The black soil region of Northeast China is one of the most important grain producing areas in China. However, increasingly severe gully erosion has destroyed much farmland and reduced grain production. In this paper, a typical black soil region, located in Kedong county, Heilongjiang province of Northeast China, was chosen as the study area. Based on Corona imagery in 1965, SPOT 5 imagery in 2005 and Gaofen-1 imagery in 2015, the distributions of gullies in 1965, 2005 and 2015 were obtained by visual interpretation. Based on relief maps in 1954, MSS imagery in 1975 and Corona imagery in 1965, the land use data in 1965 were obtained. Based on TM imagery in 2005 and 2015, the land use data in 2005 and 2015 were obtained. Then by using erosion density as the main indicator, the change of erosion gully was analyzed from the perspective of land use change. The results revealed that the gully erosion in the study area deteriorated in the past 50 years. The area of severe erosion greatly increased and showed a contiguous development trend. The cultivated land was the most important type of land use in the study area, and gully erosion on the cultivated land was the most serious. With the increased gully erosion on cultivated land, grassland and construction land, forest land and unused land were constantly reclaimed. The gully density increased the most during the interchange between cultivated land and grassland. The gully density was still very high and changed greatly after cultivated land was returned to forest land and grassland in the short term. However, with the implementation of “returning farmland to forest” and the improvement of land use, the gully erosion is still developing, but it changed slower over the ten years. By analyzing gully density change in the process of land use conversion on different slopes from 2005 to 2015, we found that the development of gully erosion is prone to occur after the forest land, grassland and unused land are cultivated on higher slopes, and it is more difficult to manage gullies with higher slopes.
The initiation and development of gully erosion in the sloping farmland of black soil area are closely related to the tillage measures. Taking the Sancha River watershed in typical black soil area of Northeast China as the study area, this study used the high precision basic data provided by the geographical conditions information census to obtain the ridge direction of cultivated land and gully erosion data. The relationship between the gully density and intensity and the ridge direction angle in the cultivated land was quantitatively analyzed. Then we studied the coupling effect of the gully erosion in different ridge directions and topography. The results showed that: (1) There was an obvious trend of horizontal ridge tillage of sloping farmland; (2) The gully intensity of cultivated land was moderate in the study area; (3) The ridge angle of cultivated land was significantly negatively correlated with the gully erosion density and intensity. With the increase of the angle between contour line and ridge direction, the average gully density and intensity in sloping farmlands gradually decreased. The gully density and intensity in the horizontal ridge tillage were the largest. The linear fitting effect of ridge angle and gully density was the best, and the gully intensity was slightly worse; (4) The distribution of gullies in different ridge directions has obvious topographic differentiation characteristics. In the cultivated land where the elevation was more than 280 m, all ridge tillage cannot effectively resist the gully erosion; when slope gradient was greater than 15°, the gully intensity of cultivated land with contour ridge was the least, however, it was still higher than the gully intensity of cultivated land with every ridges on gentle slope; there was no significant difference in the effect of ridge directions on the area of the gullies on the shady slope.
In order to understand the characteristics of soil erosion in a basin and explore the applicability of the TETIS model for simulating runoff and sediment yield in the black soil region of Northeast China, the Wuyuer River Basin was taken as an example in this study. Daily runoff and sediment discharge data series from 1971 to 1987 were used to calibrate and validate the TETIS model. On this basis, characteristics of soil erosion intensity and their relationships with slope and land use types in the basin were analyzed. The results show that the TETIS model has good applicability in the Wuyuer River Basin. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients of daily discharge and sediment ranged from 0.52 to 0.70, coefficients of determination ranged from 0.60 to 0.71, and volume errors were no more than 15%. Average soil erosion intensity was 397.2 t/(km2·a) in the basin. Slight erosion and light erosion were the dominant soil erosion types and about 90% of sediment yield was from hillslope. Average erosion intensity increased with increasing slope gradients. Slopes of 0°~5° were the main erosion area in the basin. Different land use types have different soil erosion intensities and arable land has the highest value (556.3 t/(km2·a)). Priority of erosion control should focus on the arable lands with steep slopes and low vegetation covered regions. Comparison of these simulation results with other study results in the black soil region of Northeast China demonstrates a promising future of the TETIS model for simulating runoff and sediment yields in the region. This study may provide a scientific basis for the implementation of soil and water conservation measures in the study area.
The black soil region of Northeast China is an important national commodity grain base. The Wuyuer River Basin is a typical black soil region and agricultural area in Northeast China. In this paper, a SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model) was constructed to study the applicability in the middle and upper reaches of the Wuyuer River Basin. Based on observed daily runoff data from a local hydrologic station and evaporating dish weather data from 1961-1997, the model was validated using multiple criteria and sites. Special attention was paid to the use of both spatial information (potential evapotranspiration) and more commonly used observations of water discharge at the basin outlet to validate the model. The applicability of the SWIM is evaluated using the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient and the relative error of runoff. Based on this analysis, the study discusses the applicability of the SWIM model in the black soil region of Northeast China, and the associated errors and causes. The study reached three key conclusions. First, the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients of monthly runoff and daily runoff are greater than 0.71 and 0.55, respectively; the relative error of runoff is less than 6.0%. The simulation efficiency of the SWIM for both monthly runoff and daily runoff satisfies the assessment requirements, but the simulation efficiency of daily runoff is not ideal, and the simulation is more accurate for monthly runoff than daily runoff. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient of monthly evapotranspiration is more than 0.81. Second, the calibrated monthly SWIM model can be used to conduct different runoff simulations and analyses in the black soil region of Northeast China. Third, the study identified structural elements of the model that may limit some uses in the black soil region of Northeast China. The simulated values of spring flood runoff were less than the observed values; and the yearlong simulated results with spring and summer floods were poor. In years with a sudden increase in annual precipitation, the simulated results of the annual runoff were several times of the measured value. However, the model can fundamentally reproduce the flow change process during the flood season. The simulation results have an important reference value to study the impact of land-use change and climate change on hydrological processes at the regional scale. It can provide hydrological information to support the integrated management of the basin water environment, as well as other watersheds in the black soil region.
In order to promote the management of soil fertility and precision agriculture effectively, provide some guidance for the soil and water conservation. A sloping cropland (0.91 km2) located in Heshan farm in Heilongjiang Province was selected as the research area,101 samples were collected by vertical and horizontal 100 m interval, for the study of spatial distribution of soil organic matter of the 0-15 cm top layer soil and the relation with soil erosion by the GIS and geostatistics math methods. The results showed that the average content of soil organic matter in typical black soil area was 4.13%, higher than the average level of Heilongjiang Province, and the proportion of organic matter content concentrated in the 3%-5%. Spatial variability of organic matter significantly which was mainly affected by soil erosion. High erosion area corresponds to low organic matter, erosion area in the corresponding medium organic matter content areas and sedimentary areas correspond to areas with high organic matter content. When the slope planted with an average gradient of 2.2°, per 1 000 t/km2 soil erosion increased, accompanied with the content of organic matter will be reduced by 0.8%. The spatial variability of organic matter could be described by the spherical model, showed significantly spatial autocorrelation, further suggested that soil erosion causes the redistribution of soil organic matter. When the sampling interval is 200 m which based on the range, the interpolation of spatial distribution can accurately reflect spatial variability of organic matter content, to provide precision fertilizer sampling basis.
The black soil region of Northeast China is one of the most important grain bases in China. In recent years,severe soil erosion in this region has been a threat to agricultural production. Soil and sediment transport models are important tools that predict soil erosion and sediment yield under different conditions. However,other models are rarely used except for the RUSLE and slope version WEPP models in the black soil region of Northeast China. The Water and Tillage Erosion Model and Sediment Delivery Model （WaTEM/SEDEM） was developed as a spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model and is similar to the （R）USLE model. It can spatially model soil erosion and sediment deposition rates and soil redistribution patterns. In this study,the WaTEM/SEDEM model was applied to 25 dam-controlled catchments in Baiquan county in the black soil region. Transport capacity coefficients （KTC） in the model were first calibrated using sediment yield data of 14 dam-controlled catchments and validated using the remaining 11 dam-controlled catchments. Therefore the optimal KTC-values of the WaTEM/SEDEM model were 0.38 and 0.55. The correlation coefficient values of sediment yield（SY） and area specific sediment yield （SSY） between observed and predicted values were 0.95 and 0.34,respectively. The simulated results of sediment yield using the WaTEM/SEDEM model were good and the simulated mean sediment delivery ratio （SDR） for the 25 dam-controlled catchments was 0.32. Finally,the calibrated WaTEM/SEDEM was applied to the Qixin dam-controlled catchment. Simulated results showed that the mean soil erosion rate is 351.2t/(km2·a). Erosion rates vary with land use types and slops. Comparison of this study to published results demonstrates that WaTEM/SEDEM gives satisfactory result for the study region. This study provides a basis for the implementation of erosion control measurements in the black soil region,Northeast China.
Black Soil Area of Northeast China is one of the most important marketable grain bases in China, but serious soil loss bring the crucial challenge to the marketable grain production. In this paper, supportad by Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System, taking typical Black Soil Area of Northeast China which is located in the Wuyuer River and Nemoer River basins as study area, based on USLE model and SPOT 5 imagery, the amount of soil erosion on hillslope and gully distribution data in 2005 were obtained respectively. Then the coupling relations between hillslope erosion and gully erosion of different grades, slopes, aspects and so on were analyzed. The results showed that slight erosion and light erosion were the main hillslope eroded area in the study area. Gully erosion was much serious and had a great potential for development. When the slope was below 5°, slope was the key factor causing gully erosion. However, when the slope was above 5°, slope was no more the important factor causing gully erosion. In addition, it showed that the amount of hillslope erosion on sunny slope was higher than shady slope, but for the gully erosion, aspect was not the key factor affecting the formation of gully erosion in Black Soil Area of Northeast China. In areas with an erosion intensity smaller than 2500 t/(km2·a), erosion gully density increased with the amount of hillslope erosion. However, When it is greater than 2500 t/(km2·a), the erosion gully density would be comparatively stable.
Ephemeral gully erosion can be a major sediment source serving as main conduits to convey runoff and sediment from most farmland. Ephemeral gully erosion is similar to but differ from both rill and classical gully erosion.But ephemeral gully erosion is often overlooked, and it is also not estimated with rill-interrill erosion prediction models such as the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation. Soil erosion is increasingly severe in Northeast China with black soils, in which ephemeral gully erosion is an important type of water erosion. However, the existing literature indicated that little research on ephemeral gully erosion has been done in this area.In this paper, ephemeral gully erosion was investigated in spring and summer of 2005 in black soil regions of two small catchments on Heshan Farm of Heilongjiang Province.The aim of the study was to present the characteristics of ephemeral gullies and their seasonal discrepancies and controlling factors. The results show that soil losses due to ephemeral gully erosion fluctuate along the slope, and the high erosivity belts alternate with the low belt.There are also great differences in the morphology, the erosion intensity and controlling factors of ephemeral gully erosion between spring and summer. Ephemeral gully erosion in spring is mainly resulted from snow storm and is significantly influenced by freeze-thaw and snowmelt runoff. Ephemeral gully erosion in spring is slightly severer than that in summer. Ephemeral gully erosion was caused by storm. Compared with that in spring, ephemeral gullies in summer were shorter and shallower, but wider due to the storm characterized by high intensity and low duration. Furthermore, the depth and distribution of ephemeral gully are significantly influenced by tillage practice and crop type, especially in summer.
In this study, short-term gully retreat was monitored from the active gullies selected in representative black soil area, using differential GPS. With the support of GIS, multitemporal digital elevation models (DEM) were constructed in light of the data collected by GPS and used for further analysis. Based on the analysis of multi-temporal DEM, we discussed the erosion-deposition characteristics of a gully and a developing model for black soi l gully area of Northeast China was proposed. The results are: (1) The analysis of the monitored gully data in 2004 indicated that the retreat of gully head reached more than 10 m, gully area extended 170-400 m2, gully net eroded volume 220-320 m3 and gully erosion modulus 2200-4800 t·km-2·a-1. (2) Compared with the mature gully the initial gully grows rapidly, and its erosion parameters are relatively large. The erosion parameters have not only to do with flow energy, but also with growth phase. (3) There are significant seasonal differences in gully erosion parameters. The extension of gully area and width dominates in winter and spring without marked net erosion while changes mainly occur in gully head expansion and net erosion in rainy seasons. (4) It is remarkable for freeze-thaw erosion in the black soil area of NE China. The gully wall of SG2 extended 0.45 m under freeze-thaw effect in 2004, and the distance of gully head retreated maximally 6.4 m. (5) Due to freeze-thaw action and snowmelt, gully is primarily in the interior adjustment process in winter and early spring. There are much more depositions compared with that in autumn, which can almost happen throughout the gully, while erosion mostly occurs near head, esp. for gullies having a relatively long history of development.
The black soil resource of China is famous for its fertility, high organic content, and the best applicability for cultivation. The long-term human activities of over-reclamation and irrational cultivation resulted in water and soil loss on a large scale. Especially the erosion gullies incise the land surface, nibble the field, wash out the fertile soil and degrade the efficiency of the large cultivator. Erosion gully research is one of the important parts of soil erosion subject. In this paper, based on the Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System, taking Kebai area as a case study, using density of erosion gully as the main indicator, the authors analyzed the dynamic change of the erosion gully density, the variation of the erosion gully on different altitudes, slopes and aspects, as well as the variation in different morphogenetic regions, and finally revealed the rule of temporal and spatial variations of erosion gullies in recent 50 years in typical black soil area of Northeast China.
The paper investigates the distribution depth of cesium-137 and erosion rate of black soil using cesium-137 tracer, discusses the influence of soil erosion on the contents of particle size, organic matter, specific gravity and water quantity, nitrogen and phosphorus in the tillage layer of 0～20 cm on a typical slope. Cesium-137 activities in the profile, mainly distributed in the layer of 0～25 cm deep, are in the range of 1246.05±85.90 Bq/m2 to 1499.45±101.73 Bq/m2 .So,the annual soil erosion rates can reach 3033.6-3940.3 t/km2 within the last 40 years,which have reached the moderate erosion level. It is the right time to pay enough attention to the black soil erosion. Also, it is completely feasible to investigate the erosion rate of black soil using cesium-137 tracer method. The slope length and gradient have distinctly effects on soil erosion intensity. The trend that the soil particles are becoming increasingly coarser is also obvious. The percentage of sand and clay declines gradually, and silty sand increases from top down to bottom of the slope. Moreover, organic matter （OM） is also in the trend of increase from top to bottom of the slope, but the contents of OM in both erosion and sedimentation profile （2.56～3.10%） are markedly lower than that in original black soil. The specific gravity increases and water content declines in the erosion profile. Furthermore, the phenomenon that the contents of nitrogen and phosphorus decline is clear. Both of the quick degradation of black soil quality and agricultural non-point source pollution should be paid attention to by all circles. Due to the geographical location of black soil belt and its relative location to Pacific and Eurasia, both of frequency and intensity of wind taking place in spring every year are high. So, the above-mentioned soil erosion intensity is the result of wind erosion and water erosion. The percentage of soil quality degradation induced by water erosion and flux of main agricultural non-point source pollutants should be further studied.