Through various exploration and practice of poverty alleviation, China has embarked on a path of poverty alleviation with Chinese characteristics, which has greatly reduced the number of rural poor people and significantly improved the living standard in poverty-stricken areas. For a long time, the monitoring of socioeconomic and environmental conditions in poverty-stricken areas is based on all kinds of statistical data, reports, paper files, etc., based on administrative units, lacking effective and accurate spatial location information. With the rapid development of geo-information science such as Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS), the real-time and efficient capture and calculation ability of spatial information greatly improves the efficiency and decision support level of poverty alleviation. This paper expounds the contributions of geo-information science on China's poverty alleviation from the following aspects:① monitoring and evaluation of natural resources and environment in poverty-stricken areas based on multi-source geospatial data; ② monitoring, early warning, and management of natural disasters in poverty-stricken areas; ③ analysis of poverty causing factors and poverty prediction; ④ decision support system for targeted poverty alleviation based on the mechanism of targeted poverty alleviation. China aims to eradicate absolute poverty in 2020, so the application of geo-information science in poverty alleviation will mainly focus on the establishment of monitoring and assistance mechanism to prevent poverty returning and alleviate the relative poverty. Moreover, under the background of rural revitalization, using geo-information science and technology to promote rural infrastructure information construction will be the focus of the next step.
The application of natural resources big data and its processing technology can provide basic support for the research and management of natural resources, especially for revealing the elements, structure, and correlation of natural resources system, and provide new ideas, new methods, and new technologies for the development of resources science. This paper attempts to clarify the concept, main characteristics, and development trend of natural resources big data, and analyzes the practical significance of natural resources big data for national economic and social development. The construction of natural resources big data is not only an important part of natural resources informatization, but also a new way to improve the efficiency of natural resources industry and the whole social economy, and the governance structure of natural resources and the modernization of natural resources governance capacity. In this paper, the knowledge framework of natural resources big data application research is constructed under the earth system science system, based on the structure of "one map, one network, and one platform", this paper proposes to establish a large database of natural resources integrating space, aviation and ground observations and an application framework in terms of production, residential and ecological spaces, and discusses the establishment of a structural system based on data collection, processing, and application of natural resources. The frontier progress and development trend of natural resources big data application research are also analyzed under this technical framework.
Global climate change is not only the most important environmental problem, but also one of the most complex challenges mankind faces in the 21st century. In the context of the increasing challenges of climate change and global governance, the assessment of CO2 emissions and costs has attracted increasing attention from academia and policy makers. At present, almost all global studies, including the assessment by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), use global average CO2 concentration to drive the climate models. However, there are many controversies on the impact assessment based on the global average distribution of CO2 in academia. To formulate countermeasures to deal with carbon emissions and reduction and enhance China’s international discourse on dealing with climate change, it is of great importance to explore the mutual feedback mechanism between the inhomogeneity of atmospheric CO2 concentration and geophysical processes (e.g. surface temperature rise), and explore the impact mechanism of the inhomogeneous distribution of atmospheric CO2 concentration on global climate change. This paper reviews the research progress of non-uniform distribution of atmospheric CO2 concentration and its effects on surface warming. Firstly, this paper reviews the evidence of non-uniform distribution of atmospheric CO2 concentration from three aspects, ground-based measurement, numerical simulation, and remote sensing. It summarizes the advantages of these three methods and analyzes the discovery process of non-uniform distribution of global atmospheric CO2 concentration. Secondly, this paper explores the mutual feedback between the non-uniform distribution of global atmospheric CO2 concentration and surface temperature rise. The non-uniform distribution of atmospheric CO2 concentration directly affects the radiative forcing or indirectly affects the regional warming through affecting the photosynthesis. Regional warming has a direct or indirect impact on the ability of the ocean and vegetation to absorb CO2, which ultimately affects the non-uniform distribution of global atmospheric CO2 concentration. Finally, this paper reviews the problems of existing studies on non-uniform distribution of atmospheric CO2 and discusses the prospect of future development trends. This study provides a scientific basis for understanding the current situation of global/regional carbon emissions and climate change impacts, and further explores the feedback mechanism among atmospheric CO2 non-uniform distribution, surface temperature rise, and socio-economic system.
As a typical cultural phenomenon throughout the progress and development of modern and contemporary Chinese society, the writing, construction, inheritance and other topics of red memory at the macro level have been widely concerned and discussed. However, the research on red memory on the individual level is relatively deficient and requires to be promoted. Therefore, this paper takes Yan'an urban core area, which is rich in red resources, as a case study. With the help of generation research method, through in-depth interviews with 36 local residents, this paper interprets the red memory differences among three generations of Yan'an urban residents, and explores the "macro-micro" construction path and results of red memory. The results show that the macro level of memory elements mining, narrative expression and resource activation construct the coding, selection and consolidation process of residents' red memory, promote the local residents to generate red memory content with characteristics of the times, and finally construct the authoritative, functional and reflective red memory system of the old, middle and young generations. The results reflect the significance of the social forces of memory construction and the changing times in shaping the content of individual memory, and provide a theoretical reference for standardizing the practice of red memory and promoting the inheritance of red memory.
Taking Jinggang Mountain Scenic Area as a case, this study collected and analyzed the travel notes of this scenic area from Mafengwo.com. We adopt big data analysis and qualitative text analysis methods and introduce the theory of value co-creation to explore the value co-creation mechanism of red tourism development from three dimensions (resources, practices and values). The results show that the value co-creation resources of red tourism scenic spots include historical and cultural heritages, natural landscape resources and iconic landscape symbols. Through practical activities including red culture experience, learning and training activities, and interpretation service experience, tourists gain knowledge of red history and culture, build an emotional connection with red culture and form the values of patriotism and identification with the country. This verifies the realization of the educational function of red tourism. On the other hand, the existing value co-creation practice of red tourist attractions is still limited. The value co-creation mechanism of red tourism development constructed in this study integrates the demand of tourists, the support service of scenic spots, and the possible value co-creation practice, which has practical significance for improving the participation of tourists and realizing the value co-creation of red tourist attractions.
The Chinese government has curbed the outbreak of COVID-19 through a population flow control rarely seen in history. The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly impacted the recreation industry. Using mobile location data, this study quantitatively analyzed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on population heat map in the leisure areas within the Third Ring Road of Beijing City on the Qingming Festival and Labor Day. The results showed that: 1) The COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted population heat map in leisure areas in Beijing on holidays, and the population heat map values of the three types of leisure areas investigated in this study declined by 54.2% and 53.0% on the Qingming Festival and Labor Day in 2020 as compared to the 2019 values, respectively. To be specific, the population heat map values of famous scenery, shopping services, and hotel accommodation decreased by 53.6%, 57.5%, and 52.9% on the Qingming Festival, and by 48.5%, 52.0%, and 55.6% on Labor Day, respectively. 2) There were differences in the degree of the impact on population heat map in different types of areas in famous scenery. The impact on the three major segments of famous scenery can be ranked in ascending order as follows: temples and churches (41.7%, 50.3%), parks and squares (53.1%, 47.1%), and scenic spots (61.1%, 51.2%). Wilcoxon rank sum test showed that the hourly variation of population heat map in temples and churches was smaller, and the overall demand can be ranked in ascending order as follows: sightseeing, daily leisure, and religious activities. 3) The 2020 population heat map of the leisure areas within the Third Ring Road of Beijing City was significantly negatively and positively correlated with the population heat map before the pandemic and area of these leisure areas, respectively. This can be attributed to the risk perception of the leisure crowds and the spatial and environmental factors of the disease prevention and control measures. This study provides a scientific basis for assessing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on leisure forms in big cities of China.
In recent years, big data has been widely applied in traffic analysis. However, they are mostly used for data visualization and phenomenon description. There is a lack of big-data oriented transport modeling, which leads to limited application of big-data in transportation planning. In this study, we propose a Location-Space Dependent Indicator (LSDI) based on the time-space interaction between transportation and land use. Based on this indicator, the urban commuting distribution model is developed, which improves the traditional gravity model. Taking Beijing as a study case, the developed model is applied and verified using mobile phone signaling big data derived from the communication service of an operator in September 2017. Travel generation and distribution models are constructed and verified respectively. Our results show that: (1) For the travel generation model simulations, commuter population and resident population show a good linear relationship. This model generates a significant prediction with a goodness of fit of 0.84; (2) For the travel distribution model simulations, a comparison analysis is conducted between gravity model, radiation model, and modified model with LSDI. The gravity model corrected by real commuting data performs best in regression analysis with a goodness of fit of 0.94. But large errors occur in the probability density distribution. The radiation model performs normal in regression analysis with a goodness of fit of 0.37. It has a better accuracy in the probability density distribution. The modified gravity model with LSDI has the best overall performance. The underestimation phenomenon is optimized in the commuter population distribution with a highest goodness of fit (0.85). Our findings provide new insights in developing big-data oriented transport prediction models and contribute to promote the application of big data in transport planning.
Scaling effects describe the observational differences caused by different observation standards. It is an important research topic in Earth science and quantitative remote sensing. Current studies mainly focus on estimating the errors caused by the scaling effects, but different opinions still exist about the scaling effects in some critical vegetation structural parameters and their scale transformation methods. This paper analyzes the scaling effects and the scale transformation methods of three key vegetation structural parameters, namely Leaf Area Index (LAI), Effective LAI (LAIe), and Clumping Index (CI), based on their definitions and acquisition methods. By definition, LAI is free from the scaling effects, whereas LAIe and CI have scaling effects. The scaling effects of CI is introduced by LAIe (CI=LAIe/LAI). LAI, LAIe, and CI can be obtained through field measurement and remote sensing inversion methods. In field measurements, LAI is obtained through the direct destructive method or the indirect optical method. LAI obtained through the destructive method has no scaling effects. The indirect optical method estimates the three parameters based on the Beer-Lambert equation with the canopy gap fraction. LAI-2200, digital hemispherical photography, and photosynthetic active radiation sensors are commonly used instruments. The non-liner gap fraction model has scaling effects in deriving these parameters. Remote sensing technology uses passive optical methods, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology, and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) methods to estimate LAI, LAIe, and CI. The classic passive optical methods can be divided into the empirical vegetation index estimation methods and the physical model inversion methods. The vegetation index methods establish an empirical relationship between vegetation structural parameters and vegetation indices. The physical model inversion methods are based on physical radiative transfer models. The scaling effects of the remote sensing methods depend on the linear or nonlinear characteristics of these methods. Currently, the major global LAI, LAIe, and CI remote sensing products are acquired from nonlinear inversion models, thus these inversion methods are subject to scaling effects. Nevertheless, the nonlinearity in the inversion process does not necessarily mean that the LAI products have scaling effects. The scaling effects of the LAI products still follow the basic LAI definition. Therefore, current remote sensing LAI products do not subject to the scaling effects at pixel level. On the other hand, both LAIe and CI products do have scaling effects, but the scaling effects are often ignored in practice. In the validation of the remote sensing products, the scaling effects need to be considered while homogeneous areas are preferred in the validation studies. In conclusion, attention should be paid to distinguishing the different scaling effects displayed by the parameters in their definitions, the field measurement and remote sensing inversion methods, and remote sensing products. For the scale transformation, it is more important to investigate the most suitable and efficient method rather than a universal method.
The field of geography has three unique characteristics, namely, regionality, integration, and complexity. Among them, complexity has become increasingly crucial to geography in the current era. Entropy is a key concept and an indicator of the complexity of a system; thus, the research and application of entropy play a fundamental role in the development of geography. During recent years, Boltzmann entropy (i.e., thermodynamic entropy) has emerged as a research hotspot in the entropy for geography. Proposed as early as the year 1872, it is the core of the well-known Second Law of Thermodynamics. However, its application in geography had remained at a conceptual level for lack of computational methods with spatial data. Fortunately, much progress has been made globally towards computing and applying spatial Boltzmann entropy (i.e., the Boltzmann entropy of spatial data). This paper aims to perform a comprehensive review of such progress, in terms of the thermodynamic origination of Boltzmann entropy, the difficulties in applying it to geography, computational models and algorithms of spatial Boltzmann entropy, and all the applications up to now. Four major conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) The current focus of research is placed on the Boltzmann entropy of spatial raster data. Models have been developed for computing Boltzmann entropy with both qualitative and quantitative raster data. (2) Many algorithms have been developed and can be classified into three categories, namely total edge-based, Wasserstein distance-based, and multiscale hierarchy-based. (3) It has witnessed two groups of applications of spatial Boltzmann entropy to geography, namely landscape ecology and remote sensing image processing. (4) Future research is recommended to develop algorithms for more types of spatial data, validating previous conclusions drawn using Shannon entropy, and extending the applications of spatial Boltzmann entropy.
Climate change risk has been a challenge for the development of society. As the ecosystems in the arid/humid transition zone (AHTZ) in northern China are characterized by sensitive and complex response to climatic fluctuations, assessing the climate change risk for ecosystems in the AHTZ is of scientific significance to regional climate governance and risk management. This study utilized the net primary productivity (NPP) as the indice for risk assessment. Based on the climate data of five global climate models (GCMs) participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), the NPP was simulated using an improved LPJ (Lund-Potsdam-Jena). A climate change risk assessment method was built to identify the climate change risk levels and their spatio-temporal distributions in the AHTZ at different periods in the future. Results show that NPP loss would gradually extend and aggravate the risk in the AHTZ from mid-term period to long-term period of the 21st century. The risk under the high-emission scenario would be more serious, mainly manifested as a negative anomaly and a downward trend of NPP. In particular, under RCP8.5, 81.85% of the area may face climate change risk, and 54.71% will reach a high risk. During 2071-2099, under RCP8.5, the NPP anomaly in the high-risk area will reach (-96.00±46.95) gC m-2 a-1, and the changing rate of NPP will reach (-3.56±3.40) gC m-2 a-1. The eastern plain of AHTZ and the eastern grasslands of Inner Mongolia are expected to become the main risk concentration areas. The future vegetation growth in these areas may be adversely affected by climate change. Increasing warming and intensifying drying may be important causes for future climate change risks.
"Development driven by innovation" is an important strategy of the Chinese government. This study used data including inter-city patent transfer from China Intellectual Property Office for 2017 and 2018 to explore the technology-introduction pattern of cities in China from the perspective of technology relatedness and complexity, using Gephi, ArcGIS, and Stata. This study hypothesized that: 1) cities tend to introduce technologies highly related to local knowledge structure; 2) the more complex a technology is, the less opportunity that cities will introduce it; and 3) the relatedness of a technology will mitigate the effect of its complexity on technology transfer. Based on the average relatedness and average complexity of technologies introduced in each city, this study identified four technology-introduction patterns, which are "high relatedness and high complexity", "low relatedness and high complexity", "low relatedness and low complexity", and "high relatedness and low complexity". Furthermore, unique mechanisms of change exist for different technology-introduction patterns. This study found that the complexity of introduced technologies increases with the economic development stage of the city, while the relatedness of that displays an inverse U-shaped mode. Hence, we divided technology introduction into three stages according to the level of urban development: 1) the learning stage dominated by low relatedness, 2) the reinforcing stage dominated by the increase in relatedness, and 3) the leaping stage dominated by diversification into unfamiliar technology fields. The empirical results show that in general, the increase in technological relatedness and the decrease in complexity of a technology will promote cities to introduce the technology, and the increase in relatedness will encourage cities to introduce more complex technology in that field. Additionally, the mechanism of change was tested through regression by groups—cities were sorted into four groups by their GDP per capita and population density, then we performed regression on technological relatedness and complexity respectively, which shows that the coefficient of relatedness lost significance in the most developed 25% cities, while it remained robust in the other three groups. The coefficient of complexity similarly lost significance in the most developed 50% cities. These results jointly verify the hypothesis of three technology-introduction stages. This study analyzed the pattern of technology-introduction empirically, stressing on the importance of relatedness and complexity in innovation research, which offers a grounded reference for guiding the innovation development path of cities.
In the early 20th century, China was faced with domestic crisis and foreign invasion, and the man-land contradictions were unprecedented fierce. Geographers pondered and explored the issues of national fortune such as China's population status, northwest exploitation and internal migration, thus China's population geography emerged as the times required. "The distribution of population in China" published by Hu Huanyong in 1935 is a symbol of maturity of China's population geography. The Hu Huanyong Line (also known as Hu Line) proposed in this paper, which he originally called the Aihui-Tengchong Line, is a significant geographical demarcation of China's population. The existence and stability of the Hu Line have been repeatedly verified by census data, and its scientific principles have also been revealed and explained by the academic circles from aspects of nature, economy, social culture, etc. This paper points out that grain and employment are the two hidden logics behind the Hu Line. The Hu Line is becoming a crucial national geographic demarcation, which has an increasingly essential impact on the cognition and analysis of China's national conditions. Recent research on the Hu Line has been widely extended in various fields and meanings, and there arose some amendments and adaptations of the line in practice. Under the influence of "Premier Li Keqiang's three questions", whether the Hu Line can be broken through has become an academic hot spot. This paper holds that it is more important to create more opportunities of the northwest region than to increase the share of population so as to balance regional development.
China is a large agricultural country, and issues concerning agriculture, rural areas and farmers are closely related to national economic and social development. To achieve the "Two Centenary Goals", rural revitalization strategy has become the choice to resolve unbalanced urban-rural development and inadequate rural development in China. Rural development is a comprehensive process of cycle accumulation and dynamic evolution of rural regional system. Thus, it is of great significance to systematically analyze the process and regional pattern of rural development to scientifically promote the implementation of rural revitalization strategy in the new era. Based on the theory of human-earth areal system and human-earth system science, this study examines the process and features of rural development in China from 1978 to 2050, discusses the internal relationship between rural transformation and rural revitalization, reveals the spatial pattern of the level of county rural revitalization in 2017, and finally puts forward the key problems and countermeasures for rural revitalization in the new era. Results show that the evolution of China's rural development in the period of 1978-2050 can be divided into three stages, i.e. solving the problem of food and clothing (1978-2005), building a well-off society (2005-2020) and realizing prosperity (2020-2050). In general, it is a dynamic and continuous process from low-level and basic-type to high-quality and innovation-type. Rural revitalization is a special stage of rural transformation, and a strategic choice to solve the prominent problem in rural development when it has evolved to a certain stage, thus boosting rural development to a higher stage. In 2017, when rural revitalization strategy was initiated, the level of rural revitalization in 57.3% of the counties in China was between 0.40 and 0.50, and there was an obvious gradient differentiation from the east to the west, with significant clustering characteristics and positive correlation. Specifically, the counties featured by "high-high (H-H)" clustering were mainly distributed in the third step of the terrain and the middle of Sichuan Basin; while the counties featured by "low-low (L-L)" clustering were concentrated in western China except Sichuan Basin, the eastern part of Inner Mongolia and the north of Tianshan Mountains. Due to the regionalism, stage and the difference in constraints of rural development, the focuses of rural revitalization in the new era lie in scientifically identifying the targeting areas of rural revitalization, comprehensively judging the trends of rural development, and systematically diagnosing the dominant constraints of different types of rural areas, so as to take targeted measures to make up for the shortcomings of the modernization of agriculture and rural areas. Besides, it is necessary to fully understand the interactions between urban and rural areas, thus promoting urban-rural integrated development.
The 18th CPC National Congress in 2012 figured out that the territorial space optimization was the primary task of the ecological civilization construction and to make production space intensive and efficient, living space livable and suitable, ecological space. This study systematically reviews the recent advances for the overall optimization of production space, living space and ecological space (PLES) by the method of literature review and summary induction. It is concluded that the present studies of the overall optimization of PLES were mainly carried out from the perspective of the utilization quality of land space, land suitability evaluation, resource environmental bearing-capacity and comparative advantage. But because of the short of recognition of the scientific intension of PLES and the incompleteness of quantitative identification and classification system construction, there are still problems that the technological approaches of the overall optimization of PLES may still have to overcome. The technological approaches of the overall optimization of PLES should build the theoretical basis and technical system of PLES identification and optimization aiming for Beautiful China Initiative by the theory of human-earth coupled systems. On the theoretical level, the initiative should give full consideration to the mechanism of material and energy transfer within the PLES system and the parsing of the transfer pathway, flow process and metabolic mechanism of water, soil, energy, carbon and other key elements of PLES system by the combination of the resource metabolism theory and the geographical pattern of PLES. On the technological level, it should pay attention to the development and application of the system simulation model and the multi-objective optimization model, and synthetically consider the dynamic mechanism between population, resources, environment and land space elements, and combine the results of evolution rule and the conflict and problem diagnosis of PLES, and consequently to achieve the overall optimization of PLES by the design of different scenarios and parameters.
Based on the principle of ecosystem integrity, the establishment of protected areas is the most effective measure for biodiversity conservation. The "Half Earth" target addresses that the global protected area should account for 50% of the total surface area, and 85% of the global species should be effectively protected. We consider the target as a proper goal of the international biodiversity conservation, especially the proportion of species protected. Although there exists a worldwide recognized classification of protected areas developed by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), such classification cannot exactly tell us the proper locations and distributions of protected areas, and most of the existing protected areas are still the result of subjective judgment and selection. Based on various protection objects and identification criteria, many researchers have defined some conservation priorities around the world in the past few years, all of which could be regarded as valuable examples of scientific identification of protected areas, to provide some efficient references. Through comprehensive comparison and analysis of these conservation priorities, including their protection objects, identification criteria and distributions, this paper draws the following conclusions: (1) Species, habitat integrity and human activities are the main considerations when such conservation priorities were proposed, and the identification criteria include species richness (species abundance), habitat transformation and human activity intensity. Nowadays, with the international focus and research on protected areas going further, the integration of criteria has gradually become a new trend in the identification of protected areas. (2) The consideration of habitat transformation includes two different ideas: "mending for the past", which means that the habitats which have been transformed much should be protected, or "preparing for the future", which means the habitats that still remain original should be protected in case of being transformed, whereas the human activities can be direct or indirect. (3) The distributions of conservation priorities are quite different, with their proportions ranging from 5.77% to 25.32%, and the total distribution area accounts for 55.59% of the global land, exceeding the "Half Earth" target.
The development strategy of industrial transfer and upgrading, coordinated development, and in-depth integration of advanced manufacturing in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region put forward higher requirements for the spatial layout of manufacturing industrial clusters. Research on the change of manufacturing industry spatial pattern can provide a reference for the optimization of urban agglomerations' advanced manufacturing industries. Based on the micro-level data of industrial enterprises above designated size in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from 2000 to 2013, this study used kernal density analysis and panel data regression models to explore the characteristics and driving factors of the change of the manufacturing industry spatial pattern in the region. The results of this empirical research show that: 1) The overall spatial pattern of all manufacturing industries in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is relatively stable, and high-value areas are concentrated in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan area. The regional linked development of capital-intensive industries is gaining momentum; technology-intensive industries are increasingly concentrated in a few districts and counties, and the degree of spatial autocorrelation with surrounding districts and counties has weakened as a whole; spatial expansion into nearby districts and counties and spatial transfer of labor-intensive industries appeared alternately; and the regional linked development promotes the balanced growth of manufacturing industries in various regions and narrows the development gap. 2) The manufacturing industry in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region shows a clear trend of specialization and regional division of labor, and labor-intensive industries are increasingly spreading to the periphery of the central cities and the counties in the central and southern areas of the region. Capital-intensive industries are concentrated in the industrial belt on the west coast of the Bohai Sea, the industrial output value of the peripheral areas of the region has increased significantly, and technology-intensive industries are gathered in the Beijing-Tianjin high-tech industrial belt. 3) The key driving factors of the three types of manufacturing industries are different. Labor-intensive industries are affected by investment and transportation accessibility. Capital-intensive industries are highly dependent on local market size and investment, and are insensitive to transportation accessibility. Technology-intensive industries are mainly constrained by transportation accessibility and wage levels. The three types of manufacturing industries are obviously affected by local fiscal expenditures.
The global warming has led to the acceleration of the melting of Arctic sea ice, and the opening of the Polar Silk Road has gradually been put on the agenda. In this paper, according to the navigation performance of eight important Russian ports reaching the Bering Strait through the Northeast Passage from 2030 to 2070, the sea ice data of six CMIP5 climate models under two RCPs and two ship types of PC6 icebreaker and OW (merchant ship) ship are adopted. Based on the study of the four factors of optimal route, navigation time, navigable mileage and navigation cost, the main conclusions are as follows: (1) With the change of time, the optimal navigation routes are gradually concentrated and orderly. The navigation capacity of merchant ship has been significantly improved, and by 2070 it will have the same navigation capacity as the PC6 icebreaker has. (2) The navigation time between the Russian ports and the Bering Strait has decreased by 14 h every 10 a, of which St. Petersburg Port has the most significant decline. By 2070, when the longitude difference between the Russian port and the Bering Strait increases by 1°, the navigation time of the port decreases by 0.4 h. (3) In the next 50 a, the navigable mileage of Northeast Passage will increase by 166 km every 10 a, among which the change pattern and average change pattern of navigable mileage in St. Petersburg Port are the most similar. (4) The navigation cost of the route from the Arctic port is reduced by $10,000 every 10 a, and the decrease of the total navigation cost of merchant ships is the most obvious under high emission concentration. Combined with the change of sea ice, the ports in central and western Russia have great potential for resource transportation. This study quantifies and evaluates the evolution of the navigation performance of the Northeast Passage under the future sea ice melting situation, which provides theoretical and data support for the navigation of the Northeast Passage and the Arctic port trade.
The change of global environment and the rapid development of economy have led to the increase of natural disasters, which have become one of the most serious environmental problems in modern human society. Facing the grim situation of natural disaster risk prevention and control, human society should be built strongly enough to deal with natural disaster risks. On the basis of "building a resilient society to reduce natural disaster risks", this paper focuses on analyzing the exact meaning of resilience, and interprets the connotation, composition and structure of natural disaster-resilient society through integrated hazard defense, damage recovery and emergency governance. The index system and quantitative characterization method of the natural disaster-resilient society was established to evaluate the situation of a natural disaster resilient-society in the case area. According to the differences between urban and rural areas, we designed pathways to build a natural disaster-resilient society. Then a theory paradigm of the natural disaster-resilient society, including concept-structure-index-approach, is systematically constructed. It is an inevitable option for human to build a natural disaster-resilient society, which is highly consistent with the sustainable socio-economic development. The research aims at promoting a comprehensive response to natural disaster risks, exploring ways to build a "stronger, safer and more sustainable" natural disaster-resilient society, supporting the transformation of national disaster prevention and reduction strategies, and implementing the "Nine Key Areas and Weak Links Projects".
The rapid development of urbanization has promoted China's urban road network's continuous expansion and growth. The urban road network is a dynamic, open, and self-organized spatial complex network, which constitutes a city's structural framework. The study on urban road networks' structural characteristics can provide a significant application value for road network planning and urban construction. In the related studies of the structural characteristics of urban road networks, few scholars have paid attention to the whole urban road network structure from the perspective of road alignment in China. Besides, recent studies lack an overall evaluation on the road network of major cities in China. In this paper, 49 cities, including the first- and second-tier and first-tier new cities in China, are selected as study areas and the urban road network data in February 2020 are taken as experimental data. Firstly, we use the graph theory and rose diagrams to visualize the road network's directional characteristics in 49 cities. The complex structure of the urban road network is qualitatively analyzed. Then, we select five road network indicators including the maximum ratio R, the road primacy degree S, the ratio over threshold T, the orientation-order φ, and the road network density δ. Based on the five indicators, cluster analysis is carried out for the road networks of 49 cities in this paper. And the characteristics of the spatial distribution of urban road network in China are explored. The results show that the north-south and east-west roads are the main alignment of urban roads in China. Because of the influence of terrain, some cities plan routes along the direction, which is favorable to traffic and resident's living. Based on the clustering of road network indicators, four types of the urban road network are obtained, including cross orthogonal type, cross to windmill type, windmill to arc type, and mixed complex type. There are significant differences among four types of the urban road network in directional characteristics highlighted in complexity and order. In view of the spatial distribution of road network types, road networks of cross orthogonal type and cross to windmill type are mainly distributed in China's inland areas. In contrast, road networks of the windmill to arc type and mixed complex type are mainly distributed in coastal areas. This paper explores the current traffic layout in major cities in China by analyzing the characteristics of road network's distribution in the first- and second-tier and first-tier new cities in China. This study can provide a reference for road planning and optimization of road network layout in new urban districts.
The importance of ecological security space has attracted more and more attention in the top-level design of urban spatial expansion in China. That’s very necessary to identify security issues and key ecological factors from regional scale, construct landscape ecological security pattern and analyze urban spatial expansion mode, which can provide policy reference for the upcoming territorial spatial planning. Taking the coastal areas of Jiangsu as an example, based on the theory of ‘process-pattern’ of landscape ecology, this article constructs four single ecological security patterns for the maintenance of basic ecosystem services such as landform, water conservation, biodiversity and recreational landscape. According to the ‘minimum-maximum constraint’ criterion, by overlapping mosaic operations, four different levels of comprehensive ecological security patterns are constructed, and the low security level zone that needs to be strictly protected, then the high security level that could be planned as a key development zone in future. Meanwhile, use MCR model, set up and compare the impact of different models on urban spatial expansion, such as ‘ecological security protection type’ ‘economic growth dominant type’ and ‘ecological and economic coordination type’. The results show that the coordinated model of ‘ecological protection and economic development’ can better balance the ‘ecological-social-economic’ benefits. This model can reasonably determine the space for urban construction and industrial development. It is the optimal model for the orderly and healthy development of cities and towns in the future, and also of great significance for optimizing the spatial layout of cities and towns and improving the comprehensive benefits of construction land development.
Internet finance industry has grown rapidly in China and as a result, this phenomenon has caught more and more attention from the government as well as the community. However, internet finance companies are gathered in specific cities, which can be related to the high survival risks these enterprises facing. In other words, the survival and the development of internet financial enterprises is restricted by spatio-temporal factors to a certain extent, in the form of agglomeration economies. This article studies the case of P2P online lending platforms to explore spatio-temporal survival variations of internet finance companies in China and their influencing factors. It firstly shows the graphs of cities where platforms enter and exit normally or abnormally from 2009 to 2017. Then, it applies the competing risk model to assess the normal and abnormal exit risks these platforms facing in terms of agglomeration economies. The results can be summarized as follows: 1) Shenzhen, Shanghai, Beijing and their surrounding areas are hotspots of P2P platforms’ entry and exit, and the lifespans of platforms differ in different cities. 2) Urban economy and platform experience are conducive to platforms’ survival and compliance growth. Encouraging policies are conducive to compliance platforms’ survival but increase the possibility of abnormal exit, while late entry time will limit platforms’ survival. 3) Agglomeration economies are the main effects on the survival of P2P platforms. Their survival is closely related to the temporal and spatial choices of enterprises when they enter the market. By exploring the spatio-temporal variations of internet finance enterprises’ survival and their influence factors, this article provides a reference for relevant enterprises’ spatio-temporal decisions and the formulation of government policies.
Residents' daily life circle is one of the key issues in relation to the national spatial planning in the "new era". Supply of public service facilities is the primary condition for plan-making of this type of circle. Spatial match between residents' daily life circle and public service facilities reveals the human-environment relationship at the community level. There exist many studies on spatial match between residents' daily life circle and public service facilities. However, the existing findings are mainly based on survey data, which have disadvantages such as insufficient samples, small geography coverage, and so on. This study investigated the spatial match between residents' daily life circle and public service facilities in large cities by taking Beijing as an example. Using mobile phone data and point-of-interest (POI) data collected in 2018, this study measured the spatial range of residents' daily life circle and accessibility of public service facilities, and analyzed the relationship between the spatial range of residents' daily life circle and accessibility of public service facilities by the bivariate spatial autocorrelation method. It also analyzed the geographical variations in the relationship. The results of analysis show that residents' daily life circle has a multi-centric structure at the city level. The length of radius of the circle increases from the central areas to the periphery. Accessibility of public service facilities is featured with a zonal structure but its level decreases with the distance away from the centers. The level of accessibility is negatively related with radius of the circle, which means that the higher level of accessibility, the smaller radius of the circle. There are geographical variations in the relationship. The relationship is "high-low" in the city center and new town centers, but dominated by "low-low" and "low-high" pattern in the fringe of the city center and new town centers. There are also variations in the relationship between different types of public service facilities. For the cultural and leisure facilities, the degree of spatial match between residents' daily life circle and public service facilities is obvious lower than other facilities. The conclusion of this research provides new evidence for residents' daily life circle study, and has policy implications for residents' daily life circle planning.
Chlorophyll a (chl-a) is an important parameter of water color in marine environment. Quantitative observation from satellite remote sensing is the main way to obtain large-scale oceanic chl-a. However, due to the influence of cloud and fog coverage, data missing is a common phenomenon in satellite remote sensing chl-a products, which greatly reduces the application effect of data. The data-interpolating empirical orthogonal function (DINEOF) method is currently the most widely used data interpolation and reconstruction method for time series data. In this study, a layered reconstruction method for Bohai Sea chl-a (SDS-DINEOF) is designed to address the shortcoming of excessive smoothing at fine scales using the DINEOF method. This method utilizes the distributional characteristics of Bohai chl-a, that is high values in the nearshore and low values in the central water, and divides the Bohai Sea into 32 equidistant regions. We reconstruct the missing data of the daily Bohai GOCI satellite chl-a products at 10:13 a.m in each region separately using this method. The reconstructed results were compared with the DINEOF results. The results show that: (1) Both the SDS-DINEOF and the DINEOF methods can reconstruct missing data completely. The reconstruction results of the former have more detailed information than the latter. The seasonal average results of SDS-DINEOF show that the value of chl-a in the Bohai coastal waters is generally high, while the value of central water is low in summer and autumn, and high in winter and spring; (2) The SDS-DINEOF has a higher overall reconstruction accuracy and reconstruction efficiency compared with the DINEOF. The average accuracy is increased by 3.52%, and the reconstruction time is saved by 125%. The reconstruction accuracy of each layered region has been improved, with the most significant improvement in the 31st and 32nd floors located at the central water in Bohai Sea. The reconstruction accuracy of most single images in the time series has been improved. The reconstruction results of chl-a images in July and August 2019 are significantly improved; (3) As the data missing rate increases, the reconstruction accuracy and efficiency of DINEOF and SDS-DINEOF will both decrease, though the reconstruction accuracy and efficiency of the SDS-DINEOF method are always higher than that of the DINEOF method; (4) During the construction process, the interpretation rate of the data and the reconstruction time by the best model of each layer are restricted and affected by the reconstructed sub-data set itself. The results obtained in this paper have important theoretical and practical significance for improving the quality of marine remote sensing data products.
Understanding the population loss and economic decline in the three provinces of Northeast China from a perspective of urban shrinkage is of great significance to deepening the transformation theory of China's old industrial bases. The main results can be summarized as follows. Since 2000, obvious differences in urban growth and shrinkage have occurred in Northeast China. Some 42.85% of cities showed an urban shrinkage. The manufacturing and service industries in cities of urban growth (growing cities) are increasingly advanced, while the development of new pattern industries and industrial structure upgrading are slow in cities of urban shrinkage (shrinking cities) and the economic competitiveness of these shrinking cities is weakening. There is a close spatial correlation between growing and shrinking cities. On the one hand, growing cities continuously absorb the production factors such as population and capital of shrinking cities through the agglomeration effect, and on the other hand, they increase the pressure of economic transformation of shrinking cities through the spatial transfer of traditional industries. The shrinkage degree varies from high to low from north to south, and shows a trend of 'first strengthening, then weakening' from east to west. The processing cities have the highest shrinkage degree, followed by industrial and mining cities, and the tourism and port cities have a relatively low shrinkage degree. The factors influencing urban shrinkage include the development lag of public service facilities, the misalignment of industrial development and market demand, the low correlation degree of industrial structure, the aging of population structure, and the agglomeration effect of regional central places, their intensity of action enhancing in turn. According to the economic long wave theory and local circumstances, Northeast China will experience a long-term urban shrinkage in the future. It should be a strategic choice to develop this region to actively adapt to the shrinkage, and optimize and reorganize population and economic factors through smart urban shrinkage.
With a strong emphasis on historical heritage and culture-making, culture-led redevelopment has become an important policy in many megacities to revitalize declining areas, such as urban villages. However, local governments have different understandings of cultural development and historic preservation and often take them at face value while ignoring the internal mechanisms. For cities of migration, cultural identity has richer connotations. The time-space nexus between the origins and destinations of migrants is highly significant for fostering a diverse and more inclusive urban culture. Taking three urban villages in Singapore and Shenzhen as empirical cases and using the theoretical perspective of cultural identity, this paper explores the culture-making process in the redevelopment of urban villages. We argue that the essence of cultural identity lies in social relations, not merely in visual symbols and images, and understanding cultural identity requires comprehending the relations between the global and the local, as well as between the past and the present embedded in places. The paper starts with an interpretation of the culture-led macro policy, followed by an analysis of urban redevelopment's internal political and economic driving forces. Based on data from participant observation and semi-structured interviews in both cities, a qualitative analysis on the modality, mechanism, and influences of identity-making in urban village redevelopment was conducted. Research findings include differences in the dominant stakeholders' attitudes toward cultural identity, especially migrants' identity, in the redevelopment modalities in the two aforementioned cities. These differences have led to different outcomes. The case of Singapore's Geylang Serai Village centered on the living needs and activities of Malay migrants, who were the main residents there, to conduct the regeneration. Further, the Housing and Development Board (HDB) issued a policy to ensure residents' housing rights. Therefore, the program maintained the continuity of the existing community by protecting the spontaneously formed identity while developing the showcase economy based on simultaneous market activities. Regarding Shenzhen, developers of Nantou Ancient City and Gankeng Hakka Town focused on specific historical periods and designated the architectural style as the local characteristic in order to develop the tourism economy. However, the top-down imposed identity had little to do with the migrants' community, which led to their exclusion and broke down their established social networks, indicating that the mere focus on beautifying the physical environment will lead to gentrification catering to middle-class aesthetics. The study findings point to the conclusion that the designation of the cultural identity of a place is, effectively, the use of cultural capital. The voice of identity in cultural discourses represents the social right of a community to urban spaces. Therefore, culture-led urban village redevelopment should focus more on local communities' social relations and actual needs in order to promote a more just, inclusive, and sustainable urban redevelopment.
Drawing upon the existing literature and practice, the study revealed two main ways to renew urban villages, namely demolition and reconstruction and on-site rectification. However, it is challenging to meet the sustainable development needs of the city regarding economy, society, and environment using these approaches. Accordingly, they have become the key factors restricting the process and effect of urban renewal. Therefore, this study introduces the theory of sustainability science, draws lessons from the three-dimensional analysis framework of "object-subject-process" in management science, and establishes the research framework of sustainable renewal mode in urban villages by taking communities and individual projects as the spatial scale of research. This model emphasizes several dimensions. The object dimension entails pursuing economic and social prosperity under the premise that the key natural capital is not reduced. The process dimension consists of conducting the whole process reform of the causal chain. The main dimension encompasses pursuing the cooperative governance of the government, enterprises, villagers, and village collective. The empirical study of Huanghe Village in Hou Lake, Changsha, was planned by the government, contracted by enterprises, and coordinated by village communities through house preparation. In addition, this paper evaluates the renewal path of "moving but not demolishing and overall development and comprehensive renovation" from the perspective of sustainable development. The results show that the model has a positive impact on balancing the interests of multiple parties, revitalization of the stock of land resources, promotion of the upgrading of industrial structure, improvement of the urban space quality, and protection of the village culture. However, since the model does not involve the changes of the property rights of farmers' self-built houses, it is difficult to fundamentally solve the historical problems originating from the process of urban village renewal, such as the transformation of farmers' citizenship status and farmers' livelihood risks. In addition, the case selected by the empirical study is specific in terms of the location and evolution process, which may directly affect the copy effect of the case. Nevertheless, this study is an attempt to interpret the practice of urban renewal using the theory of sustainability science, which provides new insight into promoting the sustainable renewal of urban villages, as well as experiences in China.
With the transformation from a focus on material spaces to spatial experiences within the field of gentrification-displacement, the lifeworld constituted by daily experiences was the fundamental starting point of this study. Daily experiences as such do not only refer to unconscious universal experiences but also contingent ones, so that the lifeworld at issue is a field of care as well as a field of suffering simultaneously, within which both rootedness and rootlessness are concerned. Therefore, the field of displacement integrates into the frame of Lefebvre's spatial triad in such a way that the lifeworld at issue is manifested as representational space and spatial practice. The lifeworld, as a pivotal concept of phenomenology, as well as the spatial triad can both be seen to merge into the field of displacement and further induce the transformation of the focus from direct displacement to indirect displacement, which regards daily experiences as its base. Meanwhile, a qualitative analysis of local symbols, within which local agencies act and react, has been adopted in this study field as an effective spatial practice in the production of representational space. Representational space as one side of the spatial triad tends to be regarded as the opposite side of spatial representation, in many cases, and both are linked by spatial practice. Within the frame of spatial triad, this study mainly concerns the experiences of lifeworld stemming from gentrification-displacement which is regarded as the representational space represented through the locals' practice. Based on the theoretical context in question, the authors conducted an investigation of gentrification-displacement experiences in the Xiahao community of Nan'An District of Chongqing, which is a very typical historical and cultural district confronting displacement by tourism gentrification. In addition, another item by Lefebvre, "social space," was also included in this study to place a stronger emphasis on hierarchical social groups catering for this case study on recognition, action, and emotion at a local level. The findings of this study included two main aspects. First, the displacement experiences were demonstrated by distinguishing the features within three main social groups: residents, migrants, and tourists. (1) Residents' experiences comprised the loss of memories related to their own families' life history in the long term as well as the disappearance of the routine of intimate interpersonal relationships in the neighborhood. (2) The displacement experiences of migrants were manifested as the loss of a free lifestyle that was far removed from the lifestyle of metropolises. (3) The displacement experiences of tourists were illustrated as the loss of an authentic place where these people could conduct their own authentic experiences based on nostalgia. Second, within the process of gentrification-induced displacement, migrants' cultural and commercial activities played an important role in bridging the gap between the inside authentic space and the outside commercial space, thereby provoking the arrival of numerous tourists in the community, resulting in long-term indirect displacement. Along with the prominent activities of migrants, an outside capital logic was thereafter involved in this community, leading to a completely irreversible transformation as a commercialized space.
With the continuous collision of localization and globalization, the transmutation and development of local culture is constantly advancing. Ethnic and cultural borders are blurred, so that social memory is gradually lost. How to maintain the uniqueness of the destination is worth thinking about for destination marketing organizations. In this context, foodscape is deemed to establish the vivid branding image of the destination and plays a significant role in the process of creating social memory. With the rapid evolution of digital technology and mass media, the impact of videos is becoming increasingly obvious. Documentary is one of the most significant ways to save and share social memory, and its greatest feature is that it is drawn from the real living environment. A Bite of China is
more well-known compared with many other domestic and foreign food documentaries because of its strong humanistic spirituality. Thus, we use commentary and interview texts of A Bite of China as research materials. In this article, sentiment analysis, sematic network analysis, and ground theory are applied to analyze the video material, which aims to illustrate the representation and creation of foodscape on social memory. The main conclusions are summarized as follows: (1) In terms of the results of sentiment analysis, people mainly have a positive attitude toward daily food experience. The formation of social memory is based on people's self-awareness and emotional cognition. People's emotional identity forms the mainstream ideology of society and frames the development orientation of social memory. (2) According to the semantic network diagram, food taste, food culture, and family are the most significant in people's memory, which enrich the connotation of social memory. Moreover, from the perspective of time-space dimension, people can activate the path of retaining social memory and construct memorial space via ancient books, anecdotes, bodily practices, and memorial ceremonies; (3) Finally, the representation of foodscape on social memory is divided into three dimensions: environmental, functional, and emotional. First, as far as environmental memory is concerned, a specific food environment can evoke people's memory, which plays a basic role in the formation of social memory. Second, in terms of functional memory, food relies on various carriers with distinctive features, such as villages, classics, legends, customs, and folk songs, which can play social and cultural functions. Third, emotional memory emphasizes the symbolism and emotional value of food, which plays a leading role in the formation of social memory. Overall, the study reveals the mechanism of creation of foodscape on social memory. On the one hand, the research, particularly localized research, enlarges and enriches the study on food and memories. On the other hand, the role of mass media must be recognized. Additionally, destination marketing organizations ought to take active steps to create local foodscape for locals and tourists.
Migration in China is a process that involves not only floating to destinations but also settling down there by gaining local Hukou. The second step, in particular, has become the primary concern of the recent new-type urbanization. But, important as it is, our knowledge about this particular step is severely restricted due largely to data limitation, and this article tries to overcome the restriction. In the article, we first estimate the number of Hukou migration at the 277 prefecture level cities (not including Sanya, Danzhou, Haidong, Hulunbuir, Bayannur, Wuhu, Bengbu, Zhengzhou, Pingdingshan, Nanyang, Huangshi and cities of Xinjiang, Xizang, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan) between 2011 and 2017; We then compare its spatiotemporal patterns with those of floating population over the period, and we further evaluate the impact of New-type Urbanization Plan on its patterns. Results show that Hukou migration has become increasingly active in recent years, and its spatial patterns are highly similar to those of the floating population. Popular destinations are primarily situated in the three coastal regions, whereas the geographic distribution of origin is much less clustered, with the highest out-Hukou-migration being found in the middle Yangtze River and Northeast China. Mega-cities are where the local Hukou is most pursed, first-tier cities maintain a persistent attraction for Hukou migration; and the emerging second-tier cities have seen a rapid increase in the intake of this migration. Small and median-sized cities, by contrast, are very uncompetitive, despite that all the restrictions on Hukou transfer have been removed there. These cities have even seen an increasing out-migration of their Hukou-holders. The results revealed here are the basis on which our advice for policy makers are made. The advice is not simply on the issue of Hukou reforms, but also touches the topics of balanced regional development and reduced urban inequality. The results also highlight the exciting research prospect of both Hukou migration and new-type urbanization, a prospect that requires both creative imaginations and vigorous investigations of China’s prospect of both Hukou migration and new-type urbanization, a prospect that requires both creative imaginations and vigorous investigations of China’s migration.
The research on the evaluation of municipal infrastructure is of great significance for building a solid foundation for urban development, promoting the new business forms of urban development, and promoting the coordinated development of urban economic growth, social development and ecological environment protection. In order to correctly understand the development status of China’s municipal infrastructure level, factor analysis, spatial statistical analysis, overall difference index and decomposition methods were used to analyze the evolution of municipal infrastructure factors, disequilibrium and the relationship with economic development level in 36 key cities, 253 ordinary prefecture-level cities and 338 county-level cities in 2006, 2011 and 2016. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) The factors, non-equilibrium, spatial distribution, and evolution of municipal infrastructure in different levels of cities have both commonalities and differences. 2) Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the focus of urban municipal infrastructure investment has changed, with more emphasis on people-centered urbanization. The correlation between the level of municipal infrastructure and the level of urban economic development has weakened between 2012 and 2016, and infrastructure investment has begun to pay more attention to people’s livelihood. 3) On the whole, the spatial distribution of urban municipal infrastructure level is characterized by higher in the east, central in the middle part, and lower in the northeast and west of China. At the same time, it has a positive spatial autocorrelation. 4) The overall, regional and inter-regional non-equilibrium of municipal infrastructure in key cities are higher than those of ordinary prefecture-level cities and county-level cities. 5) The inequality between regions is the dominant source of the current non-equilibrium problem of China’s municipal infrastructure. 6) The non-equilibrium between the level of municipal infrastructure and urban economic development is not a simple linear correlation.