and forms a multi-level system of residence-industry and industry-city coordination. The rational spatial distribution of factors such as the development of industrial integration and population resources will further promote the interactive flow of urban and rural elements, the integration of urban and rural industries, the equalization of urban and rural residents, and the equalization of urban and rural infrastructure, and enhance urban-rural integration and network development.

  • Research on Natural Disasters
    CHEN Yuehong, XU Congcong, ZHANG Xiaoxiang, ZHANG Ruojing, MA Qiang, LIU Changjun, REN Liliang, SHI Kaixin
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(5): 1059-1073. https://doi.org/10.11821/dlxb202305001

    According to the Ministry of Water Resources of the People's Republic of China, the number of casualties in flash flood disasters accounts for nearly 70% of flood disaster casualties in recent years and flash flood has become one of the major natural disasters causing casualties in China. Flash flood regionalization is fundamental for implementing the local measures of the flash flood prevention and mitigation according to local conditions. Using results from existing flash flood relevant physiographical regionalization schemes, and in accordance with the principles of comprehensive, dominant factors, the relative consistency within units, the relative difference between units, the integrity of spatial distribution and the hierarchical divisions, this paper firstly constructs an index system of the flash flood trigger factors and its underlying surface environment for the flash flood regionalization in China. In the combination of top-down and bottom-up regionalization, the hybrid self-organizing-map-based spatial clustering algorithm is then built. Finally, nine homogeneous regions at the first-grade and thirty-three subregions at the second-grade are delineated for flash floods in China. The historical flash flood events and the Geodetector method are adopted to evaluate the developed regionalization schemes. Results show that the first-grade and the second-grade flash flood regionalization schemes in China can respectively provide the determinant power of 66.4% and 75.4% for the spatial distribution of historical flash flood events in the whole country, indicating the developed flash flood regionalization has a good spatial consistency with the distribution of historical flash flood events with different densities. The developed flash flood regionalization not only effectively delineates the regional differentiation pattern of flash floods, but also provides a scientific basis for the implementation of localized flash flood prevention and mitigation measures in China, which benefits for the sound development of flash flood disasters prevention and management in China.

  • Regional Development
    ZHENG Yuhan, LONG Hualou
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(8): 1869-1887. https://doi.org/10.11821/dlxb202308002

    Urban-rural integrated development is an advanced stage in the evolution of the urban-rural relationship, and it is also the basic path and main goal for the implementation of rural revitalization. Scientifically understanding and identifying the integration stage and its current level of urban-rural development in China is the prerequisite basis for promoting urban-rural integrated development and rural revitalization. Based on the concept connotation, this paper constructed a multi-dimensional evaluation system of urban-rural integrated development at the prefecture level. The process status and spatiotemporal divergent characteristics of urban-rural integrated development in 336 prefecture-level regions in China from 2000-2018 were portrayed and revealed. The results show that: (1) The current state of urban-rural integrated development in China is generally at a low-to-middle level, showing a heterogeneous spatiotemporal pattern with apparent gradient divergence. The integrated development level of the Pearl River Delta, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, and the Shandong Peninsula is high, but the regions distributed to the west of the "Hu Line" develops slowly. (2) According to the level and characteristics of integrated development, the 366 prefecture-level regions can be divided into four types: integrated development, tending integration, imbalanced development, and lagging development, with a more active transformation between the latter three types. (3) The development level of urban-rural economic integration is higher than that of demographic and social integration, while the development process of urban-rural spatial and ecological integration shows some natural zonal divergent characteristics. Finally, we identified the problem areas for different types of integrated development and explored the regional promotion path of urban-rural integrated development, which could provide scientific references for the strategies of regional urban-rural development and rural revitalization.

  • Land Use and Carbon Peak & Carbon Neutrality
    ZHANG Jie, LIU Yujie, ZHANG Ermei, CHEN Jie, TAN Qinghua
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(9): 2105-2127. https://doi.org/10.11821/dlxb202309001

    The land conversion processes concerning non-agricultural and non-grain production areas have prominently decreased arable land availability, which substantially impacted grain production capacity and threatened national food security. Thus, it is critical to establish a novel scientific approach to identify spatio-temporal evolution patterns of land conversion and its influencing factors in different stages. This study evaluates the evolutionary characteristics of non-agricultural and non-grain fields by constructing a comprehensive index system that considers factors like cultivated land resources, social and economic conditions, and farmers' subjective perspectives, using a county as the basic research unit. For a comprehensive analysis, a geographical detector model was utilized to quantify driving factors in different stages. The results indicated spatial clustering effects for non-agricultural and non-grain fields throughout China, particularly in the eastern region beyond the "Hu Huanyong Line". Further analysis revealed a spatial pattern for non-grain conversion phenomenon was more intense in the southwestern than the northeastern fields. Over the past four decades, non-agricultural fields recorded an area expansion, but the year-wise area increase was gradually reduced, while non-grain areas exhibited a "growth-stable" change pattern. Although progress in non-grain was less in primary producing areas over the last 40 years, an increase of 1.49 times and 1.33 times was recorded from 2010 to 2020 in PSB (production and sales balance area) and Mrt (marketing) areas, respectively. Compared to the period 1980-2000, the rate of non-agricultural conversion in primary producing areas decreased by 77% during 2010-2020, while the rate of non-agricultural conversion increased by 1.63 and 4.65 times for PSB and Mrt regions, respectively. Based on these findings, this paper puts forward suggestions, such as setting control rules and subsidy mechanisms according to area classification, promoting control policies based on regional considerations, strengthening dynamic monitoring and risk warning, as well as enhancing supervision and assessment.

  • LU Feng, ZHU Yunqiang, ZHANG Xueying
    Journal of Geo-information Science. 2023, 25(6): 1091-1105. https://doi.org/10.12082/dqxxkx.2023.230154

    The continuous generalization of geographic information poses a huge challenge to the classic geographic information analysis modes. Networked knowledge services will gradually become a new mode for geographic information applications, facilitating to transform the form of geographic computing into social computing. Geographic knowledge services need to connect people, institutions, natural environments, geographical entities, geographical units and social events, so as to promote knowledge assisted data intelligence and computational intelligence. Facing the urgent need for spatiotemporal knowledge acquisition, formal expression and analysis, this paper firstly introduces the concepts and characteristics of spatiotemporal knowledge graph. The spatiotemporal knowledge graph is a directed graph composed of geographic spatiotemporal distribution or geo-locational metaphors of knowledge that is a knowledge graph centered on spatiotemporal distribution characteristics. Secondly we proposes a research framework for spatiotemporal knowledge graph. The framework includes various levels from multimodal spatiotemporal big data to spatiotemporal knowledge services that contain ubiquitous spatiotemporal big data layer, spatiotemporal knowledge acquisition technique layer, spatiotemporal knowledge management layer, spatiotemporal knowledge graph layer, software/tools layer, and industrial application layer. Thirdly this paper introduces relevant research progress from text implied geographic information retrieval, heterogeneous geographic semantic web alignment, spatiotemporal knowledge formalization and representation learning. Combined with application practice, we then enumerate the construction and application approaches of domain oriented spatiotemporal knowledge graph. Finally, it discusses the key scientific issues and technical bottlenecks currently faced in the research of spatiotemporal knowledge graph. It is argued that in the era of large models, constructing explicit spatiotemporal knowledge graph and conducting knowledge reasoning to meet domain needs is still the only way for spatiotemporal knowledge services.

  • National Innovation System and Globalization of Science and Technology
    WANG Jiaoe, DU Fangye, XIAO Fan
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(2): 259-272. https://doi.org/10.11821/dlxb202302001

    Data center is a new infrastructure system based on new development concepts, technological innovation, and information networks. It provides services for digital transformation, smart upgrading, and integrated innovation to meet the needs of high-quality development. The new infrastructure covers the construction of 5G base stations, intercity high-speed rail, intercity rail transit, new energy vehicle charging piles, big data centers, artificial intelligence, and industrial internet. It could promote resource integration, nurture new growth points, and shape new locations. Analyzing the spatial patterns of new infrastructures and their influencing factors is of great significance for understanding the regional development advantages. Using the data center as an example, this paper explores the spatial distribution and determinants of new infrastructure. Since the data center is not only infrastructure but also a strategic emerging industry, it is different from traditional infrastructure in terms of technical requirements and energy consumption. Since this difference will be reflected in the spatial layout, this paper proposes the macro layout principle of the data center. Then, the evolution characteristics and influencing factors of the spatial pattern of data centers in China are analyzed, and the following conclusions are drawn: (1) The macroscopic distribution of data centers should follow four principles: demand-oriented, cost oriented, operating environment-oriented, and safety oriented. (2) The distribution of data centers presents a spatial structure centered on the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and Chengdu-Chongqing urban agglomeration. (3) Economic development, internet development, the number of high-tech enterprises, labor costs, and educational institutions have a positive impact on the macro layout of data centers. The impacts of location conditions, land costs, and layout policies of data centers on their macro layout begin to appear at a certain stage. (4) There are three types of data center distribution models in China: demand-orientated, cost-oriented, and demand-cost-operating environment-oriented. At present, the data center in China is demand-oriented and will develop into a comprehensive demand-cost-operating environment-oriented model in the future. Our conclusion could provide guidance and suggestions for scientific site selection and the optimal layout of data centers.

  • Chengpeng Wu, Xianchun Zhang, Yingjie Hu
    Tropical Geography. 2022, 42(2): 256-268. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003446

    As the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area has become a national strategy, bay area governance has become an important issue of academic attention. Existing studies pay more attention to specific governance measures and current situation, and there are few studies on the environmental causes behind them. In addition, most of the existing studies focus on the governance of the Greater Bay Area from a single perspective of politics, law, economy, culture and society, and lack of a more comprehensive institutional environment perspective to summarize the theoretical explanation of the political, legal and participant issues that are particularly prominent in the governance of the Greater Bay Area. Therefore, studying the construction of a comparative analysis framework around the institutional environment is aimed to examine the internal causes of the governance characteristics of the Greater Bay Area, enrich the research perspective of domestic regional governance, and provide suggestions for the governance of the Greater Bay Area. This paper constructs a comparative research framework of bay area governance institutional environment, including three dimensions of power structure, legal structure and social capital structure. Using the text/desktop analysis method, it systematically summarizes the governance frameworks of the Greater Bay Area, San Francisco Bay Area and Tokyo Bay Area, and comparatively analyzes the governance institutional environment of the three bay areas. The study holds that the mode characteristics and effects of bay area governance are closely related to the institutional environment composed of power structure, legal structure and social capital structure. The power structure affects the flexibility of governance, and the power structure of the Greater Bay Area is asymmetric and fragmented, which is relatively closed and centralized, resulting in a single governance model always dominated by the government; the legal structure affects the transaction cost of governance, and the Greater Bay Area has not yet formed a unified and efficient legal system structure, resulting in higher transaction cost in the governance process; and the social capital structure affects the multiple participation in governance and the cohesion of the bay area, and in the Greater Bay Area, the positive social capital is relatively weak, the multiple participation in governance is insufficient and the bottom-up cohesion is not strong. Finally, it is suggested that the governance of the Greater Bay Area should start from the power, law and social capital structure, and explore the flexible reconstruction of the institutional space under the respective advantages of the three regions; in the construction of institutional environment, non-governmental subjects should be guided to participate in governance stably and orderly, so as to enhance the cohesion of the Greater Bay Area; and on the basis of ensuring the authoritative policies of the central and provincial governments, it should explore the decentralization and autonomy of local governments in the Greater Bay Area in due course. This paper constructs an institutional environment including power structure, legal structure and social capital structure, and comparatively analyzed the governance characteristics of the three bay areas under different institutional environments. From a more comprehensive perspective of environmental internal factors, it makes a theoretical explanation of the particularly prominent issues of politics, legal system and participants in the governance of the Greater Bay Area, which enriches the research perspective of regional governance in China.

  • Yang Xiao
    Historical Geography Research. 2023, 43(1): 1-10.

    The Lixia River Plain, consisting of a great number of small lakes and swamps, spread widely in the north of Jiangsu Province in history. After 1570, the flood of Huaihe River entering Lixia River Plain continued to increase, which caused great changes in the distribution of lakes and drainage pattern in the region. After 1596, the flood from the Jinghe River and the Ziyinggou River entered into the Guangyang Lake, and then flowed through the Sheyang Lake into the sea. The waters in the southeast of Gaoyou all converge in the Luyang Lake. After 1681, due to the southward shift of the Guihai Dams, floods converged in the middle of the Lixia River Plain and overflowed from the south to the north. As a result, the Dazong Lake and other lakes were connected and merged as a whole. Due to the decrease of flood, the Guangyang Lake was divided into several scattered lakes. Whether the Guihai Dams were opened or not, it would directly affect the hydrological environment of the Lixia River Plain, and thus form two completely different lake distribution and drainage patterns in the flood period and normal period.

  • Disciplinary Structure and Development of Geographic Science
    FAN Jie, ZHAO Pengjun, ZHOU Shangyi, DENG Xiangzheng, WANG Chen
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2021, 76(9): 2083-2093. https://doi.org/10.11821/dlxb202109003

    Human geography is a discipline which studies the formation and evolution of the geographical distribution pattern of human activities. The main research objects of human geography focus on human activities and human-earth relationship. The scientific questions to be answered by human geography cover both natural science and social science, and thus it has distinctive interdisciplinary features. In China, the economic and social processes of human activities are playing an important role in explaining the law in human geography discipline as human society development is approaching or has entered the post-industrialization stage. The logics and methods of social science have become important tools through which the changes in processes and patterns of human geography can be reasonably discussed and properly understood. Research methodology of human geography shows integration characteristics between natural sciences and social sciences. The outcomes of human geography research reveal scientific laws in geographical distribution pattern and evolution of human activities. It becomes one of primary disciplines for both the national and local governments to manage and optimize the pattern of spatial development and protection. It has wide applications in spatial planning, regional strategy and policy making, and the modernization of spatial governance. The unique feature in integrating academic research and policy-making applications provides human geography discipline in China a superiority of leading the world in the discipline. Besides comprehensive human geography, human geography in China has five subdisciplines, namely, economic geography, urban geography, rural geography, social and cultural geography and political geography. Each subdiscipline has priority and key research fields, and coordinates with the rest of subdisciplines.

  • Some Hot Topics in Ecology and Resources Use (Guest Editors: MIN Qingwen, SHI Peili)
    ZHANG Linbo, HAO Chaozhi, SONG Yang, WANG Yiyao, ZHANG Wentao, HUANG Yuhua, LIANG Tian
    Journal of Resources and Ecology. 2022, 13(3): 501-510. https://doi.org/10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.03.014

    Gross ecosystem product (GEP) is the gross value of all ecosystem products and services provided by ecosystems for human society. In practice, GEP measures the ecosystems' contributions to human well-being and constitutes one of the core issues in the construction of ecological civilization systems. Currently, GEP accounting faces a series of problems, such as the inconsistency of accounting subjects and a lack of accounting standards, the result of which is the non-reproducibility and weak applicability of accounting results. In this paper, mainstream models for ecosystem service valuation are summarized in a systematic manner. On this basis, eight basic principles are established for screening accounting indicators: biological productivity, human benefits, production territoriality, current increment, actual effectiveness, physical metrizability, data availability, and harmlessness. Next, a series of ecosystem service subjects are identified that need to be excluded from accounting, and the detailed reasons for their exclusion are presented. Finally, three ideas for improving GEP accounting are offered from the perspectives of the relationship between biological production and human production, the circulation-transport relationship and spatial differences, and harms to the ecosystem carrying capacity. The purpose is to provide positive considerations aimed at promoting the socio-economic applications of accounting and to contribute to the scientific quantification of the values of ecological products.

  • Climate Change and Land Surface Process
    LIU Xianfeng, FU Bojie
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2021, 76(11): 2632-2646. https://doi.org/10.11821/dlxb202111003

    Food security, one of key components of national security, is a top priority for human survival and social development. In this study, we first sought to determine the influencing factors of crop yields and the process of drought impacts on crop yields. We then systematically reviewed the effects of droughts on major global crop yields from four aspects: field control experiments, statistical models, crop growth models, and remote sensing inversion models. Recent progress in crop yield impact assessment reveals that the current research has changed from single-hazard to multi-hazard, from single target to multiple targets, and from statistical models to a comprehensive model. A bibliometric analysis shows that the volume of research on drought impacts on crop yields has increased exponentially, and the related research theme has undergone a transformation from traditional research on crop water stress to comprehensive research on crop drought impacts and adaptation, reflecting the continuous deepening and integration of research perspectives. Agriculture, plant sciences, and environmental sciences are the three main disciplines in research on drought impacts on crop yields. We need to strengthen the application of geographical thinking, that is, systematic thinking concerning multiple factors and multiple scales to study the coupling of crop yields and water resources in the future. Finally, we suggest the following four priority areas for future research in consideration of the problems and challenges of the existing research: establishing a multi-source database of drought impact on crop yield, revealing the key process and mechanism of drought impacts on crop yields, developing a coupled macro and micro process crop growth model, and establishing a comprehensive monitoring platform system for crop yields and food security. This will help ensure sustainable agricultural development and global food security by improving monitoring, early warning, and scientific management of the impacts of droughts on crop yields.

  • Industry and Regional Development
    DAI Hongwei, HU Xifei
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(10): 2375-2391. https://doi.org/10.11821/dlxb202310001

    At present, the empirical analysis of regional dual-nuclei structures at the national level is still relatively rare. How to define the provinces with the characteristics of dual-nuclei structures and analyze their impact needs further empirical discussion. In this paper, the spatial Dubin model and the data of 259 prefecture-level cities are used to analyze the distribution characteristics of regional dual-nuclei structure in China and its influence on provincial development. The empirical results show that 11 provincial-level regions (hereafter provinces) in China show the characteristics of dual-nuclei structure. The regional dual-nuclei structure plays a significant role in promoting the economic development of the province, but the northern and southern regions show great differences. The regional dual-nuclei structure has a promoting effect on provincial industrial agglomeration and helps to promote the improvement of local scientific and technological innovation. In general, compared with some single-core provinces with small scale and weak radiation driving force in some provincial capitals, the regional dual-nuclei structure can make up for these shortcomings to a certain extent by virtue of the number of central cities and spatial distribution, which is more conducive to driving local economic development and scientific and technological innovation.

  • Academician Forum
    WANG Guangqian, ZHANG Yu, XIE Di, ZHONG Deyu
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(7): 1641-1658. https://doi.org/10.11821/dlxb202307006

    Terrestrial recycling of green water, which is created through a continuous cycle of evapotranspiration, atmospheric transport, and terrestrial precipitation, serves as bridges connecting hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and anthroposphere. Limited knowledge of terrestrial recycling may underestimate the impact of human activities on water and ecology. This study focuses on the structure of China's green water recycling (CGWR) and quantifies the contributions of natural and human ecosystems. Results indicate a high green water recycling ratio (50.4%) and a large recycled amount (2.75 trillion m3/a) over China, with significant south-to-north transport structures over eastern China, southwest-to-northeast transport structures from southwestern China to northern China, and high self-recycling structures in western China. The grassland-dominated Qinghai-Tibet Plateau provides the largest amount of green water (about 800 billion m3/a) and serves as the most critical region for CGWR. The forest-dominated southern hilly region and Yunnan-Guizhou-Sichuan region play a crucial role in supplying green water to a wide area of China. The cropland-dominated Middle-Lower Yangtze Plain and the grassland-dominated Loess Plateau are the key hubs for south-to-north and southwest-to-northeast transport of green water. The structure of CGWR is driven by large-scale geosystems such as ecosystems and atmospheric circulation systems, and has strategic implications in the following three aspects. First, CGWR serves as the "domestic cycle" of water, based on which a general domestic-level water governance framework can be established. Second, CGWR is a representative picture of the water-related processes in the Mountain-River-Forest-Farmland-Lake-Grassland-Desert (MRFFLGD) system and serves as a critical pivot to actualize the conservation and improvement of the MRFFLGD system. Finally, CGWR, together with inter-basin water resources transfer and virtual water transfer, forms a complete picture of China's inter-basin water transfer. The scientific coordination and integration of the three processes present a new approach for achieving spatial equilibrium between China's water resources and economic development.

  • Urban and Rural Development
    FANG Chuanglin, LI Guangdong, QI Wei, SUN Si'ao, CUI Xuegang, REN Yufei
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2023, 78(2): 443-455. https://doi.org/10.11821/dlxb202302011

    Under the background of promoting more balanced and fuller regional development in the new era, standing at the strategic height of national regional coordinated and balanced development, it is necessary to comprehensively consider the natural environment, the unbalanced situation of economic and social development and the reality of widening gap on both sides of the Hu Huanyong Line, and put forward the basic idea of the Hu Huanyong Line to achieve micro-breakthrough along the Bole-Taipei Line. The Hu Huanyong Line is an important dividing line of population geography, natural geography and ecological environment in China, the dividing line of national main function area and national ecological function area, the dividing line of new urbanization main area and non-main area in China, and the dividing line of unbalanced and inadequate economic and social development in China. In the past 40 years, the gap of economic and social development between the two sides of the Hu Huanyong Line has been widening at an accelerating speed. In the next 30 years, the gap can be narrowed to achieve micro-breakthroughs, focusing on achieving "ten 10%", namely, the proportion of population in the northwest half of China will be 10%, the proportion of total economy will be 10%, with the economic growth rate being more than 10%, the proportion of fixed asset investment in the whole society will be more than 10%, the proportion of local fiscal revenue will be more than 10%, the proportion of actual use of foreign capital will be 10%, the growth rate of per capita GDP will be more than 10%, the rate of increase in the absolute difference in the per capita disposable income of urban residents will be controlled within 10%, the rate of increase in the absolute difference in the per capita disposable income of rural residents will be controlled within 10%, and the absolute gap in education resources will be narrowing at an average annual rate of 10%. In order to achieve the strategic goal of micro-breakthrough, this paper puts forward the main paths and countermeasures to narrow the development gap between the east and the west of the Hu Huanyong Line and attain the micro-breakthrough from the aspects of population micro-layout, economic micro-layout, urbanization micro-layout, industrial micro-layout, moderate water diversion nearby, improvement of ecological compensation and transfer mechanism, construction of the Bole-Taipei Line and implementation of the strategy of further development in the western region.

  • Land Use/Land Cover Change
    KUANG Wenhui, ZHANG Shuwen, DU Guoming, YAN Changzhen, WU Shixin, LI Rendong, LU Dengsheng, PAN Tao, NING Jing, GUO Changqing, DONG Jinwei, BAO Yuhai, CHI Wenfeng, DOU Yinyin, HOU Yali, YIN Zherui, CHANG Liping, YANG Jiuchun, XIE Jiali, QIU Juan, ZHANG Hansong, ZHANG Yubo, YANG Shiqi, SA Rigai, LIU Jiyuan
    Acta Geographica Sinica. 2022, 77(5): 1056-1071. https://doi.org/10.11821/dlxb202205002

    The continuous remote sensing monitoring of land use/cover change at the national scale is of great scientific significance for land spatial planning and blueprint drawing of "Beautiful China" in the new era. Landsat 8 OLI, GF-2 and other satellite remote sensing data were used to develop the data of land use change across China during 2015-2020 and China Land Use/Cover Dataset in 2020 (CLUD 2020) by integrating remote sensing big data and expert knowledge-assisted human-computer interaction interpretation methods. Long time series land use dynamic database at a 30-m resolution in China was established at 5-year interval in the end of 1980s-2020. On this basis, the general trend, regional differences and main characteristics of land use change in 2015-2020 were revealed from national and regional scales. The research indicated that integrating vegetation cover change at a 30-m resolution and land change information generated by remotely sensed big-data cloud calculation into the expert human-computer interaction interpretation can effectively improve the efficiency of mapping and the accuracy of land use change detection. The overall accuracy of CLUD 2020 first-level type mapping reaches 95%. In general, the intensity of territorial development entered a stable state compared with 2010-2015. During the period, the cropland continued to decrease. Nationwide farmland was encroached by urban development and construction, paddy fields in Northeast China continued to decrease, and cultivated land in Xinjiang was reclaimed in the south and abandoned in the north. The built-up land continued to increase, showing a spatial pattern that "the expansion of built-up land changed from the agglomeration of coastal areas and mega and large cities in 2010-2015 to the surrounding sprawl of large, medium and small towns in the central and western regions in 2015-2020". Although the area of natural ecological land for forest and grass continued to decrease nationwide, the intensity decreased compared with 2010-2015. Under the continuous impact of climate change, the area of water in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau increased significantly. The pattern of land use change is closely related to the national macro strategy for high-quality development during the "13th Five-Year Plan" period (2016-2020) and ecological civilization construction, as well as the impact of climate change.