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    Preface to the special issue on Chinese man-land relationships in a new era
    Yi LIU
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2018, 37 (8): 1477-1484.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj201808001
    Abstract832)   HTML18)    PDF (944KB)(410)      

    The man-land relationship is ancient but remains a relatively young research area within geography. As the connotations of this relationship have developed continuously in concert with human society, man-land characteristics tend to exhibit particular time stamps. Studies in this area have performed a basic scientific support role as a component of the development of geography and the formulation of major national development strategies ever since areal system theory for man-land relationships was proposed by Wu Chuanjun. The central status that this field occupies in geographical research has also been gradually strengthened over time. In the context of ever growing conflicts between man and nature and with the aim of furthering our understanding of man-land relationships, this series of papers aims to explore the theoretical foundation that underlies the dynamic evolution of this field based initially on areal system theory. The second aim of this work is to extract and understand evolutionary processes as well as dominant characteristics and mechanisms of change to further discuss feasible methods to coordinate human activities and benefit nature. It is generally the case that the foundation underlying the evolution of man-land relationships is the nature of the game between humans and nature within the development space. The evolution of this relationship within China has been accelerating markedly and a number of combinations are becoming ever clearer. Technological progress has also led to an increase in inputs and resource allocation while the first-generation contradiction characterized by the concept of "amount" in this context has disappeared. At the same time, a second-generation contradiction characterized by the concept of "quality" has also developed; typical characteristics in this case include the fact that food shortages are decreasing while other problems including soil degradation and water pollution caused by food production are intensifying. Although regional resources are no longer in short supply across China, problems such as ecological degeneration and environmental pollution caused by their allocation across multi-regions have increased. It is therefore necessary to enhance our comprehensive understanding of the evolution of man-land relationships as well as our own role in this system.

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    Cited: CSCD(3)
    The evolution process and its mechanism of man-land relationship in China
    Xiaoyun LI, Yu YANG, Yi LIU
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2018, 37 (8): 1495-1514.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj201808003
    Abstract2002)   HTML36)    PDF (2142KB)(590)      

    The evolution of man-land relationship is inheritable. Understanding the evolution process of man-land relationship and its mechanism from the historical perspective can help us to increase the comprehensive cognition about this relationship. According to the core connotation of man-land relationship, this paper points out that resources and environment factors are the chief interaction point between human and "land", and human are in the positive position in man-land relationship. Based on this, the paper focuses on the primary human-needs, the main human activities and their action intensity as well as the cognitive ability on "land" to unfold the evolution process, and then to generalize the evolution characteristics of man-land relationship in China, and further, to extract the dynamic factors. Findings suggest that: with human productivity level rising, the perception of human to "land" has experienced successively the following periods: Almost unconscious, Unity of man and land, Mutual matching of man and land, Superior man than land, Co-exist harmoniously man and land. Accordingly, the man-land relationship in China has gone through from the bud, to the singleness relationship centered on farmland, then to the disordered multielement relationships centered on farmland, freshwater, energy and mineral resources etc. till nowadays to well-organized multielement relationships chased by human again. Historically, the dynamic mechanism of the man-land relationship evolution in China is that, productivity is the most core motivation, which promoted the development of humans' ability to act on "land"; The population is the most active power, since the population demands, and the population size and together quality increasing, enhance the closeness between human and "land"; the production relationship mainly influences the evolution process of man-land relationship indirectly through influencing human's enthusiasm for production and resource ownership; both wars and natural disasters have promoted and hindered effects on the historical evolution process of man-land relationship in China. Taking history as a mirror, the study of man-land relationship cannot be divorced from its varying background, both theoretically and practically. Also, the formation of contradictory between human and "land" in modern China has its inevitability. The basis of long-term harmonies between human and "land" rests on promoting human's scientific cognition about "man -land relationship", and also adjusting human's behaviors under various local conditions. Besides, speeding up the technology development and upgrading the mode of production are also important approaches to relieving the present contradictions between human activities and multiple land elements.

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    Cited: CSCD(4)
    Review for the methodologies on man-land relationship and man-land areal system in China
    Yang LI, Qing TANG
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2018, 37 (8): 1655-1670.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj201808014
    Abstract814)   HTML14)    PDF (1331KB)(499)      

    Man-land relationship and man-land areal system is the core of theoretical research in geography, the methodology advances of which, can not only promote the further study on man-land relationship, but also effectively solve the comprehensive resource-environment issues during the economic and social development. Based on the extensive literature review on connotation and research progress of man-land relationship and man-land areal system, this paper summarizes various research methods on China's man-land relationship and man-land areal system from four aspects including philosophy and environmental history, sustainable development, research methods on man-land areal system, and integrated characterization methods on man-land relationship, and discusses the future development trend. (1) Along with the connotation evolution of man-land relationship and man-land areal system, its study methods have been developed, which enriches the theoretical connotation and methodological system of man-land relationship. (2) Different research methods on man-land areal system vary with their respective features, and each has its own applicability and limitations. Nevertheless, the synthetic research methods are the main development trend, such as ecological footprint and resources-environmental carrying capacity, which are the useful exploration of integrated study on man-land relationship. (3) The development trends of further research methodologies on man-land areal system include the integrated research methods coupling natural and human factors, the application of new technological means and new research methods, and the theoretical system of comprehensive research on natural endowment and resources and environment carrying capacity.

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    Cited: CSCD(3)
    "Territorial System of Human-environment Interaction": A theoretical cornerstone for comprehensive research on formation and evolution of the geographical pattern
    FAN Jie
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2018, 73 (4): 597-607.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201804001
    Abstract1142)   HTML25)    PDF (566KB)(2465)      

    Compared with the increasingly obvious humanistic tendency in foreign human geography, China's human and economic geography still follows Academician Wu Chuanjun's theory, with human and economic geography as an interdisciplinary subject which is the study of the formation and evolution of the distribution pattern of human activities under the interaction of natural circle and human circle. And China's mainstream school on human and economic geography has been formed with studies on spatio-temporal rule of sustainable development on territories with different space scales, territories with important production and living, and territories with typical geospatial patterns as the main research points. "Territorial System of Human-environment Interaction", developed by Academician Wu Chuanjun, is the important theoretical foundation not only for human and economic geography, but also for the comprehensive research on geography. The essence of the theory, which includes territorial functional, system structured, orderly process for spatio-temporal variation, and the difference and controllability of human-environment interaction system effect, is entirely harmonious with the forefront of thought of the "Future Earth" studies program. In recent decade, with scientific mode of urbanization, major function oriented zoning, road map for the Belt and Road Initiative, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration, rural hollowing and targeted poverty alleviation, revitalization of Northeast China and transformation of resource-based cities, and administrative area optimization as the main research objects, theoretical methods have been developed in the aspects of important sustainable process of human and economic geography, territorial function formation and ordering rules for comprehensive geographical pattern, formation and evolution mechanism of urban agglomeration and its resources and environmental effects, sustainable life cycle and the revitalization of the path for problem areas, the interaction between geopolitics, geo-economy and regions, and effect of cultural boundaries on sustainable development. China's human and economic geography has made great progress in discipline development, and the application results have produced profound influences on the ecological civilization construction and sustainable development in recent years. With decades of hard work, China's human and economic geography has reached a world-class advanced level, so as to console the soul and spirit of Wu Chuanjun on the occasion of commemoration of the centenary of his birth.

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    Cited: CSCD(17)
    Theories and methods of optimal control of human-earth system: Commemoration of 100th anniversary of Academician Wu Chuanjun's birth
    MAO Hanying
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2018, 73 (4): 608-619.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201804002
    Abstract828)   HTML13)    PDF (982KB)(1398)      

    The optimal control of the human-earth system plays the most important role in the theoretical foundation of human-earth areal system (abbreviated as the "human-earth system") advocated by Academician Wu Chuanjun. Based on the thinking and related discussion of optimal control of human-earth system proposed by Academician Wu, this paper deepened and expanded the theoretical and methodological aspects of structure, nonlinear effects, coupling relationship and evolution of the human-earth system. After that, we focused on the following two aspects. The first is to discuss the optimization of human-earth system and coordinated development of regional PRED (i.e., population, resources, environment, and development), including the relationship between human-earth system optimization and PRED coordinated development, as well as the objectives, key points, theoretical models and quantitative measures of coordinated development of PRED. The second is to explore the path and countermeasures of comprehensive regulation of human-earth system in the new era. First of all, we should promote the continuous and healthy development of human-earth systems through innovation. Secondly, we should optimize the spatial pattern of the human-earth system according to the main function-oriented zoning. Thirdly, we should build a modern economic system through supply-side structural reforms. Fourthly, setting long-term balanced development of population as a goal, we should gradually improve the population policy. Finally, we should follow the market principles to improve the mechanism of paid use of resources and environment and ecological compensation.

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    Cited: CSCD(8)
    Ecosystem services for coupled human and environment systems
    Wenwu ZHAO, Yue LIU, Qiang FENG, Yaping WANG, Siqi YANG
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2018, 37 (1): 139-151.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2018.01.015
    Abstract900)   HTML7)    PDF (2278KB)(2425)      

    Ecosystem services bridge the natural environment and human well-being, and are the key content of coupled human-environment system research. This article puts forward a framework of research on ecosystem services for coupled human-environment systems, and systematically reviews the research hotspots of ecosystem services evaluation, ecosystem services trade-offs, ecosystem services driving factors, ecosystem supply-flow-demand, and identifies the key areas for future ecosystem services research. This article argues that: (1) international research on ecosystem services models have experienced a rapid development, and SAORES model is the outstanding representative of ecosystem service evaluation model in China; (2) ecosystem service trade-off analyses are relatively complex, and its mechanism depends on distinguish the relationships among ecosystem structure-process-function-service at multiple spatial and temporal scales; (3) natural factors are the basis of ecosystem services distribution, land use change can modify ecosystem structure, function, and services, and social and economic factors can lead to differences in ecosystem services trade-off and demand; (4) in order to clarify the coupling relationship between ecosystem service supply and demand, it is urgently needed to further identify the pathes of ecosystem service flowes; (5) future research of ecosystem services should include strengthening the analyses on the response of ecosystem services to global change, ecosystem services supply and demand flow focusing on the sustainable development aspect, integration and optimization of the dynamic evaluation of ecosystem services, the coupling of ecosystem services and human-environment systems, and the integration of ecosystem services and big data.

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    Cited: CSCD(33)
    Research on the complexity of man-land system based on agent-based models
    Ruixue ZHAI, Erfu DAI
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2017, 36 (10): 1925-1935.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj201710009
    Abstract550)   HTML2)    PDF (1606KB)(337)      

    As a typical complex system, man-land system is known as a coupled human and natural system. The complexity of man-land system can be divided into three critical dimensions - temporal complexity, spatial complexity and decision-making complexity. In modeling complex systems, traditional models are deficient in displaying data in multiple dimensions, and thus require additional research. Recent studies suggest that the agent-based models (ABM) would provide insights on exploratory analysis and serve as one of the key tools for complex system studies. In contrast to traditional models, ABM pays more attention to the study of 'people', focusing on assessing the influence of human activities on the environment, and can reflect it in a spatially explicit way. The models usually contain three parts: (1) environmental layer, which is composed of natural/social attribute such as terrain slope, land price and traffic condition; (2) agent layer, consisting of one or more agent types with specific attributes; (3) behavior rule, standardizing the mutual consultation and decision-making mode of agents. ABM adopts a 'bottom-up' approach by applying the relevant actors and decisions at the micro-level to producing an observable macro-phenomenon, and displaying high complexity values in three dimensions. Currently, ABM approaches are widely used to model human-environment interactions in various fields, including transportation, financial markets and tourism management. After the basic principles of agent-based simulation are briefly introduced, this paper reviews the application of ABM in ecological process, ecological resource management and land use/cover change. However, as a new method, ABM is still at an exploratory stage, faced by issues including replication potential, empirical parameterization and model validation, individual decision making, and integration with other models. Although there are many challenges, the recent developments reflect an encouraging trend towards developing a new methodology for dynamic spatial modeling of human-environment interactions. The outlook of ABM is promising.

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    Cited: CSCD(2)
    A Comparative Study of the National Man-land Relationship
    ZHANG Lei, LIU Yi, YANG Bo
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2017, 32 (3): 353-362.   doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160341
    Abstract200)   HTML0)    PDF (4243KB)(321)      
    As a part of the earth’s living creatures, we humans have been making use of natural resources and environment as our first need for survival and development, and this remains the same even in the modern period. In fact, with the rapid growth of social wealth and population, maintaining a stable of the so-called man-land relationship is always the primary task and basic goal of national sustainable development, especially for big countries. An integrated factor analysis covering natural endowment (fresh water, arable land, grassland, wood land, energy and minerals) and human activity (population, GDP and CO2 emission) shows that there is one thing in common for all the 11 selected countries (>100 million people). Under the polarization effects of natural resources use, the national man-land relationship of these countries today have been proven to be aggravated and worsened in various degrees, although the characteristics of their natural endowments are very different. In 1950, for instance, there was only one country registered to have to deal with its overall intensified national man-land relationship, but in 2010 there were six countries. It is also important that the intensified national man-land relationship has been confirmed to play as an amplifier of the harm caused by natural disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, floods and droughts. Regarding these changes, the Japanese practice is the most convincing.
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    Cited: CSCD(4)
    Research progress in man-land relationship evolution and its resource-environment base in China
    Xiaoyun LI, Yu YANG, Yi LIU
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2016, 71 (12): 2067-2088.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201612001
    Abstract1920)   HTML18)    PDF (2300KB)(3553)      

    Man-land relationship research, as the core of geographical research, runs through each development stage of Geography. Based on extensive literature review, this paper systematically generalizes the connotations, research development and contents of man-land relationship in China. (1) It explores the connotations and evolvement rules of man-land relationship in different social development stages in China, and finds that the core role of man-land relationship in geographical research has been strengthened continuously. Changing with times, its connotations have been considerably enriched by sustainable development and other notions, and so does its theoretical system. (2) It applies the bibliometric method to sketch out the basic research status of man-land relationship in China. Specifically, it quantitatively identifies the funding sources, major research teams and journals for publication. It finds that the funding sources show a diversification trend with national funding being the primary source of research grants. The most competitive research teams are mainly concentrated in the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and normal universities. Journals sponsored by the Geographical Society of China are most influential in publishing man-land relationship research. (3) As resources and environment are the fundamental carriers of man-land relationship, this study focuses further on the research on resource-environmental base of man-land relationship, and finds that the resource-environmental base research in China has gone through an evolution process from single factor perspective research to comprehensive multiple perspective research gradually. Research themes have also experienced similar changes from land, water, energy minerals or other single factor research to comprehensive factor research of resources and environment. Empirical studies on national and regional development strategies are the feature of man-land relationship in China. More emphasis should be put on considering and following the changes in features of "man" and "land" and research on the impacts of new factors on man-land relationship in a developing and dynamic manner in the future. Particularly, we should pay more attention to research on the impacts of spatio-temporal changes in resource-environment absolute location on modes of man-land interaction, and to strengthening interdisciplinary research and systematic research on comprehensive integrated techniques so as to advance the development of application of man-land relationship theories and practices.

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    Cited: CSCD(19)
    The Adaptation of Regional Human-environmentalSystem under the Risk of Soil Erosion: A Case Study of Yulin City
    CHEN Jia, WU Kong-sen, YIN Sha, YANG Qing-qing
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2016, 31 (10): 1688-1701.   doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150161
    Abstract259)   HTML0)    PDF (7475KB)(411)      
    The concept of adaptation provides a new research thought in the field of sustainable science. On the basis of summarizing and combing the definition of adaptation and integrating the theories and methods related to adaptation, this paper proposes an analytical framework of the adaptation based on the risk disturbance. In this research, risk-adaptive capacity index is used to quantify the adaptation of regional human-environmental system, and adaptation of system is divided into two dimensions: risk interference and adaptive capacity (including three parameters: ecological capacity, economic capacity and social capacity). From the perspective of the risks of soil erosion in the study area, the adaptation evaluation index system is constructed. By using USA Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and adaptive function model, the risk of soil erosion and the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics of adaptive capacity of human-environmental system in Yulin City were analyzed. On the foundation of the evaluation of adaptive level of system, this paper reveals the driving factors of the adaptive evolution of human-environmental system in different periods in Yulin City. The results are shown as follows: 1) In Yulin City, the risk of soil erosion significantly decreased during 2000-2011, but the spatial and temporal evolution was obvious. In 2011, the high loss areas were transferred to the southwest region and region along the Great Wall. 2) During 2000-2011, the adaptive level of system showed an overall increasing trend in Yulin City, however it was polarized in space showing a pattern of “high in northwest Yulin and low in southeast Yulin”. The northern counties were significantly higher than the southern part in ecological capacity, economic capacity and social capacity, but the advancement of adaptive level of the southern counties was more obvious than the northern part. 3) The driving force of the adaptive evolution of human-environmental system transformed from the social and economic development to the combined action of ecological environment restoration, economic capacity enhancement and social security promotion.
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    Spatial-restructuring Analysis of Human-land Relationships in An Old Industrial Area: The Case of the Tiexi District, Shenyang
    Bing XUE, Li-ming ZHANG, Yong GENG, Wan-xia REN, Cheng-peng LU, Xu TIAN
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2015, 35 (7): 890-897.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.07.890
    Abstract1141)   HTML0)    PDF (3488KB)(430)      

    Understanding human-land relationships is essential for optimizing human activities in order to achieve local and global sustainability. China’s rapid urbanization is attracting much global attention; however, one of the challenges to achieve sustainable urbanization in China is to determine appropriate development mechanisms related to human-land relationships. As one of the typical industrial bases in China, the Tiexi District in Shenyang suffered from serious decline but now is shifting its industrial structure from heavy industries to tertiary ones, along with essential improvement of natural ecosystems and re-structuring of land use. Using Tiexi District as a case study, this article investigates the evolution of the human-land relationships in the context of urban spatial restructuring based on both qualitative and quantitative analysis of temporal and spatial elements. Following the literature review, a database was built, based on interpretations of aerial photographs of Tiexi in 2000 and of the Quickbird Images in 2005 and 2010, combined with a survey on existing buildings. Subsequently, GIS was employed to identify the evolution of both characteristics and driving forces of the human-land relationship changes at both micro and meso scales. The new economic and technical development zone provided opportunities and resources for enterprise redevelopment, especially related to four strategies: entire-move-out, partial-move-out, bankruptcy and redevelopment on original site. Structures and functions have changed markedly during 2000 to 2010. For example, industrial land use was reduced from 1 486 hm2 in 2000 to 842 hm2 in 2010 while residential land use increased from 1 077 hm2 in 2000 to 1 452 hm2 in 2010; commercial and service industries land increased from 59 hm2 in 2000 to 110 hm2 in 2010; and land use for public facilities, transport and roads and welfare remained almost the same level compared to that in 2000 and 2010. In addition, the per-capita living space of the residents has grown from 6.0 m2 in 2000 to 28.6 m2 in 2010; and, per-capita green land jumped to 4.15 m2 which was an increase of 39% compared to 2000. Finally, a total of 5206 buildings were investigated by a field-survey, and information was obtained for 3 702 of them regarding the year they were built, and of the land occupied, which was about 1 102 hm2. The results show that the land area covered by the buildings built during 2000-2010, 1980-1999 and 1949-1980 is about 743 hm2, 304 hm2 and 63 hm2, respectively. Since 2000 the land use distribution has shifted from a “South-North Pattern” to an “East-West Pattern” which confirms that the external resources and policy tools have had serious affects on the evolution of regional human-land development. Finally, government, public and private firms were identified as the 3 main agents and investigated their roles and interactions.

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    Cited: CSCD(7)
    Determinants of entrepreneurial behavior of rural migrants in urban society: From the perspective of 'human-environment relationship'
    Jianxi FENG, Shuangshuang TANG, Zhenshan YANG
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2016, 35 (1): 148-162.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj201601013
    Abstract861)   HTML1)    PDF (3436KB)(623)      

    China has experienced fast urbanization for more than three decades and now it is the key time to promote the quality of urbanization through accommodating rural migrants in urban destinations orderly and properly. The entrepreneurship of rural migrants in urban destinations could increase their incomes and provide more opportunities for interaction and communication with local residents and therefore is considered as an efficient means to enhance social integration of the migrants. However, in domestic scientific community, existing studies mainly focus on the entrepreneurship of rural migrants in rural origins while in international debates, too much emphasis is placed on the entrepreneurial behavior of immigrants and ethnic groups. Studies focusing on the entrepreneurship of rural migrants in urban destinations and its determinants are rather limited. This paper therefore first proposes a theoretic model of entrepreneurial behavior of rural migrants in urban destinations through the perspective of 'human-environment relationship' and then takes Jiangsu province as an empirical case to demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of the theoretic model. Based on the '2010 Migrant Survey in Jiangsu province', this paper employs binary logistic model to investigate the determinants of entrepreneurial behaviors of rural migrants in urban destinations. This paper has several findings. Firstly, both the social-economic features of rural migrants and the social, cultural and urban environments are observed to have influences on the entrepreneurial behaviors of rural migrants in urban destinations. Secondly, the urban factors, such as urban labor market and urban economic structure, exert more profound influences on the entrepreneurial behaviors of migrants than the difference in cultural and societal contexts of original places, which are in contrast to the findings of existing studies on the entrepreneurship of immigrants and ethnic groups in destinations. Thirdly, this paper finds that the special institutional schemes of China also have significant influences on the entrepreneurial behaviors of rural migrants, particularly the hukou arrangement tends to reduce the possibilities of the entrepreneurship of rural migrants in urban destinations.

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    Vulnerability assessment and mechanism of human-land systems in the Han Dynasty Chang’an large relic area
    ZHANG Lixin,YANG Xinjun,CHEN Jia,WANG Ziqiao,ZHANG Jing,YU Jie
    Resources Science    2015, 37 (9): 1848-1859.  
    Abstract71)   HTML0)    PDF (1576KB)(17)      

    Theory of vulnerability is a tool to analyze interactions and mechanisms of human-land relationships and provides a new perspective on sustainability evaluation research. Here,we took the Han Dynasty Chang’an large relic area as an example and based on the concept of vulnerability evaluated the vulnerability of the human-land system using Fuzzy AHP and spatial analysis technology. The results show that the degree of vulnerability of the relic area is generally low:the low degree vulnerability area is concentrated and the high degree area is scattered along the edge of the relic area. The degree of society vulnerability is generally high:the high degree vulnerability area is concentrated,and society vulnerability in the northwest area is high and low in the southeast. In the large relic area,a weak degree vulnerability area in the whole area accounts for 27.2%,low degree vulnerability area accounts for 23.8%,moderate degree vulnerability area accounts for 27.9%,high degree vulnerability area accounts for 11.7%,and extreme degree vulnerability area accounts for 9.4%. The spatial distribution pattern of the vulnerability shows that the degree of human-land system in the north and west area is high,while in the south and east is low. The impact and stress of urbanization is the fundamental cause of vulnerability of the human- land system;residents’ rational choice is the internal agent of vulnerability of the human-land system;the externalities coming from protection policy to a certain extent affect the vulnerability of society.

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    Relationship of man-land of Fengjie County in the center region of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area based on coupling comparison of sloping cultivated lands and settlements
    Caihong Gan, Yangbing Li, Mengmeng Chen
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2015, 34 (6): 1259-1269.  
    Abstract607)   HTML4)         

    Based on the natural background of land bearing capacity difference in the lithology and landform areas, we put forward that in different lithology and landform in the hinterland of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, because the land bearing capacity is different, then, the interactions, the response and feedback between people and land are different also, further, there is the difference of number and the spatial distribution pattern of settlements from the view of man-land relationship, and showing different process and intensity of ecological degradation, such as soil erosion and so on, so that the diversity and different adaptability of man-land relationship are formed in different lithology and landform areas of Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The coupling relationship between sloping cultivated lands and the settlement is an important factor influencing the suitability of man-land relationship. We took the settlement on behalf of the "people", the sloping cultivated lands and soil erosion on behalf of the "ground" (environment), and chose the 27 towns of Fengjie County located in the center region of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area as the study case, revealed the allocation relationships of between settlements and sloping cultivated lands and the difference of coupled mode between settlements and sloping cultivated lands on different lithology, and made type division of the man-nature of study area applying grid unit analysis technology to divide 1 km x 1 km grid as the research unit. The results showed that: a) The spatial distribution of settlements and sloping cultivated lands presented strong space convergence, the high proportion and the higher patch’s grade of settlements and sloping cultivated lands distribute mainly at the Meixi river valley in the north and the Yangtze river valley in the middle, the low area of them distribute mainly at exposed limestone area of the southern study area. b) Of all the coupling relationship types of sloping cultivated lands and settlements, the type of more sloping cultivated lands distributed mainly at exposed sandstone region and the type of less sloping cultivated lands distributed mainly at exposed limestone region, and the type of which settlements and sloping cultivated lands keep balance present random distribution pattern. c) The reasons of the sloping cultivated lands abound in study area were attributed to the large number of sloping cultivated lands and the difficult to shift from agricultural use. The soil erosion of the coupling type of more sloping cultivated lands is more serious than other coupling type because of the distribution of more sloping cultivated lands. d) The man-land relationship of the 27 towns are divided into four types such as the salient type of contradiction, the less salient type of contradiction, the less assuasive type of contradiction, the assuasive type of contradiction, and the area with less salient region of contradiction between human and land accounted for the largest, therefore, there is facing the dual problems of the cultivated land from grain to green and cultivated land pressure. On the one hand, this research results verify the effectiveness of the theoretical assumptions proposed by this paper and can provides the theory basis for the sloping cultivated lands utilization and the implementation to coordinate man-land relationship in the hinterland of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, on the other hand, it is also a beneficial attempt and supplement for the study on the regional man-nature relationship.

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    The theoretical perspective and academic innovation of tourism geography based on human-environment interactions
    Zhenfang HUANG, Rui HUANG
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2015, 34 (1): 15-26.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj201501002
    Abstract713)   HTML16)    PDF (1805KB)(945)      

    :In view of the current situation that the theory study on tourism geography is relatively weak and the content relatively generalized, this paper proposes that tourism human-environment interactions should be the core of tourism geography study. It expounds the theoretical connotation of tourism human-environment interactions , and then by taking "tourism areal system" as the object of study, it defines that tourism geography is a science that studies the relationship between human tourism activities on earth surface and its geographical environment and serves man's life and social economic development. On the basis of theories related with human-environment interactions, in accordance with the requirement of developing tourism geography theory systematically and scientifically and fully considering the discipline features of tourism geography, i.e., tourism, regionality, comprehensiveness and applicability, the paper constructs the tourism geography theory framework by using tourism activity system and geographical environment system as baselines and human-environment interactions theory as the core, and by integrating theories of related disciplines. The paper also reviews the basic research content, main scientific issues and principal research methods of tourism geography, and emphasizes that the scientific spirit of geographic study should be highly promoted, and the unfavorable current research status of the low-level application orientation and the too much technique orientation should be changed. Thereby, tourism geography should be really applied to dealing with the national and regional practical tourism issues, and the theory-oriented ideological study should be intensified. Therefore, such points as the basic features, functional structure, spatial-temporal evolution, fundamental law, dynamic mechanism and regulation means, that profoundly reveal the criteria of the tourism human-environment areal system, should be the focuses of tourism geography study. On these grounds, by means of innovations in the scopes of discipline characteristics, research methods, theoretical results, research methods and application value, the paper deepens the theoretical study, advances the academic level, improves the discipline system of tourism geography and promotes the localization of modern tourism geography and the internationalization of China's tourism geographical study.

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    The Model of Human-earth Areal System Based on Yin-yang of YI Ching
    Xiao-fang ZHOU
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2015, 34 (2): 225-233.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj201502003
    Abstract912)   HTML18)    PDF (719KB)(515)      

    Yi Ching describes all nature and human endeavor in terms of the interaction of “Yin(阴) and Yang(阳)”. This research reveals that it is achievable to apply Yin -yang model to interpret the relationship between human and nature. Firstly, Yin -yang of Yi Ching (易经) is dichotomy idea the relationship between the center "human" and "earth" of each other or not of each other, so the theory of Sustainable Development essentially is a stratigic goals which integrated with humanic values of human-centered, rather than the present stage or the highest form of Human-earth relationship. Accordingly, two centers of "human" and "earth" in Human-earth Areal System assumption means it correspond to the “yes or no” each other and the process of “一”(1) evolution to “二” (2)(一生二, from one system to two center systems). However, the relationship of “human” and “earth” not only dichotomy, but also shift and taking turns, which is another level of Yin -yang namely “二”(2) evolution to “三”(3) (二生三,from two center systems to third or three new systems), that is the evolution of Human-earth Areal System. Therefore the research built the model to describe that, and make it more clear through the projection of “Liuhe” (六合, six two dimensional plane: up, down, front, back, left, right), then got the evolution track of Human-earth Areal System, Yin-yang in one line of human-earth, the evolution track of distance between human and earth, and complex system nonlinear dynamics and chaos in the Human-earth Areal System. From that this research have shown it is effective method that use Yin and Yang of Yi Ching to explain the Human-earth relationship and build the Human-earth Areal System model, in order to explore the space rule in area of Human-earth relationship and the trail of Human-earth Areal System. Even more, maybe the Bagua(八卦图) is the best model. And, as China's geography research core, the Human-earth relationship idea should be continued, and be paid more attention Chinese traditional philosophy, methods and culture.

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    Application of geographical detector in human-environment relationship study of prehistoric settlements
    BI Shuoben, JI Han, CHEN Changchun, YANG Hongru, SHEN Xiang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2015, 34 (1): 118-127.   doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2015.01.014
    Abstract787)      PDF (3675KB)(1287)      
    In order to model the optimal discretization of site-river distance of prehistoric settlements and to obtain a quantitative characterization of the correlation between sites and river, this paper takes Lushi County of Henan Province as an example and uses the method of geographical detector for analysis. The model is to discrete the continuous geographic data based on the values. Based on this analysis, the paper discusses the performance of four classification methods (Equal Interval—EI, Quantile Value—QV, Natural Break—NB, and Geometrical Interval—GI) in the model for the Peiligang period, the Early Yangshao period, the Late Yangshao period, and the Longshan period. It then analyzes the structure, development pattern, distribution, and scope of the settlements for a better understanding of the human-environment relationship in prehistoric settlements from the perspective of societal organization and development state and cultural and behavioral patterns of humans in prehistoric time. The results show that: (1) Optimal discretization of site-river distance is realized using the classification method of NB, QV, NB, and GI with class number of 8, 8, 8, and 6 for the four periods. The power of this determinant for determining the density of sites is 39.5%, 70.8%, 73.0%, 59.8%; (2) Floods caused the terrace on both sides of the river to collapse gradually and reduced the area of the terrace. In order to gain more living space within the limited area, the sites dispersed along the river. When the terrace area became too small, dispersion along the river was too costly and the ancient settlements began to expand away from the river. Therefore the determining power of the factor of site-river distance first increased and then decreased. (3) In terms of improvement strength, NB/EI>GI>QV; in terms of improvement efficiency, EI/GI>NB>QV; in terms of the power of the determinant, GI>QV/NB>EI; (4) Settlement structure changed from simple, sparse, and loosely structured in the Peiligang period to polarized in the Early Yangshao period, then developed into a stage composed of three segments in the Late Yangshao period. The driving force of settlement development changed from population growth in the early stage to structural change of the society. Settlement distribution and human activities concentrated within 1~2.5 hours walking distance from the river and continued to expand. This is the result of waterborne disease aversion and reflects the ample supply of labor and food resources brought by the optimized division of labor in the society and possibly the invention of new technologies and tools.
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    Frontier approach of the sustainable process and pattern of human-environment system
    Jie FAN
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2014, 69 (8): 1060-1068.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201408003
    Abstract1017)   HTML11)    PDF (627KB)(1438)      

    In combination with the author's review of frontier issues in human geography in recent years, this paper clarifies that uncovering the spatiotemporal difference rules of human-environment system interaction in the geographic pattern is the highest-level scientific puzzle in modern geography, and is the understanding of key issues which could decide the prospect of future geography. Four practical methods including "process induction, regional comparison, qualitative analysis, logical judgment" until now for integrated human-environment system researches are proposed. Aiming at four frontier fields including regional equilibrium, resources and environment carrying capacity, territorial function, and spatial structure, academic ideas including the driving forces of regional development pattern changes, the impact carrier of natural sphere on human activity sphere, the rules and methods for integrated geographic zoning, and the changing laws of "living-production-ecology" spatial structure, are discussed. Finally, this paper discusses the significance and key issues of regional sustainable development in the framework of "Future Earth", and presents that the integrated method system and basic theoretical system of comprehensive research in complexity science based on "integration of both natural and social sciences" and "interpenetration of both basic researches and decision-making application", will profoundly influence research progress of the process and framework of human-environment system.

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    Cited: Baidu(32)
    A Study on Dynamic Simulation of Human-natural Relationship Evolution in Northwest Ethnic Minority: Case of Gannan
    LU Cheng-peng, CHEN Xing-peng, WANG Hong-juan, LI Heng-ji, ZHANG Zi-long, LI Yong-jin
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2013, 28 (7): 1255-1263.   doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2013.07.017
    Abstract23)      PDF (1040KB)(1)      

    The paper built a dynamic simulation model of human-natural evolution by using dynamic model to have an empirical study on the law of human-natural system in Gannan based on the human-natural relationship, which described the potential situation of the evolution of human-natural relationship in Gannan and provided a theoretical basis for coordinating the human-natural relationship to change direction to sustainable development. The results indicate that the human-natural relationship of Gannan was in the maladjusted state and the human-natural system presents an unsustainable evolutionary trend in the future,economic development can only be lasted about 35 years. From the evolvement of the human-natural relation, according to the conditions of Gannan area, some ideas of optimizing the human-natural relationship are put forward. Accelerating the transformation of economic development is the inevitable choice to coordinate the Gannan’s human-natural relationship to move towards the sustainable development, reduce the dependence of economic growth on natural resources and the pressures on the environment can effectively delay the speed of exhaustion of resources, which has the positive impetus function to the human-natural system moving towards the sustainable development. Speeding up technical progress and increased environmental protection investment has a significant role to the coordination of the Gannan’s human-natural relationship. Gannan’s efforts to develop the economy must be accompanied by equally vigorous efforts to control the population, and improve its quality, which ultimately to coordinate the human-natural relationship of Gannan.

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    Diverse Perspectives on Society and Environment——Plenary Lecture at the 32th International Geographical Congress
    Anne Buttimer
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2013, 32 (3): 323-331.   doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.03.001
    Abstract451)      PDF (9061KB)(742)      
    This paper is based on the plenary lecture presented by Professor Anne Buttimer at the 32th International Geographical Congress (Cologne, August 27, 2012), with several revisions and amendments. Professor Anne Buttimer is a world famous geographer, gaining exceptionally high regard through her work in social and humanist geography. She was President of the International Geographical Union (IGU) during 2000-2004, and remains a Fellow of Royal Irish Academy, Royal Geographical Society (UK) and was recently elected as Vice President of Academia Europaea. In this paper, the author makes a systematic review of the traditions of geographic enquiry, especially those conterpoint voices on the relationship between society and environment down the centuries, tracing their philosophical sources both in the East and West. Referencing the four world views and their root metaphors, she then points out the problems in present-day geographic study, and calls for innovations in the future studies on this theme. The paper has a very high perspective and thus will be extremely influential.
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    Cited: CSCD(3)
    A THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE PRED ORIENTED MODELLING OF MAN LAND RELATIONSHIP SYSTEM
    Wang Liming
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    1997, 16 (2): 38-44.   doi: 10.11821/yj1997020005
    Abstract506)      PDF (255KB)(196)      
    Man-land relationship system is so complicated that the scientists usually forcus on the main problems of it. After discussing various kinds of modelling theories and methodologies of man-land relationship system, this article advances regional PRED-oriented modelling theory and methodology. Regional population problem, resource problem, environment problem and development problem (PRED problems) which indicate the uncoordinated situation of regional man-land relationship are being attached much importance to by people all over the world. Being interrelated and interacting to each other,all the facters causing regional PRED problems construct a complicated system which is called PRED system. Obviously, the study on PRED system is a practical way to reserch the mechanisms of the areal system of man-land relaionship (ASMLR), which is the core of geographical studies. In this article, the author generlizes the main characteristics of the PRED-oriented modelling, points out the importance of problem-oriented modelling to resovle the main problems of regional sustainable development at present day. Then a method framework of PRED-oriented modelling is put forward, which is divided into four steps:analysis of PRED system, establishment of the integrated model system, simulation and assessment. The integrated model system consists of three parts:1. system dynamic simulating model as the core; 2. department models including population models, resource models, environment models and soci-economic development models; 3. auxiliary models containning econometrics models, mathematical statistics models, etc. Especially, the author emphasizes that metasymthetical engineering is an important methodology in PRED model system building. As the main contents of regional policies, the regional PRED coordinating paterns and PRED regionalizaion are suggested in this article.
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    Cited: CSCD(9)
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    1997, 16 (2): 115-115.   doi: 10.11821/yj1997020017
    Abstract188)      PDF (42KB)(44)      
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    Regional coupled human-natural systems vulnerability and its evaluation indexes
    TIAN Yaping, XIANG Qingcheng, WANG Peng
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2013, 32 (1): 55-63.   doi: 10.11821/yj2013010006
    Abstract1020)      PDF (1409KB)(1518)      
    Unclear concept and scale positioning as well as imperfect evaluation system are the main obstacles of vulnerability evaluation.Starting from the concept,factor and scale of the coupled human-natural systems vulnerability,this article made it clear that the evaluation objective is in regional scale and the analysis framework is composed by climate change and system structural elements.Based on expounding the features of the coupled human-natural systems vulnerability,the authors established firstly an evaluation system of the coupled human-natural systems vulnerability,including the three series factor indexes of sensitivity, exposure and the adaptability,and three evaluation levels of background vulnerability, potential vulnerability and realistic vulnerability according to system relations of the three series factor indexes.Secondly,taking the hilly areas in southern China as an example,the authors established an evaluation index system of coupled human-environment interaction systems vulnerability in the erosion-prone region,which includes regional natural disasters such as debris flow,landslide,drought and flood,and which relies on the principles including the scientific principle,dominant factors principle,pertinence principle,applied principle and operability principle.Finally,the authors concluded that:(1)the regional coupled human-environment interaction systems vulnerability concerns with natural disasters under global climate change disturbance;(2)the sensitivity and damageability are the essential attribute of the vulnerability,while the sensitivity,exposure and adaptability are system factors of the vulnerability;(3)the natural disaster frequency can be seen as the location exposure indexes to reflect the space concentricity of disaster occurences,while the real disaster degree,as a reference value,can be provided to verify the results of the vulnerability evaluation indexes screening,index weights determinating,model validation and threshold value analysis.The research has some references for improving the theory and method of the research on regional coupled human-environment interaction systems vulnerability in different regions under the consistent framework.
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    Cited: CSCD(47)
    TRIZ:A new theory and method of study man-land relationship problems
    SUN Feng-hua, ZHU Chuan-geng, WANG Zhen-bo, SUN Dong-qi
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2012, 31 (10): 1737-1748.   doi: 10.11821/yj2012100001
    Abstract1286)      PDF (782KB)(1783)      
    Chinese geographers believe that the synthetic studies on man-land relationship should be strengthened.However, no research has been done yet in China on technical design in terms of man-land relationship.Therefore, TRIZ has been introduced to deal with issues related with technological system, technique contradictions, innovation level and ideal situation.The theoretical basis of TRIZ for overcoming the system contradictions is based on eight laws of technical system evolution.The methods are mainly used as analysis tools and repository.The analysis tools include contradiction matrix, substance-field model, standard solution, ARIZ and demand function analysis.The repository includes 40 innovation theories, contradiction solving principles, 76standard solutions and an effect database.The procedure of TRIZ includes problem identification, tool and method selection and solving programme evaluation.This study, with Qingshan District of Wuhan as a case, probes into the approach, the theory, the method and the powerful function of TRIZ in solving contradictions of areal man-land relationship, and establishes a logic paradigm as well.The conclusion shows that TRIZ, applicable to both technology field and non-technical field, offers a new vision, new theory and new method for studying man-land relationship in the future.
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    Cited: CSCD(4)
    Assessment of Human Settlement Environment in Lancang River Basin Based on Man-Land Relationship
    GAO Tianming, LIU Litao, SHEN Lei, XUE Jingjing
    null   
    Abstract131)      PDF (2104KB)(14)      
    The Lancang (upper-Mekong) River originates in the Tibet-Qinghai Plateau of China and flows through China’s Tibet Autonomous Region and Yunnan Province for over 2100 kilometers before reaching the Chinese border. After leaving China, it passes through Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam countries. The whole length of the Lancang-Mekong River is over 4800 km and the drainage area of it is about 811, 000 km2. As a transboundary river as well as the 7th biggest river in Asia, the Lancang-Mekong River becomes the most important international river in Southeast Asia. In addition, with a variety of geomorghological and climate features, the Lancang-Mekong River Basin has all kinds of ecosystems in northern hemisphere except desert and marine, and a world-class gene pool, making it irreplaceable in the world. Since the international economic cooperation launched in Great Mekong Subregion in 1990s, Lancang River basin (upstream of Mekong River) has received wide attention from the international community. Human settlement issues in the Lancang River are crucial to China as more than 10 million people live in Lancang River Basin of China. With human settlement as the research contents, this paper has systematically built an evaluation index system on the basis of clarifying the concept of human settlement and establishing an analytical framework. Besides, this paper has estimated the Spatio-temporal evolution trends of human settlement of 56 counties (autonomous regions or municipalities) in Lancang River Basin from 2000 to 2009 using factor analysis and Arcgis spatial analysis. Conclusions are as follows: 1) From the point of view of spatial patterns, suitability ranking of human settlement in Lancang River Basin decreases pregressively from south to north; from the perspective of temporal evolution, the suitability of human settlement in Lancang River Basin from 2000 to 2009 was getting worse on the whole; 2) Over the past decade, the importance of infrastructure in human settlemnet has been surpassed by economic development factors such as GDP Per Capita (GDPPC) and the Proportion of the Tertiary Industry(PTI); At last, several policy recommendations, for example, vigorously developing the economy, enhancing the proportion of tertiary industry and further improving the infrastructure in Lancang River Basin have been given in the paper.
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    Cited: Baidu(5) CSCD(9)
    Research on Vulnerability Assessment of Human-land System of Anshan City Based on Set Pair Analysis
    HAN Ruiling, TONG Lianjun, TONGWeiming, YU Jianhui
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2012, 31 (3): 344-352.   doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.03.010
    Abstract568)      PDF (734KB)(630)      
    Vulnerability assessment framework in sustainability science has properties of multi-scale, multi-element, multi-flow and multi-cycle, so vulnerability assessment is a new research paradigm in the realms of global environmental change and sustainable development, and provides an effective tool for the study of interaction mechanisms and processes of coupled human-land system. Based on the dependence of economic development on resources, and the instability in employment, and the ecology being relatively disrupted, the vulnerability assessment indexes of Anshan city are established. By using the set pair analysis and the entropy method, the essay analyzed the sensitivity, response capacity and vulnerability level of the economic system, as well as the employment system and the ecosystem. Then the vulnerability of human-land system of Anshan city are tested and the evolution of vulnerability characteristics during 1990 to 2009 has been revealed.
    The relationship of human-land system of Anshan city belongs to the lower sensitivity and higher response capacity type. In comparison with other resource-based cities in Northeast China, the human-land stability of Anshan city is stronger, and the vulnerability is relatively weak, which means that Anshan city has lower sensitivity and better response capacity to the complicated human-land system. The sensitivity of Anshan city has a declining trend, and the economic sensitivity is bigger than the environmental sensitivity and the social sensitivity. The response capacity of Anshan city shows a rising trend, and the environmental system is more evident than the social system and the economic system. There is a rising trend for vulnerability of Anshan, and economic system is most vulnerable. The paper reflects that Anshan city has better potentials to develop a sustainable economy, but attention should be paid to lowering the sensitivity of the economic system and to increasing the response capacity.
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    Cited: CSCD(19)
    Speculation of Human-earth Harmony Theory Based on Yi Studies and Geomancy
    SUN Fenghua
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2012, 67 (2): 266-282.   doi: 10.11821/xb201202012
    Abstract623)      PDF (1397KB)(1871)      
    This paper introduces the background and significance of the study. It points out that Yi Studies is not only philosophy but also philosophical methodology for studying man-land relationship by human geography. It discusses the scientific nature of Zhou Yi which collects most of the harvests in Yi Studies. It also studies "Joseph Needham's puzzle" in passing with an answer given. This paper states that the long developing process marked by four historic periods of Yi Studies is a philosophic evolution of Yi Studies in understanding the laws of man-land relationship. It discusses the laws of man-land relationship indicated by philosophical thoughts of Lianshan Yi, Guicang Yi and Zhou Yi. It places more emphasis on the study of a philosophical methodology of human geography—the interpretation of man-land relationship by Zhou Yi. Geomancy originated from Yi Studies, and therefore, there was no geomancy without Yi Studies. Modern geomancy is closely interrelated with China's human geography. The reasons are shown as follows. (1) Physical geographical environmental factors are the basis of geomancy. (2) A mass of geographical knowledge and methods are the stanchion of geomancy study. (3) The core of geomancy study is man-land relationship. The paper studies dialectical relationship between human-earth harmoniousness theory, Zhou Yi and geomancy and reveals the roles of Zhou Yi and geomancy play in research and coordination of man-land relationship. As viewpoints of geomancy are quite different, Chinese modern human geography should unscramble its special field—geomancy historically, objectively, scientifically and dialectically. Correspondently, the practical process of modern geomancy is discussed with the layout of the overall planning of Guoling International Tourism Holiday District of Qinghai Yellow River as an example. Geomancy contains certain superstition, but it also has important scientific thoughts. We should neither cover its pseudoscientificity with its scientificity, nor should we deny its scientificity by its pseudoscientificity. If scientific thoughts of geomancy were set up in the research and application community of geomancy, no matter whether in academic schools or folk ones, the real scientific geomancy would be established, and all of superstitions in geomancy would have gone. The paper suggests that the studies of Yi Studies and geomancy by Chinese human geography should be combined with Western human geography and relevant subjects by discarding the dross and selecting the essence, eliminating the false and retaining the true, making the past serve the present and foreign things serve China as well. Hence, Chinese human geography development can be impelled and human geography with Chinese characteristics will be set up. Finally, the paper points out that Chinese geomancy and human geography are now entering a critical historical transition period, so more concern, tolerance and space are needed.
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    Cited: Baidu(9)
    PIONEER OF STUDIES ON MAN-EARTH AREAL SYSTEM——Celebrating the 80th Birthday of the Aacademician of CAS, Wu Chuanjun
    Huang Xichou, Tong Lianjun
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    1998, 18 (3): 197-198.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.03.197
    Abstract79)      PDF (1065KB)(41)      
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    AN ANALYSIS ON THE MAN LAND SYSTEM AND ITS DYNAMICS IN URBAN RURAL INTERLOCKING BELT
    Chen Youqi, Wu Wei
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    1998, 18 (5): 418-424.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.05.418
    Abstract190)      PDF (611KB)(33)      
    Urban rural interlocking belt will be of the most serious relationship between man and land in the next century. In a geographic view, this article analyzes the characteristics and dynamics of man land system in the urban-rural interlocking belt, which will be instructive to the rational development of resources, coordination of human and environment, and implementation of social and economic sustainable development in this area.
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    A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON BIRD DIVERSITY AND MAN-LAND RELATION IN MENGSONG HANI ETHNIC REGION, XISHUANGBANNA, YUNNAN
    Wang Zhijun, Men Luo, Duo Ge, Zha Tu, Zong Wei
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    1998, 18 (6): 531-537.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.06.531
    Abstract164)      PDF (2676KB)(16)      
    In a Hani ethnic region of Mengsong area, Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, near Burmerse border, there are traditional practices of agriforestry, which are dynamic adaptations to local geographic environment, and social economic conditions. This system works well and does not degrade the environment as long as human population density is low and there is abundant forest land. The Hani people had strong religious and cultural prohibitions a-gainst overcutting and overhunting. They can also manage natural environment and make ecotone habitats to maintain biological diversity. Bird diversity in different areas was obtained, a great deal of biodiversity exists in the place where people have lived for many generations, using the resources of their environment in a sustainable manner. Local people were practicing a traditional way of life in the land, the Hani people keep some areas as traditional conserving forests, in which the natural resources were selectively used with regeneration abilities, they are also as better habitats for birds. The present people are exploiting Mengsong area, the society is changing rapidly as it encounters outside influences, and there are often sharp differences between the older and younger generations. We should pay more attention to the ecological principle of man and land from the traditional practices.
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