The high-quality development of resource-based cities is of great importance. In order to clearly understand the problems existing in the transformation of resource-based cities and clarify the high-quality development path, experts from different fields are invited to discuss the current research frontiers of the main dilemmas and breakthrough paths of high-quality development of resource-based cities. The interview results show that the transformation of resource-based cities in China has made great achievements, but there is still a great distance from the requirements of high-quality development, highlighted by the fact that economic development still fails to get rid of the development path of resource dependence, the gathering of new factors to promote high-quality development is weak and resource-based cities are facing great pressure both internally and externally under the carbon emission reduction target. In the New Era, it is necessary to reconceptualize the role and status of resource-based cities and improve the ability of resource-based cities to ensure national resource and energy security; to realize the re-cognition of the new resource system based on a profound grasp of the connotation of the traditional concept of resource endowment, pay attention to the excavation of new resources and enrich the new knowledge system of resource-based city research. According to the development conditions of different types of resource-based cities, it is necessary to implement measures by categories and promote the innovative development of resource-based cities according to local conditions, and continue to improve the employment elasticity of economic growth, enhance the ability of economic development to pull employment, and pay full attention to the creation and cultivation of employment opportunities; accelerate the exploration of a green and efficient transformation and development path, and simultaneously realize the greening of "stock" and the greening of "increment"; to comprehensively consider the development basis and factor resource conditions of resource-based cities, and change from the traditional "growth and expansion type" to the development mode of "combination of efficient growth and smart shrinkage". It is necessary to integrate new data and new technological methods to scientifically/intelligently support the spatial governance of resource (exhausted) cities; to establish the guiding ideology of giving priority to people's livelihood, make up for the historical debts in the past construction process of resource-based cities through urban renewal, comprehensively improve the livability level and economic vitality of resource-based cities, and reshape the urban socio-spatial network; The "chain system" schemes and models such as "strengthen the chain, complement the chain and extend the chain" should be fully referenced for the industrial transformation of resource-based cities. The above viewpoints provide scientific and feasible theoretical and decision support for the high-quality development of resource-based cities.
In the new high-quality development stage, the growth and shrinkage of resource-based cities face a systematic reconfiguration of internal and external conditions. There is a lack of empirical evidence on how resource-based cities can escape from the historical fate of "exhaustion of mines and decline of cities" and achieve positive urban population growth in the process of transformation and development. This paper uses cross-sectional and panel data of 116 resource-based cities from 2010 to 2020 to quantitatively characterize their trajectory of growth and shrinkage, and empirically investigate the influence mechanism of industrial structure transformation on population growth and decline. The study finds that more than 60% of resource-based cities in China were shrinking during the study period, showing a geographical distribution pattern of "one belt and two areas". The rationalization and upgrading of industrial structure both show crowding-out effects on the population growth of resource-based cities in the short term, and in the long term, the effect of industrial structure rationalization turns positive, while the compensating effect of industrial structure upgrading is not yet apparent. In the long run, the impact of industrial structure rationalization turns positive, while the compensating effect of industrial structure upgrading has not yet appeared. The diversity of industrial structure can promote the population growth of resource-based cities in the short term, but this effect is not significant in the long term. Based on those findings, the transformation and development of resource-based cities need to improve the level of industrial structure rationalization as an important breakthrough, take industrial structure upgrading as a long-term main line, implement parallel strategies of industrial extension and industrial renewal based on local comparative advantages, and build a diversified industrial system. The industrial structure transformation of resource-based cities of different types and development stages should emphasize strategic differentiation.
This paper summarizes the policy evolution of sustainable development of resource-based cities (RBCs) in China over the past 20 years and analyzes the results of promoting sustainable development of RBCs. The main points of this paper are as follows: (1) The evolution path of sustainable development policy of RBCs in China in the study period basically follows the development logic of combining problem orientation and goal orientation, experiencing from "administrative intervention", "administrative guidance" to "comprehensive governance" changes. Generally speaking, the policy evolution can be roughly divided into three stages, namely, the stage of resolving difficulties, the stage of comprehensive promotion and the stage of high-quality development. (2) At present, China has formed a "four-in-one" policy framework for sustainable development of RBCs, which includes the transformation of resource-exhausted cities, innovative development of resource-rich cities, transformation and upgrading of independent industrial and mining areas, and comprehensive treatment of coal mining subsidence areas. (3) RBCs make full use of local advantages, and initially form some characteristic transformation development models. (4) In the New Era, RBCs are faced with severe challenges such as large carbon emission reduction tasks, weak economic growth, and bottlenecks hindering balanced and high-quality development in special areas. It is urgent to make all-out efforts to solve key problems and promote sustaibable development.
As a new mode of transportation in modern society, high-speed railway is an important external driving force for the economic transformation of resource-based cities. Based on the panel data of 114 resource-based cities in China from 2004 to 2018, this paper analyzes the impact of the opening of high-speed rail on the economic transformation of resource-based cities in China by adopting the multi-period differential difference method. The results show that: In general, the opening of high-speed railway plays a significant role in promoting the industrial structure transformation and economic growth of resource-based cities. The opening of high-speed rail also has a heterogeneous effect on the economic transformation of resource-based cities in different development periods: The opening of high-speed railway has a significant promotion effect on the optimization of the industrial structure of coastal resource-based cities, but its impact on economic growth is insignificant. In contrast, the optimization of industrial structure of resource-based cities in inland areas is not significantly affected by the opening of high-speed railway, and its economic growth is significantly affected by high-speed railway. The opening of high-speed rail also has heterogeneous impacts on resource-based cities with different development periods: The opening of high-speed railway has a significant promoting effect on the optimization of industrial structure in the growing and regenerating resource-based cities, but its effect on industrial structure optimization of mature and declining resource cities is not obvious. By contrast, the opening of high-speed railway has no obvious influence on the economic growth of the growing and regenerating and mature resource-based cities, but has a significant promotion on the economic growth of the declining resource-based cities.
Industrial transformation is an important development problem faced by resource- exhausted cities, and exploring the evolutionary mechanisms of industrial transformation and its economic resilience in resources-exhausted cities is of great significance to realize high-quality urban development. From the perspective of evolutionary economic resilience, taking Daye city of Hubei province as an example, this paper constructed an evaluation index system of economic resilience in resource-exhausted cities, and the entropy value method and partial least squares (PLS) are adopted to quantitatively reveal the evolutionary characteristics and driving mechanisms of economic resilience during the industrial transformation of Daye city from 2000 to 2019. The results showed that: (1) The economic resilience of the study area had undergone the evolutionary stages of recession adaptation, resistance to recovery, and response improvement, which corresponded to the study area's economic recession transition period (2000-2009), development recovery period (2010-2014), and efficient improvement period (2015-2019), and the level of economic resilience showed a "slow to fast" rising trend. (2) From 2000 to 2019, the driving factors of the evolution of economic resilience in the study area changed from the transformation of industrial structure and the improvement of innovation level to multi-factors. Among them, residents' income, market scale, government regulation ability, industrial technology level are the key factors to promote the evolution of economic resilience in the study area. (3) The transformation of industrial diversification is the direct driving force for the improvement of economic resilience in the study area, and the evolution of the study area to a higher level of urban life stage is driven by multiple factors. When the pressure factor is eliminated, the urban state is adjusted and the response mode is optimized, the economic resilience will promote the "path breakthrough" of the industry by activating the industrial factors and balancing the driving force, and then evolve into a higher-level state, so as to promote the high-quality development of resource-exhausted cities.
The Covid-19 lasting for years and the geopolitical and economic changes around the world have a significant impact on China's carbon neutral strategy and the protection of natural resources in the near term and future. How to combine the goals of realizing carbon neutrality and ensuring natural resource security, and put forward the security and realization strategy of natural resources from the perspective of the technical logic of carbon neutrality and the practical logic in the field of natural resources, has important practical significance and theoretical value for China. Starting from the important supporting role of natural resources in national economic and social development along with the analysis of the current practice of natural resource utilization and protection, this paper systematically reviewed some related problems of carbon neutrality and main paths to realize carbon neutrality in the field of natural resources. The author believes that the current understanding of carbon emissions has not only the uncertainty of quantitative indicators, but many other misunderstandings as well. Facing the multi-dimensions of development goals towards the years of 2030 and 2060, China needs to coordinate the rational utilization of various energy and natural resources. In order to achieve carbon neutrality in the field of natural resources, China should adhere to its own technical and practical logics, clarifying various boundaries between carbon neutrality actions, and strengthening the research on the basic theories and methods of natural resources, revealing the coupling mechanism between carbon peak and carbon neutrality (2060 goals) and energy and resources, studying and formulating the seceding path and other utilization strategies of fossil energy, enhancing applicable technologies to improve the efficiency of resource and energy utilization, exploring the potential and implementation path of carbon sink increase through forest and grass, wetland, land use and carbon sequestration, and developing the new model of systematic governance of mountains, rivers, forests, lakes, grass, sand, ice and natural resources, carrying out strategic research, simulation and early warning, dynamic assessment, method innovation and application demonstration of natural resource security oriented to the strategic goal of carbon neutrality. The author also proposes ten key strategic plans to be implemented immediately, including the action of dual control of fossil energy, the action of renewable energy exploration, the action of resource utilization and efficiency improvement, the action of increasing storage of key minerals, the action of farmland protection and restoration, the action of forest and grass expansion and conservation, the action of wetland restoration and protection, the action of land and sea coordination, the action of resource management intelligence, and the action of talent and technology innovation.
Supporting fundamental research is the responsibility and mission of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC). Natural resource management is an important research field of interdisciplinary integration and innovation in geographical sciences. This paper constructs a classification framework for research interests from the perceptive of logic and applicability, classifies relevant research interests in land sciences and natural resource management of geographical science of NSFC, analyzes the existing pattern of projects application and funding in this field, inspects the research hotspots, and proposes the development prospects of this field. Results show that: The application pattern in natural resource management since 2021 is dominated by the intersectional and human element-oriented studies, with over 55% of the intersectional category, 30% of the human element-oriented category, and around 15% of the natural element-oriented category, and from the perspective studied objects, around 73% is the land resource-oriented studies, around 14% of the ecological resource-oriented studies, and around 13% of the other natural resource-oriented studies; the funding pattern of projects is dominated by land resource studies, at more than 75%, while other natural resource funding is low in number and unstable in rate; agricultural land, construction land, and land use system are the main funding fields of land resources. To promote the healthy and sustainable development of the natural resource management research, it is necessary to innovate the research paradigm in this field, set an example of interdisciplinary integration research for geographical science, enhance its attributes of fundamental research, persist in the initial connotation of the code set, and prevent the polarization of the research pattern.
With the rapid urbanization and industrialization, China is facing many problems, such as the imbalance between urban and rural land structure, the disorder of territorial spatial development, and the regional difference. Especially, the confusion, conflict, and degradation of territorial space function are very serious, which has brought great pressure and challenges to the territorial spatial development, protection, and governance in the New Era. As an important part of the theoretical system and practical framework of structured territorial spatial planning, territorial space function referred to develop, control, and protect space according to a scheme confirmed by territorial spatial planning under the specific regional spatial scope and the human-environment interaction, with the purpose of satisfying human demands or enhancing human well-being, so as to provide utility of different products and services for human society directly or indirectly. The territorial space function was also an important scale to investigate the harmonious coexistence between human and nature. To establish the theory and reality demands of the current major strategic decisions, this paper pointed out that the regional function theory was the logical starting point of territorial space function, the theory of territorial system of human-earth interaction was the core of constructing the theory system of territorial space function, and the spatial integration was an important dimension in the evolution of the theoretical system of territorial space function. A theoretical cognitive model of territorial space function (snowflake model) was constructed from the aspects of strategic decision-making, major function, baseline control, use regulation, zoning governance and spatial coordination, in which the strategic decision-making was the policy guidance for the territorial space function, the major function was the overall plan for the spatial function pattern, the baseline control was the basic premise to realize the territorial space function, the use regulation was the institutional guarantee to strengthen the territorial space function, the zoning governance was an effective way to optimize the territorial space function, and the spatial coordination was the fundamental goal of regulating the territorial space function. Facing the needs of serving national important strategic decisions, optimizing territorial spatial development pattern and sustainable development, this paper discussed the basic problem domains of territorial space function research in the New Era, such as theoretical cognition, classification and identification, evolution mechanism and dynamic trade-off, by which a preliminary research framework of territorial space function was constructed.
The urban development is mainly restricted by the shortage of water resources. The potential of sustainable utilization and carrying capacity of water resources are closely related to the water ecological space. Taking Jinan as an example, this research clarified the basic definition of water ecological space and water ecological protection line by comprehensively considering the systematism and integrity of water ecosystem; defined the functional attributes of water ecosystem; proposed the technical methods for identifying water ecological space and water ecological protection line, based on various water-related plans and integrating complex water ecosystem functions, and the Geographic Information System (GIS) spatial analysis technology. This research can help to protect urban water ecosystem and optimize territorial spatial pattern. The results show that the area of water ecological space in Jinan is 3307.5 km2, and the area of water ecological protection line is 1992.2 km2, accounting for only 60.2% of water ecological space. There are obvious differences between the two protection scopes. From a multi-dimensional perspective, the protection of water ecosystem presents different characteristics. Specifically, territorial space is an important part in ensuring the service function of water ecosystem; waterfront is the most vulnerable area of water ecosystem; and there is still great potential for water cultural space to be tapped. Jinan is under great pressure to protect water security and improve water environment.
In recent years, renewable energy is becoming a momentous growth point of international energy trade, which results in a series of new changes for the extent of trade dependence among countries. Firstly, based on application of complex social network analysis and statistics from datasets on the website of International Energy Agency and World Intellectual Property Organization including global energy trade, global economy and innovation indexes for different countries in the period 2011-2020, this paper illustrates the current trade status of fossil energy and renewable energy. Secondly, after using modified Herfindahl-Hirschman Index and network construction formula to build trade dependence networks for fossil energy and renewable energy yearly, this paper respectively discusses the evolution process of the trade dependence networks for fossil energy and renewable energy though horizontal and longitudinal contrasts. Finally, in the context of removing trivial factors: geographical distance, economic differences, degree of openness, pressure to reduce CO2 emissions and differences in innovation capabilities among countries, this paper induces QAP regression to explicitly distinguish and quantitatively analyze the substitution effect of renewable energy trade dependence on fossil energy trade dependence, which is the key contribution of this study in terms of issues about energy substitution. The results show that from 2011 to 2020, the trade of fossil energy is more stable than renewable energy from 2011 to 2020, while the development of trade of renewable energy is faster. Meanwhile, both kinds of trade dependence networks show robust disassortativity and “core-periphery” characteristic. However, the trade dependence networks of renewable energy show higher average degree of dependence. In addition, the effect on trade dependence networks of fossil energy originating from that of renewable energy has transformed gradually from positive correlation to negative correlation. Hence, it implies that the trade dependence on renewable energy has a substitution effect on that of fossil energy to some extent over time. The outlined findings provide some policy suggestions. One is that China should promote the development of renewable energy industry vigorously, while firmly strengthen the trade cooperation with energy powers. The other is to establish a more stable duplex energy trade cooperation relationship between other countries while increasing the width and breadth of cooperation in international energy trade.
Territory spatial planning is an important means for modern countries to implement spatial governance, and it is a rational design for realizing specific strategic intentions. The theory and technical method in the process of formulating planning will change with the development of the times. In order to understand the conceptual innovation of territory spatial planning and governance in the era of eco-civilization, five well-known experts in this field are invited to conduct interviews on the value orientation, goal pursuit, key tasks, implementation paths and main fields of territory spatial planning and governance. Experts believe that: (1) The territory spatial planning needs to handle the imbalance between individual interests with a higher overall interest principle, promote the maximization of specific interests and ensure the minimum satisfaction of other interests under the guidance of overall interests. (2) The goal of territory spatial planning and governance is not to pursue "universal prosperity of region", but to pursue "universal happiness of the people" and create a high-quality territory suitable for living and working. (3) Territory spatial planning needs to coordinate security and development, reasonably and appropriately develop and utilize natural resources, and promote the harmonious coexistence between human and nature. (4) Territory spatial planning needs to conform to the trend of economic spatial pattern change and establish a high-quality urban ecosystem and security system. (5) Cities are the key areas of territory spatial planning and governance. It is necessary to improve the logic of city governance by expanding the understanding of urban multi-attributes and systematically studying and judging the problems and causes of spatial governance. Through expert interviews, it can be seen that territory spatial planning is essentially the reconstruction of spatial relations. We need to promote the harmonious coexistence of human and nature and we need to deal with the interests of multiple subjects and realize social harmony. It is also necessary to respect the operating rules of different levels of territory units such as the life community of mountains, rivers, forests, lakes, grass and sand, and maintain and repair the links mechanisms between various elements.
The existing urban construction land allocation mainly follows the guidance of spatial development, which is carried out by using static data and land allocation standards, evaluation and prediction models. There are some phenomena of "regional preference" and "seeking large scale". In the new era of emphasizing the construction of ecological civilization and high-quality development, the implementation of territory spatial planning strategy requires that the allocation method of urban construction land needs to be innovated in time. This project focuses on the inevitable trend that the urban place space will be transformed into the urban flow space under the deep influence of information or intelligent technology in the future, and considers that the spatiotemporal flow and distribution of production, life and ecological elements of different scales will be the key to the scientific allocation of urban construction land. Therefore, the project uses multi-source big data of element flow and multi-disciplinary analysis methods, trying to establish a new method framework from four aspects: evaluation of urban spatial development level, spatio-temporal simulation of urban element flow network and land allocation, identification of urban element functional area and delimitation of development boundary, and dynamic evaluation of urban construction land allocation effect. Firstly, it is found that the evaluation of urban spatial development level needs to comprehensively consider the ability of cities to control, attract and overflow the current regional elements, and construct the evaluation index system from three aspects of spatial development scale, vitality and quality. Secondly, in the process of regional distribution of urban construction land index, we pay attention to using network optimization model and social network analysis method to describe the flow law of regional elements, and find out the cities with different levels and types of combination of "spatial development level and element control" through time-space coupling model. Thirdly, the future expansion direction and boundary shape of cities are determined by the spatiotemporal matching of supply and demand between the flow changes of various internal elements and the functional space layout. It is necessary to identify the functional influence area and flow preference of elements by using models of spatiotemporal coupling, gravity, cellular automata and agent-based system. Finally, the evaluation index of urban construction land allocation effect needs to reflect the requirements and trends of future urban development, such as ecological civilization, high quality, smart governance and integration. These research results can provide reference for the delimitation and implementation of urban development boundary in territory spatial planning.
Facing the territorial symptom such as urban sprawl, rural decline, and environmental degradation, territory spatial planning needs to integrate multiple plans that reflect the maximum interests of various stakeholders and usual conflict between them to achieve "Multi-Plan Integration". This paper proposes an approach to coordinate the conflicts between different plans based on security pattern theory. This approach mainly includes: (1) On the epistemology level, territory spatial planning is considered as a rational planning process, in which the generated plans are defensible by adopting the minimax-constraint approach, and the outcomes are acceptable by all stakeholders through the spatial game to coordinate their competitions for limited land. (2) On the methodology level, the first stage is to identify security patterns functioning as the basis for safeguarding the goals of all stakeholders and the coordination etween them, and the second stage is to negotiate on the use of competitive land using these security patterns. In practice, it is essential to establish an institutional mechanism to coordinate planning conflicts. Moreover, for the disadvantageous position of natural and ecological capitals in multi-party games, it is necessary to construct an ecological security pattern and ecological infrastructure to provide comprehensive ecosystem services, which would help to reinvent the good earth.
Through a systematic review of the current legal norms of spatial planning, it is found that there are problems such as lack of top-level legislation, redundant and flat external structures, and fragmented internal norms due to legislative strategies, departmental legislation, and the dependency of planning legislation. Following the "Field Law", "Law and Development" and systematic logic, the legislation of territory spatial planning should be guided by practical issues and modern governance, and it needs to pay attention to the continuity of legal system development when breaking through the barriers of departmental law. On top of that, it strives to realize the coordination of the legal system and the coherence of values. To build a legal system for territory spatial planning, the status of basic law of "Territory Spatial Planning Law" should be established internally and supplemented by supporting legislation, and externally, it should be connected with relevant legislation such as "Territory Spatial Developing and Protecting Law", territory spatial policies and its technical standards. In the end, a cone-shaped legal system of territory spatial planning featured with clear main axes, strict levels, and different orders will be constructed.
With urbanization and industrialization, cultivated land in hilly regions of China has been gradually marginalized. Abandoned cultivated lands have ranged from inferior sloping land and extended to high-quality terraces. The abandonment of terraces will lead to a series of social and ecological problems, especially with large-scale abandonment. Therefore, the degree and spatial distribution of terrace abandonment should be evaluated scientifically to address the issue of abandonment as well as its effects. This study investigated the extent of terrace abandonment in China via a questionnaire sampling method. Based on 560 village questionnaires from 329 counties in China, the scale of terrace abandonment was calculated and the spatial heterogeneity characteristics and primary reasons for terrace abandonment were further analyzed. Study results showed that: (1) The phenomenon of terrace abandonment was observed throughout China, occurring in 54% of all the villages investigated; 9.79% of the total terraced areas have been abandoned. (2) The degree of terrace abandonment showed a spatial pattern of "high in the south and low in the north". The degree of terrace abandonment was higher in the southern hilly mountains, and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River was the most serious. (3) The primary factors related to terrace abandonment were found to be labor migration, the degree to which terraces have been mechanized, irrigation conditions, and farming traffic conditions. Measures that include improving the degree of terrace mechanization should be enacted to address the problem of terrace abandonment. An orderly "conversion of cropland" could be applied to poor-quality terraces. Changing the planting structure, strengthening new agricultural infrastructure, and encouraging circulation and large-scale operations are options that could be applied to good-quality terraces.
Based on the tree-ring increment cores of Juniperus przewalskii Kom. collected from the Maoniu Mountain in inner Qaidam Basin, the new 2710-year tree-ring width chronology was developed, and the correlation coefficients were calculated between the chronology and meteorological data during the instrumental period of 1957-2017. The results showed that the highest correlation existed between the total precipitation from July of previous year to June of current year and the chronology (r = 0.753, n = 60, p < 0.01). Based on the correlation relationship, total precipitation variation from July of previous year to June of current year was reconstructed from 392 BC to 2017 AD. The reconstruction explained 64% of the variation in the total precipitation from previous July to current June for the calibration period (1957-2017 AD). The results showed that there were nine wet periods which occurred during 106-75 BC, 6-39 AD, 179-229 AD, 581-646 AD, 823-914 AD, 1026-1095 AD, 1378-1414 AD, 1567-1609 AD and 1985-2017 AD, and seven dry periods occurring during 328-297 BC, 86-151 AD, 694-747 AD, 1168-1199 AD, 1444-1525 AD, 1680-1725 AD and 1792-1860 AD in the past 2409 years. Among these wet and dry periods, 1792-1860 AD was the driest period. Power spectral analysis revealed cyclic fluctuations of the precipitation series on 2~8 years, 40 years, 80 years and 225 years (p < 0.01). In addition, the solar minimum phases were in accord with the dry period in our study area in the past 2409 years, and the results of superposed epoch analysis showed that the precipitation decreased significantly in the following year after large volcanic eruptions observed at low-mid latitudes. The results indicated that solar activity and large volcanic eruptions were factors impacting precipitation variation in our study area.
In recent years, contact crime represented by theft and non-contact crime represented by telecommunication network fraud are both increasing, seriously affecting social stability and people′s property security. Previous studies have paid less attention to the spatial and temporal stability of different types of crime distribution patterns, and no research has yet compared the spatio-temporal stability of contact crime and non-contact crime. In the meantime, current studies also failed to propose spatial joint prevention and control strategies for different types of crime. This study takes HT District of ZG City as an example, takes the community as the analysis unit, uses kernel density estimation and space-time transition measure method to compare and analyze the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics and monthly stability of the spatial distribution pattern of theft and telecommunication network fraud in 2017. After that, we refer to the idea of spatio-temporal transition to improve the method of space-time transition from the perspective of crime prevention and control, and then identified the spatial prevention and control types of theft and telecommunication network fraud. Based on this, combined with the method of two-step cluster to recognize the joint prevention and control spatial types of two kinds of crime. The findings are as follows: (1) The spatial and temporal stability of the two types of crime is different. The spatial distribution pattern of theft crime is stable and its spatio-temoral transition indexes of adjacent months are more than 50%. However, the spatial distribution pattern of telecommunication network fraud is unstable and fluctuates greatly on the whole. What it is worth to mention is that the pattern is especially stably in February and March. (2) Four spatial types of joint prevention and control of these two types of crimes are recognized, which are respectively "two types of crime without prevention and control communities", "two types of crime neighborhood prevention and control communities", "theft crime hotspot prevention and control, telecommunication network fraud without prevention and control communities" and "theft crime coordinated prevention and control, telecommunication network fraud comprehensive prevention and control communities". This study is helpful to understand the similarities and differences between contact crime and non-contact crime in time and space, and provide guidance for police prevention and control.
Profile soil moisture (PSM), which is essential for a comprehensive understanding of the entire soil layer water content, is more difficult to retrieve than surface soil moisture (SSM). It is an effective approach to estimate PSM at regional scale by combining multi-source data. Based on random forest regression (RFR), this study established SSM-deep layer soil moisture (DLSM) relationship models for different seasons with in-situ observations over China. European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative Soil Moisture (ESA CCI SM) product was used to estimate DLSM. Spatiotemporal variation of SM in 10 soil layers, i.e., 0-10, 0-20, 0-30, 0-40, 0-50, 0-60, 0-70, 0-80, 0-90 and 0-100 cm, in China from 1980 to 2019 was analyzed in detail. ESA CCI SM product matched well with in-situ observations, but the former was generally higher than the latter. A method using saturated soil water content and wilting point for range constraining was proposed, which effectively reduced the overestimation error of ESA CCI SM product. As a whole, accuracy of RFR models was the highest in autumn, followed by summer and spring, and the lowest in winter. The models performed best in arid zone (ARZ), followed by temperate zone (TEZ) and cold zone (COZ), and worst in Qinghai-Tibet zone (QTZ). The multi-year mean and standard deviation of soil water storage of 10 soil layers were 1.64±0.11, 3.50±0.21, 5.29±0.30, 7.13±0.38, 10.04±0.46, 12.25±0.54, 14.47±0.62, 16.75±0.69, 19.05±0.76, and 21.36±0.83 cm, respectively. Soil profile was divided into fluctuating layer (0-40 cm), leap layer (40-60 cm) and stable layer (60-100 cm). Water storage of 1-m soil layer (WS-1m) over China increased from northwest to northeast and southeast, with lower PSM and greater heterogeneity in cold and arid regions and higher PSM and lower heterogeneity in warm and humid regions. WS-1m in tropical zone (TRZ), ARZ and QTZ peaked in summer, while that in TEZ and COZ was the lowest in summer. Soil profile became wetter in wet zone and wet season and drier in dry zone and dry season over the last 40 years. WS-1m in TRZ significantly increased after 2004-2009, and that in ARZ increased and decreased during 1985-1986 and 2013-2014, respectively. The main cycles of WS-1m over China were 5 a and 11 a.
With the increasing complexity and uncertainty of regional economies, economic resilience has become a hot research topic in economic geography in recent years. Industrial structure is considered the most important factor in explaining differences in regional economic resilience. However, they tend to focus on the industrial sector without paying adequate attention to producer services, which have played an increasingly important role in the economy. Theoretically, producer services can deepen the division of labor and provide specialized services, reduce transaction costs and improve efficiency, promote knowledge and technology spillover effects to resist crises, create new paths through related diversification, and spread the risk of external shocks through unrelated diversification. This study attempted to probe into the relationship between producer services and economic resilience. According to China's GDP growth, the period from 2007 to 2012 was the resistance period and the period from 2012 to 2017 was the adjustment period. In a period of resistance, economic resilience refers to economic resistance, and in a period of adjustment, resilience refers to economic recoverability. Based on an analysis of 285 cities at and above the prefectural level in China in the "post-crisis" era using a multiple mediation effect model, three main findings can be drawn. First, producer services have not only directly enhanced the economic resilience of cities by enlarging the unrelated variety of the industrial structure but also indirectly enhanced urban economic resistance and recoverability by increasing the related variety of urban industrial structures to induce technological innovation. Second, the degree of separation between producer services and the manufacturing industry in China remains low, and the mediating effect of producer services on economic resilience through deepening specialization and reducing transaction costs is not significant at present. Third, the impact of producer services on urban economic resistance and recoverability differs among eastern, central, and western cities owing to differences in the development level of producer services and economic structure. The direct and indirect impacts of producer services in the eastern cities are more prominent. The impact in central cities is likely to be indirect, mainly through the mediation effect of scientific and technological innovation. The effect of producer services on economic resilience in western cities is not significant. Fourth, among the four subgroups of producer services, the direct and indirect impacts of information transmission, software, and information technology services are the most significant. Owing to their relatively close relationship with low-tech industries, the impact of business services on economic resilience is weaker than that of other producer service sectors. This study is a useful supplement to the existing studies on economic resilience which tends to be "industry-oriented".
Combining the development history of mutual assistance and old-age care of Time Banking under the background of aging in China has important reference significance for addressing the Time Banking development dilemma. Using news reports on the establishment of Time Banking in Baidu from 1998 to 2020, this study extracts the time and place of its establishment through manual interpretation, and analyzes the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of Time Banking. Additionally, it discusses the driving factors and differentiation mechanism to restore the development history of Time Banking from the perspective of social attention and provide a useful reference for its current status from the perspective of geography. It was found that: 1) Time Banking has experienced three periods of development in China, and the number of branches has shown an overall upward trend, among which the third period had the largest increase. 2) In terms of urban and rural distribution, Time Banking was mostly concentrated in urban areas and gradually spread to rural areas. In the provincial distribution, most provinces had already explored Time Banking, among which Jiangsu, Hubei, Zhejiang, Guangxi, and four other provinces (regions) had the largest number. 3) The spatial distribution of Time Banking initially showed a small sporadic distribution, which then gradually developed into a double-center distribution pattern in the Central Plains of the Yangtze River Delta. These were concentrated south of the Hu Huanyong line and was generally "dense in the southeast-sparse in the northwest". 4) In terms of the spatial relationship, Time Banking develops gradually from the initial spatial divergence to a spatial agglomeration. The degree of agglomeration is constantly strengthened, tends to be stable, the spatial homogeneity is gradually enhanced, and the heterogeneity is gradually weakened. 5) The driving factors of Time Banking development include population structure, old-age construction level, economic development level, government support, volunteer team construction, and digital technology level. Among them, the old-age construction level is more important in the first period, while the government support level and economic development level are more important in the second and third periods. Finally, it is suggested to increase the exploration of Time Banking and reduce the dependence on social and economic development indicators to provide a feasible path for their balanced development in underdeveloped areas, such as the northwest and northeast rural areas. Additionally, government support should be strengthened and multi-stakeholder participation guided to guarantee the sustainable development of Time Banking.
With the rising aging population in China, increasing attention has been paid to the spatial layouts of medical and residential care facilities; however, the accessibility and aging suitability of these facilities have received less attention. Taking Guangdong province as an example, this study used the improved two-step floating catchment area method to measure the accessibility of medical and residential care facilities and summarized their spatial pattern characteristics from four dimensions (1 km, four regions, cities, and counties). A correlation was established between the elderly population density data and their degrees using the autocorrelation analysis method and the Gini coefficient to analyze the aging suitability and equality of medical and residential care facilities. Finally, the Spearman correlation coefficient was used to analyze the factors influencing the accessibility and equality from three aspects, namely: the natural environment, society, and economy. The following results were obtained: 1) Compared with the Gaussian two-step floating catchment area method, the improved two-step floating catchment area method was more accurate in reflecting the accessibility of medical and residential care facilities; this showed that the accessibility of downtown areas was relatively lower and that of the suburbs was relatively higher, and the distribution of accessibility values was more reasonable. The results of the improved two-step floating catchment area method revealed an obvious spatial imbalance in the accessibility of medical and residential care facilities for the elderly and the accessibility of medical facilities for the residential care facilities in Guangdong Province. The accessibility of medical and residential care facilities for the elderly in the Pearl River Delta region is relatively good, whereas that in the eastern and western coastal economic zones is relatively poor. However, the Pearl River Delta region has the worst accessibility to medical care facilities for residential care facilities among the four regions and efforts are still needed to realize a combination of medical and residential care. 2) The medical and residential care facilities in the Guangzhou-Foshan metropolitan area and the northern part of Meizhou city were not suitable for the elderly. There was a substantial inequality in the accessibility of medical and residential care facilities for the elderly in Guangdong Province. The accessibility of medical facilities for the residential care facilities in Guangdong province is more equal, but there is still a large inequality; 15 cities in Guangdong province have Gini coefficients greater than 0.5. 3) Road network density, population density, per capita GDP, and local financial expenditure were significantly correlated with the accessibility of medical and residential care facilities. The average altitude, eco-environmental status index, area, road network density, population density, per capita GDP and public financial expenditure were significantly correlated with the equality of medical and residential care facilities for the elderly in Guangdong Province. The results of this study can provide a reference for optimizing the allocation and layout of medical and residential care facilities in Guangdong Province.
With the aging of society, the travel activities of the elderly, as a vital part of resident travel, have become the focus of transportation management in most cities. The widespread application of big data has enabled travel behavior to be analyzed in more detail, with the results revealing actual travel patterns and helping to gain an in-depth understanding of the daily travel of residents. In studies on travel patterns, several methods can be used to analyze the daily activity patterns of the elderly by combining big data with the theory of activity space. However, studies on the internal disparity in the travel behavior of the elderly remain limited. Hence, we conducted a comparative analysis of the travel behavior of age groups within the elderly from the perspective of activity space based on the smart card data of the Kunming subway system. In the analysis, we first compared the basic travel behavior of the elderly and nonelderly. Based on the findings, we divided the elderly who took the subway into 60-69- and over-70-year-old groups. Second, we compared the travel behavior and activity spaces of these two groups using a statistical and spatial analysis approach. The results showed significant differences between the elderly and nonelderly groups, the 60-69-year-old group, and the over-70-year-old group. (1) We found spatiotemporal differences in travel behavior between the elderly and nonelderly. Compared to the nonelderly group, the elderly group was less mobile. Their single-subway travel duration and frequency were lower, and they traveled more during the early peak hours. Their activity range was relatively concentrated in the city center, and their travel purposes showed a stronger orientation toward leisure and medical needs. (2) With increasing age, the elderly were less mobile, and their dependence on public transport increased. In detail, the over-70-year-old group had a shorter travel duration as well as a smaller activity space, whereas their travel frequency and number of visited stations were higher than those of the primary age group. Compared with the 60-69-year-old group, the daily activity pattern of the elderly over 70 years old could be summarized as being within a smaller activity space and higher in frequency. (3) The distribution of activity spaces of the two elderly groups was similar to each other, both in areas along metro lines 1, 2, and 3, without line 6. It indicated that the daily activities of the elderly mainly occur in central urban areas with high population densities. Regarding differences, the activity spaces of those over 70 years old were more concentrated in the densely inhabited districts along metro line 3, whereas the activity spaces of the 60-69-year-old group spread to low-density areas in the south and east. These findings may imply that factors, such as the built environment, largely restrict the subway travel of older people. In other words, their daily activities rely on facilities and transit more heavily. In conclusion, our results reveal the subway travel behavior and daily activity patterns of different-aged elderly groups, which verify the feasibility of smart card data in activity space analysis. Additionally, our study provides ideas for urban planning and transportation management in the aging era to promote social space equity.
Evaporation is an important component of both hydrological and energy cycles and is very sensitive to climate change. In the context of global warming, rising temperature leads to a series of changes in hydrological factors, such as precipitation, evaporation, soil moisture, and groundwater flow, which have significant impacts on the natural environment, ecosystems, and social economy. Pan Evaporation (PE) is a vital climatic factor for estimating the atmospheric evaporation demand, and its change has been recognized as an integrative indicator of the hydrological response to climate change. Therefore, it is of great theoretical and practical significance to analyze the variation characteristics of PE and its influencing factors for water resource evaluation, hydrological process research, agricultural irrigation, and evaporation monitoring under climate change. The Yangtze River Basin (YRB) is a densely populated and highly developed area that plays an important role in the development of China's national economy. To discuss the variations in PE in the YRB and its main influencing factors, previous studies only divided the basin into upper, middle, and lower reaches based on natural and social factors. However, the area of the YRB is vast, and the PE varies greatly among the different regions of the basin under the influence of terrain and climate conditions. It is not sufficient to discuss the variation characteristics of regional PE from upstream, middle, and downstream. Additionally, most time series remained around 2000 in the existing studies, and the analysis of change characteristics of recent PE time series and its influencing factors have not been reported. Therefore, it is essential to conduct consistent regionalization for PE in the YRB and to identify the factors influencing PE variations in the subregions in recent decades. In this study, the Rotating Empirical Orthogonal Function (REOF) and Fuzzy C-Means clustering algorithm (FCM) were applied to form subregions based on pan observation data from 148 meteorological stations in the Yangtze River Basin during 1980-2017. Then, the variation characteristics and main influencing factors of PE in each sub-region were analyzed using the modified Mann-Kendall test and multivariate stepwise regression analysis. The results are as follows: (1) The first four REOF modes revealed five principal PE anomaly sensitive areas in the basin: southeast Poyang Lake plain, southwest Hengduan Mountain, northern Nanyang Basin, western Sichuan Plateau, and Central Sichuan Basin. Based on these spatial modes, the PE in the basin can be divided into nine subregions. (2) At the annual scale, PE in respective regions shows an increasing trend with the highest rate (111.28 mm/10 a) in the central basin and the lowest rate (12.5 mm/10 a) in the western plateau region. At the seasonal scale, PE in autumn and winter showed an increasing trend in the whole basin, while the variation in PE in spring and summer showed obvious regional differences, and PE in some areas showed a decreasing trend. (3) The main factors affecting the change in PE differ from region to region; however, in most of the sub-regions, PE variations are closely related to the changes in mean temperature and vapor pressure deficit. Our results are conducive to a better understanding of the temporal changes in PE in other regions of the world. In particular, the results can contribute to the development of more efficient methods for modeling and predicting PE variations by focusing on the main influencing factors under changing climatic conditions.
The flow of urban and rural elements runs through the entire process of urban and rural development and is the core of achieving urban and rural integration. Exploring the mechanism of influence of urban-rural element flow on urban-rural integrated development can provide a scientific guidance for breaking the plight of urban-rural integrated development. Based on the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) model, this study evaluated the development level of urban-rural integration in 292 cities across China, and used the ordinary least squares (OLS) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models to explore the impact mechanism of urban-rural element flow on urban-rural integration. The results show that: 1) There are large spatial differences in the level of urban-rural integrated development at the city level in China. Most of the cities that have reached the level of deep urban-rural integration are economically developed. In general, the eastern region has the most balanced urban-rural integration. 2) Overall, the flow of land elements and population elements has the most significant impact on the urban-rural integrated development, and the driving effects of the two are negative. Locally, the influence of the flow of various urban-rural elements on the urban-rural integrated development has obvious regional differences. 3) The loss of land elements of the countryside causes loss of production elements and development space in these areas, and the lost talents have no effective way to return to the countryside, which limits urban-rural integrated development. Government investment promotes the agglomeration of elements and reduces the cost of element flow, urban and rural industries achieve division of labor and complement each other in functions, and the effective flow of information elements reduces allocation costs and improves allocation efficiency of other elements, which are beneficial to urban-rural integration.
Poverty reduction is one of the primary goals of the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda of the United Nations. Clarifying how inclusive finance alleviates rural poverty and impacts rural development can provide new perspectives and avenues for alleviating rural poverty. Based on the sustainable livelihood analysis framework, this study explored the poverty reduction mechanism of rural inclusive finance and integrated multi-source data and methods to conduct a systematic empirical test on the poverty reduction effect, pathways, and heterogeneity of rural inclusive finance. The results indicate that rural inclusive finance plays a direct and an indirect role in reducing poverty. According to the three-dimensional poverty standard, the marginal impact of rural inclusive finance is 67.5%, and the poverty reduction effect is stable. Rural inclusive finance has a variable poverty reduction effect based on group differences, such as poverty degree, educational level, and type of poverty. There is a relatively small effect of poverty reduction on the deeply impoverished groups and the poor with low education levels, but a mitigation effect on income, employment, health, and living standards poverty. For the purpose of deepening, extending, and sustaining the reduction of rural poverty through inclusive finance, it would be necessary to scientifically identify the coupling process between rural inclusive finance and poor groups/regions and to determine and develop the differentiated supply of inclusive finance and an in-depth connection with rural education.
The orderly development of county urbanization, as an effective driving force for the integrated development of urban and rural areas in the new era, promotes the interaction and flow of elements between urban and rural territorial system, the optimization and adjustment of industrial structures, the optimal allocation of resources and markets, and the organic integration of urban and rural territorial system. The results show that: (1) From 2000 to 2020, the county urbanization in China developed rapidly, and the regional differences in spatial and temporal dynamics were significant. The county urbanization rate in the eastern coastal, central suburbs and northern border areas was high, while it is low in southwest China, rural areas of the central region and most parts of Tibet and Xinjiang. In 2020, to the east of the Hu Huanyong Line, the northeastern region, northern Hebei, Shanxi-Shaanxi-Henan region, eastern Sichuan, and Yunnan-Guizhou region became high-value areas for urbanization rates at the county level. There are 716 counties with urbanization rates exceeding 50%, including the Pearl River Delta, the Yangtze River Delta, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Chengdu-Chongqing region, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the border areas of Inner Mongolia, and the southeastern coastal areas of Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Fujian, accounting for 38.3% of the country's total. (2) The county urbanization in China is the result of the combined effects of factors such as population, economy, society, and culture. The level of economic development, natural environment conditions, infrastructure construction, geographic locations, public resource supply, professional entrepreneurial clusters, and macro policies affect the direction, scope and depth of county urbanization. It is predicted that by 2035, the urbanization rate of China will reach about 76.04%, and that of counties will be about 64.38%. In the future, we should strengthen the adjustment and optimization of county population, economy, society and spatial organizational structure. (3) There are five types of county urbanization in China, including factor agglomeration urbanization in counties around big cities, industrial agglomeration-driven urbanization in counties with specialized function, agricultural modernization-led urbanization in counties with main agricultural production areas, ecological conservation urbanization in counties with ecological function areas, and concentrated urbanization in counties with population loss. (4) County urbanization takes county and key towns as important spatial carriers for the agglomeration of urbanization elements, and forms a multi-level system of residence-industry and industry-city coordination. The rational spatial distribution of factors such as the development of industrial integration and population resources will further promote the interactive flow of urban and rural elements, the integration of urban and rural industries, the equalization of urban and rural residents, and the equalization of urban and rural infrastructure, and enhance urban-rural integration and network development.
The two concepts of "liu dong ren kou (the floating population)" and "ren kou liu dong (the mobility of the floating population)", and relevant data based on these two concepts, have long been used extensively in China's relevant research and policy making, playing a dominant role in the fields. Different from the concepts of "migrant" and "migration" in the international literature, which are focused on people's spatial mobility, "liu dong ren kou" and "ren kou liu dong" are identified and measured by the separation of one's place of household registration (hukou) from the place of residence, and inconsistent with relevant international practices. By analysing various census data and data from China Migrant Dynamic Survey (CMDS), this article examines the validity and reliability of these two concepts and data based on them in the international context, and reveals that they have become increasingly invalid and not reliable in measuring migration events since the reform and opening up. The results further demonstrate that these two concepts and the data based on them have been increasingly detached from the real migration events and processes; they may become invalid because of overestimating the volume of the mobile population, or ineffective due to systematic omitting of certain group of the mobile population (such as urban-urban migrants), and can even seriously mislead people's judgment on the changing direction of migration flows. In addition, data on the floating population cannot be used to calculate migration rate and are not comparable in the international context. Based on the above analysis, the article argues that while the concepts of "liu dong ren kou" and "ren kou liu dong" and relevant data based on these two concepts still need to be used for a long period of time due to the continuing existence of the hukou system and its roles in the provision of public services, social welfare and social security, relevant concepts, measurements and ways of data collection in China's migration research should be gradually shifted to and focused on the nature of migration as spatial events; transition data based on the usual residence five years and one year ago should be gradually used as the main data sources and included in the short form of future censuses, and migration event data based on population registration and administrative records should be more fully used, so that China's migration research can be conducted on the solid basis of valid and reliable data sources.
As an important agricultural production area, black soil region bears the important responsibility of ensuring national food security and maintaining agricultural ecological security. Protecting black soil is crucial to promoting sustainable agricultural development. This paper analyzes the changes of cultivated black soil pressure of grain production in Northeast China from 2000 to 2020, studies the impact of international trade on cultivated land pressure for grain production in the study area, and analyzes the competitive advantage of the agricultural products of the black soil region of Northeast China in domestic and international markets by using international market share index and trade competitive advantage index. Results show that in the past 20 years, the cultivated land pressure of grain production in the black soil region of Northeast China is basically at the safety level and presents a gradual downward trend. The cultivated land pressure of corn, soybean and rice decreased from 1.94, 1.09 and 0.63 in 2000 to 0.69, 0.26 and 0.54 in 2020, respectively. International grain trade plays a significant role in alleviating the pressure on cultivated soil for grain production and shows an increasing trend year by year. In 2020, the contribution rate to the mitigation of cultivated land pressure for grain production is 26.22%, of which the contribution rate to the mitigation of cultivated land pressure for soybean production is up to 511.48%. The results of the analysis of the agricultural product trade advantage degree show that agricultural products have obvious trade competitive advantages in the domestic market, but the competitive advantage in international trade is not obvious. Finally, this paper puts forward some suggestions on the protection of black soil under the background of changes in international grain trade, which provides a reference for the decision-making of black soil protection in Northeast China and the guarantee of grain production capacity.