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    Spatial Distribution and Tourism Activation of Traditional Villages in Yunnan Province
    XU Shaohui, DONG Liping
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (5): 851-859.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.05.009
    Abstract323)   HTML90)    PDF (2284KB)(17656)      

    Using ArcGIS to analyze the spatial distribution of traditional villages in Yunnan Province in combination with the actual local conditions of traditional villages, the purpose of this study is to determine the development model suitable for their characteristics. The results show several important features of traditional village distribution. (1) The traditional villages in Yunnan Province have spatial structural characteristics of unbalanced cohesive distribution, and they are mainly distributed in the higher-level cities and prefectures such as northwest Yunnan, west Yunnan and south Yunnan. Among them, the traditional villages of Baoshan City have the highest distribution density of 66.33 per 10000 km2. This is followed by Dali Prefecture and Honghe Prefecture, where the densities of traditional villages are 44.13 per 10000 km2 and 37.66 per 10000 km2, respectively. (2) The factors affecting the spatial distribution structure of traditional villages in Yunnan Province are natural geographical factors, humanistic historical factors and transportation factors. Among them, the natural geographical conditions with a large vertical gap in Yunnan Province gave birth to the human settlement environment of traditional villages. The history of a farming civilization that has been passed down from generation to generation has laid a brilliant and splendid humanistic foundation for traditional villages, and the high-altitude areas are relatively primitive. The transportation conditions have delayed the destruction of traditional villages by urbanization and industrialization. In summary, these factors have affected the spatial distribution pattern of traditional villages in Yunnan Province to some extent. (3) According to the law of the spatial distribution of traditional villages in Yunnan Province, it is necessary to explore the activation path of traditional village tourism with regional characteristics and ethnic characteristics, and also to carry out differentiated development according to the different endowment characteristics of local resources, that is to develop a series of activation modes including agricultural tourism, cultural tourism and ecological tourism.

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    Spatio-temporal variations and influencing factors of energy-related carbon emissions for Xinjiang cities in China based on time-series nighttime light data
    ZHANG Li, LEI Jun, WANG Changjian, WANG Fei, GENG Zhifei, ZHOU Xiaoli
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (10): 1886-1910.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-2028-z
    Abstract213)   HTML27)    PDF (6062KB)(12803)      

    This essay combines the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) nighttime light data and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) nighttime light data into a “synthetic DMSP” dataset, from 1992 to 2020, to retrieve the spatio-temporal variations in energy-related carbon emissions in Xinjiang, China. Then, this paper analyzes several influencing factors for spatial differentiation of carbon emissions in Xinjiang with the application of geographical detector technique. Results reveal that (1) total carbon emissions continued to grow, while the growth rate slowed down in the past five years. (2) Large regional differences exist in total carbon emissions across various regions. Total carbon emissions of these regions in descending order are the northern slope of the Tianshan (Mountains) > the southern slope of the Tianshan > the three prefectures in southern Xinjiang > the northern part of Xinjiang. (3) Economic growth, population size, and energy consumption intensity are the most important factors of spatial differentiation of carbon emissions. The interaction between economic growth and population size as well as between economic growth and energy consumption intensity also enhances the explanatory power of carbon emissions’ spatial differentiation. This paper aims to help formulate differentiated carbon reduction targets and strategies for cities in different economic development stages and those with different carbon intensities so as to achieve the carbon peak goals in different steps.

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    The effects of urbanization on ecosystem services for biodiversity conservation in southernmost Yunnan Province, Southwest China
    Fangyan CHENG, Shiliang LIU, Xiaoyun HOU, Xue WU, Shikui DONG, COXIXO Ana
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2019, 29 (7): 1159-1178.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-019-1651-9
    Abstract384)   HTML10)    PDF (4878KB)(2546)      

    Urbanization can profoundly influence the ecosystem service for biodiversity conservation. However, few studies have investigated this effect, which is significant for maintaining regional sustainable development. We take the rapidly developing, mountainous and biodiversity hotspot region, Jinghong, in southern Yunnan Province as the case study. An integrated ecosystem service model (PANDORA) is used to evaluate this regional BESV (ecosystem service value for biodiversity conservation). The modeled BESV is sensitive to landscape connectivity changes. From the 1970s to 2010, regional urban lands increased from 18.64 km2 to 36.81 km2, while the BESV decreased from $6.08 million year-1 to $5.32 million year-1. Along with distance gradients from the city center to the fringe, BESV varies as an approximate hump-shaped pattern. Because correlation analysis reveals a stronger influence of landscape composition on spatial BESV estimates than the landscape configuration does, we conclude that the projected urban expansion will accelerate the BESV reduction. Of the projected urban land, 95% will show a decreasing BESV trend by approximately $2 m-2 year-1. To prevent this, we recommend compact urban planning for the mountainous city.

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    Organization and Indexing Method for 3D Points Cloud Data
    LU Mingyue, HE Yongjian
       2008, 10 (2): 190-194.  
    Abstract563)      PDF (848KB)(6682)      
    Being the primary data source,3D points cloud is also an important means to describe and express the geographic objects and phenomena in 3D GIS as well as to perform model building.And the effective organization of the points is the basis for its operation and analysis.Therefore,in this paper,3D points are arranged and sorted according to a specified rule,and then organized by a compound structure of spatial octree and balanced binary tree,which greatly speeds up the query process based on the 3D coordinate,and lays a solid foundation for the further analysis of 3D points data.This paper also unifies the compound structure in both memory and database.And a case study has proved its validity.
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    Cited: CSCD(12)
    The Progress of Child Trafficking Studies in China and Abroad since 2000: A Bibliometric Analysis Based on CiteSpace
    Junjun Zhou, Gang Li, Dandan Hong, Feng Xu, Jiahui Xu, Yue Yu, Xiliang Chen
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (9): 1430-1442.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003542
    Abstract294)   HTML5)    PDF (1580KB)(4427)      

    As a crime that threatens public safety and social stability, child trafficking has attracted widespread attention from all sectors of society. Few studies have been conducted on child trafficking, especially in the literature review conducted from the perspective of comparison between China and abroad, which makes it difficult to fully reveal the system and development of current research. This study clarifies the thematic structure and development of child trafficking in China and abroad, based on the "Web of ScienceTM Core Collection" and CNKI data sources, using CiteSpace software. Specifically, the study comparatively examines the progress of child trafficking studies in China and abroad since 2000 and analyzes future development trends from the time of publication, regional and subject distribution, research institutions, and keyword co-occurrence. We hope that this work provides a relatively complete and objective understanding for innovative future research. The results indicate that: (1) the research on child trafficking started earlier abroad, and the theoretical system and research methods are relatively mature. From 2000 to 2020, a total of 215 articles were published in Web of Science, showing two stages of fluctuating and rapid growth, and USA ranks first worldwide. There are 46 core articles published in CNKI, showing two stages of initial exploration and fluctuating growth overall, with a relatively slow growth rate in China. More studies are distributed in the fields of social studies, psychology, pediatrics, family studies and criminology in abroad, while domestic studies are mainly distributed in the field of law, criminology and sociology. In recent years, the research in the field of geography has risen rapidly, and there is ample room for development. (2) Due to the differences in regional environment and national conditions, international child trafficking is part of a study on human trafficking, which is mainly for the purpose of exploitation, including direct and indirect exploitation, involving various topics such as commercial sexual exploitation, labor exploitation, trafficking human organs, child marriage trafficking, and other types of trafficking. Commercial trafficking and sexual exploitation are the main research hotspots of child trafficking. Child trafficking in China is usually discussed in combination with the trafficking of women, focusing on the provincial trafficking for the purpose of adoption, and "family control" and "lured adoption" are common ways of committing crimes. The legal policy and social reasons surrounding child trafficking are hot topics of concern. (3) With the increase in interdisciplinary integration, child trafficking involves suicide risk and well-being, rehabilitation and return to society, child protection and trafficking prevention and control measures, which have become popular topics abroad. The theme of domestic child trafficking has extended from focusing on legal policies and social reasons to spatial-temporal patterns, influencing factors, resettlement, and social integration. In the future, how to integrate the relevant parties involved in child trafficking (criminals, victims or guardians, and other people) with the spatio-temporal environment (social environment, built environment, and surrounding people flow environment), and explore the evolution of geographical factors and the spatio-temporal activity trajectory of child trafficking from the perspective of criminal geography? It is important to deeply analyze the occurrence mechanism of child trafficking from the interactive perspective of time, space, and humans. How to make full use of the modern technological means to track and combat child trafficking in practice, to contribute to the prevention and management of this issue at home and abroad, constitutes a key question.

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    Sustainable Development of Ice and Snow Tourism—Theory & Empirical Studies: Preface
    TANG Chengcai, XU Shiyi
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (4): 547-551.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.04.001
    Abstract297)   HTML129)    PDF (370KB)(300)      

    The Beijing Winter Olympics brought a historical miracle to the development of China’s ice and snow tourism. It is both an opportunity and a challenge to reap the extra dividends of the times and to develop China’s ice and snow tourism. By selecting 18 academic papers, this special issue deeply discusses the status quo and the future measures of ice and snow tourism in China from three aspects: ice and snow tourism development and management, the ice and snow tourism experience and its influencing factors, and ice and snow tourism impact assessment. Moreover, one part entitled “Tourism Culture and Ecotourism” has been set up to emphasize those cutting-edge research topics. It is worth mentioning that this issue is in-depth and has profound connotations. First of all, the research area ranges from national to regional to the city-level, including both longitudinal and horizontal research. In additon, the research methods are practical, innovative, and at the frontier of scientific research, and include industrial correlation analysis methods, kernel density, spatial autocorrelation and other geospatial analysis methods, content analysis methods, sentiment analysis methods, structural equation models, Delphi methods, spatial statistics methods, geographic detector method and many others. In general, this special issue combines qualitative research with quantitative research, provides a variety of theoretical perspectives such as perceived value theory, institutional evolution theory, etc., and builds various useful models like the pre-competition evaluation model for ice and snow tourism heritage, the consumption skill-travel radius decision-making influence model under the moderating effect of the ski resort comprehensive leisure environment, the evaluation model of the suitability of glacier tourism resource development, the model of the relationship between tourists’ experience value and loyalty in the context of ice and snow tourism, among others. These studies are expected to provide theoretical and practical guidance for the development of ice and snow tourism in the post-Winter Olympics era, and help ice and snow tourism develop in a sustainable and high-quality direction.

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    Geodetector: Principle and prospective
    Jinfeng WANG, Chengdong XU
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2017, 72 (1): 116-134.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb201701010
    Abstract17533)   HTML890)    PDF (5884KB)(13876)      

    Spatial stratified heterogeneity is the spatial expression of natural and socio-economic process, which is an important approach for human to recognize nature since Aristotle. Geodetector is a new statistical method to detect spatial stratified heterogeneity and reveal the driving factors behind it. This method with no linear hypothesis has elegant form and definite physical meaning. Here is the basic idea behind Geodetector: assuming that the study area is divided into several subareas. The study area is characterized by spatial stratified heterogeneity if the sum of the variance of subareas is less than the regional total variance; and if the spatial distribution of the two variables tends to be consistent, there is statistical correlation between them. Q-statistic in Geodetector has already been applied in many fields of natural and social sciences which can be used to measure spatial stratified heterogeneity, detect explanatory factors and analyze the interactive relationship between variables. In this paper, the authors will illustrate the principle of Geodetector and summarize the characteristics and applications in order to facilitate the using of Geodetector and help readers to recognize, mine and utilize spatial stratified heterogeneity.

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    Cited: Baidu(53) CSCD(342)
    Temporal and Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Driving Factors of China's Time Banking from 1998 to 2020: Based on Baidu Information
    Long Song, Xueping Xiong
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (12): 1964-1979.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003573
    Abstract375)   HTML15)    PDF (3775KB)(456)      

    Combining the development history of mutual assistance and old-age care of Time Banking under the background of aging in China has important reference significance for addressing the Time Banking development dilemma. Using news reports on the establishment of Time Banking in Baidu from 1998 to 2020, this study extracts the time and place of its establishment through manual interpretation, and analyzes the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of Time Banking. Additionally, it discusses the driving factors and differentiation mechanism to restore the development history of Time Banking from the perspective of social attention and provide a useful reference for its current status from the perspective of geography. It was found that: 1) Time Banking has experienced three periods of development in China, and the number of branches has shown an overall upward trend, among which the third period had the largest increase. 2) In terms of urban and rural distribution, Time Banking was mostly concentrated in urban areas and gradually spread to rural areas. In the provincial distribution, most provinces had already explored Time Banking, among which Jiangsu, Hubei, Zhejiang, Guangxi, and four other provinces (regions) had the largest number. 3) The spatial distribution of Time Banking initially showed a small sporadic distribution, which then gradually developed into a double-center distribution pattern in the Central Plains of the Yangtze River Delta. These were concentrated south of the Hu Huanyong line and was generally "dense in the southeast-sparse in the northwest". 4) In terms of the spatial relationship, Time Banking develops gradually from the initial spatial divergence to a spatial agglomeration. The degree of agglomeration is constantly strengthened, tends to be stable, the spatial homogeneity is gradually enhanced, and the heterogeneity is gradually weakened. 5) The driving factors of Time Banking development include population structure, old-age construction level, economic development level, government support, volunteer team construction, and digital technology level. Among them, the old-age construction level is more important in the first period, while the government support level and economic development level are more important in the second and third periods. Finally, it is suggested to increase the exploration of Time Banking and reduce the dependence on social and economic development indicators to provide a feasible path for their balanced development in underdeveloped areas, such as the northwest and northeast rural areas. Additionally, government support should be strengthened and multi-stakeholder participation guided to guarantee the sustainable development of Time Banking.

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    Current Status and Prospect of Researches on Wetland Monitoring Based on Remote Sensing
    LI Jianping, ZHANG Bai, ZHANG Ling,WANG Zongming, SONG Kaishan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2007, 26 (1): 33-43.   DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2007.01.004
    Abstract1973)      PDF (1548KB)(4490)      

    Wetland is one of the most important ecosystems, and it has high social benefit, economic benefit and scientific research value. Global wetland degraded and its amount decreased in the past several decades. Wetland resources are taking on a heavy pressure, and romote sensing technique plays an important role in real- time monitoring of dynamic changes of wetlands. In this paper, wetland monitoring mainly means classification and recognition of wetland based on remote sensing technique. Current status of researches on wetland monitoring based on remote sensing technique in China and abroad was systematically discussed from multiple aspects, including classification systems of wetland, pre - processing of images, remote sensing data sources of multi - resolution (multi - spatial resolution, multi - spectral resolution,multi - temporal resolution), methods of information extraction for wetlands(visual interpretation and computer auto- interpretation) and so on. Finally, three current shortcomings and six future keys of wetland monitoring based on remote sensing were presented.

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    Cited: CSCD(33)
    Spatio-temporal differentiation and influencing factors of China's urbanization from 2010 to 2020
    LI Ruzi, HUANG Xiaoling, LIU Yaobin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (4): 777-791.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202304001
    Abstract3584)   HTML899)    PDF (4458KB)(2583)      

    As China's urbanization has entered the middle and later stage and the improvement of well-being of residents has become a core goal, the transformation from "top-down" system goals optimization on the supply side to "bottom-up" multi-dimensional goals coordination on the demand side has become a new perspective to understand the connotation of urbanization. Based on the perspective of the human living conditions, the humanities environment, and human-city relationship, this paper constructs a connotation framework and index system of urbanization. Furthermore, Theil index is employed to analyze the spatio-temporal differentiation characteristics of China's urbanization before and after the implementation of the new-type urbanization strategy. Finally, in terms of both direct and indirect effect mechanisms, the mechanism framework of urbanization differentiation is constructed, and its evolution pattern is revealed by using Variance Decomposition and Geodetector. The results show that: since the implementation of the new-type urbanization strategy in 2014, China's urbanization has made remarkable achievements, with a steady improvement in human living conditions and human-city relationship, and there is still much room for improvement in the humanities environment. The high-level areas of urbanization are mainly distributed in coastal areas, and expanding to inland areas along the Yangtze River Basin and Yellow River Basin. The regional differences of urbanization gradually decrease, but the contribution rate of inner-regional differences shows an expanding trend. Differences in human living conditions and human-city relationship are the main factors of urbanization differentiation, but the contribution of differences in humanities environment is gradually expanding after 2014. Opening up and scientific & technological innovation are the main influencing factors of the difference in human living conditions. With the implementation of the new-type urbanization strategy, the impact on differences in humanities environment of the government finance gradually diminishes. Resource endowments have a relatively strong influence on differences in human-city relationship. This study can provide theoretical and empirical support for promoting the development of urbanization in China.

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    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    1993, 12 (3): 16-20.   DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.1993.03.004
    Abstract2853)      PDF (464KB)(14464)      
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    Application basis and future perspectives of phenology in the theory and practice of tourism geography
    DAI Junhu, GAO Xinyue, LIU Haolong, TAO Zexing, MA Xiang, CAO Lijuan
    ECOTOURISM    2021, 11 (2): 161-175.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20210041
    Abstract535)   HTML33)    PDF (2521KB)(1724)      

    Tourism geography, which emerged during the great development of applied geography in the 1980s, cannot now sufficiently support the rapid development of tourist industry due to its short period of development and insufficient theoretical and methodological systems. Therefore, the development of tourist industry urgently needs the knowledge of related more developed disciplines. Phenology is a branch of geography that has an intersection with tourism geography, and it has a very close relationship with tourist industry. The paper systematically reviews the role of phenology in supporting the tourism system, its applications in five specific industrial fields, the role in promoting six dimensions of the high-quality development of tourism, and the influence of climate change on phenological tourism resources and related industries. The analysis shows that: (1) The concept of phenology can help to integrate the tourism resources of natural, human, and social elements in the tourism system. The application of phenology in the tourism industry can effectively improve the service support sub-systems, transportation sub-systems, and medical and health sub-system. (2) The practical application of phenology in the tourist industry mainly involves plant landscape design, determination of ornamental tourism season, ornamental phenology forecasting, time planning for eco-tourism activities, pollen concentration forecasting, ice and snow disaster warning, and tourist route design. (3) Phenology supports six dimensions of high-quality development of tourism, including element, industry, process, time and space, direction, and participating sector. (4) Phenological tourism resources and related industrial links are sensitive to climate change. In the future, studies should focus on the risks of climate change in different climate scenarios and in-depth analysis of the influences on the perceptions and behavior of tourists. Phenological change should be integrated into medium and long-term industrial development plans and industry reports. From the perspectives of disciplinary development and industrial application, phenology can provide theoretical basis for tourism research, as well as practical guidance for the sustainable development of tourism in the context of climate change.

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    Basic Principles of Gross Ecosystem Product (GEP) Accounting
    ZHANG Linbo, HAO Chaozhi, SONG Yang, WANG Yiyao, ZHANG Wentao, HUANG Yuhua, LIANG Tian
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2022, 13 (3): 501-510.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.03.014
    Abstract301)   HTML14)    PDF (426KB)(1537)      

    Gross ecosystem product (GEP) is the gross value of all ecosystem products and services provided by ecosystems for human society. In practice, GEP measures the ecosystems' contributions to human well-being and constitutes one of the core issues in the construction of ecological civilization systems. Currently, GEP accounting faces a series of problems, such as the inconsistency of accounting subjects and a lack of accounting standards, the result of which is the non-reproducibility and weak applicability of accounting results. In this paper, mainstream models for ecosystem service valuation are summarized in a systematic manner. On this basis, eight basic principles are established for screening accounting indicators: biological productivity, human benefits, production territoriality, current increment, actual effectiveness, physical metrizability, data availability, and harmlessness. Next, a series of ecosystem service subjects are identified that need to be excluded from accounting, and the detailed reasons for their exclusion are presented. Finally, three ideas for improving GEP accounting are offered from the perspectives of the relationship between biological production and human production, the circulation-transport relationship and spatial differences, and harms to the ecosystem carrying capacity. The purpose is to provide positive considerations aimed at promoting the socio-economic applications of accounting and to contribute to the scientific quantification of the values of ecological products.

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    The extent and spatial distribution of terrace abandonment in China
    DONG Shijie, XIN Liangjie, LI Shengfa, XIE Hualin, ZHAO Yuluan, WANG Xue, LI Xiubin, SONG Hengfei, LU Yahan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (1): 3-15.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202301001
    Abstract2939)   HTML496)    PDF (2847KB)(1883)      

    With urbanization and industrialization, cultivated land in hilly regions of China has been gradually marginalized. Abandoned cultivated lands have ranged from inferior sloping land and extended to high-quality terraces. The abandonment of terraces will lead to a series of social and ecological problems, especially with large-scale abandonment. Therefore, the degree and spatial distribution of terrace abandonment should be evaluated scientifically to address the issue of abandonment as well as its effects. This study investigated the extent of terrace abandonment in China via a questionnaire sampling method. Based on 560 village questionnaires from 329 counties in China, the scale of terrace abandonment was calculated and the spatial heterogeneity characteristics and primary reasons for terrace abandonment were further analyzed. Study results showed that: (1) The phenomenon of terrace abandonment was observed throughout China, occurring in 54% of all the villages investigated; 9.79% of the total terraced areas have been abandoned. (2) The degree of terrace abandonment showed a spatial pattern of "high in the south and low in the north". The degree of terrace abandonment was higher in the southern hilly mountains, and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River was the most serious. (3) The primary factors related to terrace abandonment were found to be labor migration, the degree to which terraces have been mechanized, irrigation conditions, and farming traffic conditions. Measures that include improving the degree of terrace mechanization should be enacted to address the problem of terrace abandonment. An orderly "conversion of cropland" could be applied to poor-quality terraces. Changing the planting structure, strengthening new agricultural infrastructure, and encouraging circulation and large-scale operations are options that could be applied to good-quality terraces.

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    On spatial effects in geographical analysis
    LIU Yu, WANG Keli, XING Xiaoyue, GUO Hao, ZHANG Weiyu, LUO Qinyao, GAO Song, HUANG Zhou, LI Haifeng, LI Xin, WANG Jiaoe, WANG Jinfeng, ZHU Di
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (3): 517-531.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202303001
    Abstract2710)   HTML436)    PDF (1266KB)(1820)      

    GIScience inherits the spatial analysis tradition of geography. Given that "spatial is special", GIScience needs to highlight spatial effects when constructing methods for geographical analysis. The research presents an explicit definition of spatial effect. By formalizing core GIScience concepts including space, location, field, distance, and region, we identify four types of spatial effects, namely spatial heterogeneity effect, neighbor effect in spatial dependence, distance decay effect in spatial interactions, and scale effect in spatial zoning. A unified framework is constructed to cover the four spatial effects based on the inherent linkages among them. We argue that spatial heterogeneity effect is the most fundamental one. While spatial dependence and spatial interaction are two basic geographical processes that represent the second-order relationships between two locations, neighbor effect and distance decay effect reflect the impacts of space. Scale effect is raised when aggregating attributes using regional units. Hence, the four types of effects form a hierarchical system. From a methodological perspective, this paper summaries related GIScience tools that implement different effects, and emphasizes the value of geospatial artificial intelligence for revealing and quantifying spatial effects.

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    Pattern evolution and optimal paths of county urbanization in China
    LIU Yansui, YANG Ren, LIN Yuancheng
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (12): 2937-2953.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202212001
    Abstract2989)   HTML447)    PDF (5350KB)(1580)      

    The orderly development of county urbanization, as an effective driving force for the integrated development of urban and rural areas in the new era, promotes the interaction and flow of elements between urban and rural territorial system, the optimization and adjustment of industrial structures, the optimal allocation of resources and markets, and the organic integration of urban and rural territorial system. The results show that: (1) From 2000 to 2020, the county urbanization in China developed rapidly, and the regional differences in spatial and temporal dynamics were significant. The county urbanization rate in the eastern coastal, central suburbs and northern border areas was high, while it is low in southwest China, rural areas of the central region and most parts of Tibet and Xinjiang. In 2020, to the east of the Hu Huanyong Line, the northeastern region, northern Hebei, Shanxi-Shaanxi-Henan region, eastern Sichuan, and Yunnan-Guizhou region became high-value areas for urbanization rates at the county level. There are 716 counties with urbanization rates exceeding 50%, including the Pearl River Delta, the Yangtze River Delta, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Chengdu-Chongqing region, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the border areas of Inner Mongolia, and the southeastern coastal areas of Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Fujian, accounting for 38.3% of the country's total. (2) The county urbanization in China is the result of the combined effects of factors such as population, economy, society, and culture. The level of economic development, natural environment conditions, infrastructure construction, geographic locations, public resource supply, professional entrepreneurial clusters, and macro policies affect the direction, scope and depth of county urbanization. It is predicted that by 2035, the urbanization rate of China will reach about 76.04%, and that of counties will be about 64.38%. In the future, we should strengthen the adjustment and optimization of county population, economy, society and spatial organizational structure. (3) There are five types of county urbanization in China, including factor agglomeration urbanization in counties around big cities, industrial agglomeration-driven urbanization in counties with specialized function, agricultural modernization-led urbanization in counties with main agricultural production areas, ecological conservation urbanization in counties with ecological function areas, and concentrated urbanization in counties with population loss. (4) County urbanization takes county and key towns as important spatial carriers for the agglomeration of urbanization elements, and forms a multi-level system of residence-industry and industry-city coordination. The rational spatial distribution of factors such as the development of industrial integration and population resources will further promote the interactive flow of urban and rural elements, the integration of urban and rural industries, the equalization of urban and rural residents, and the equalization of urban and rural infrastructure, and enhance urban-rural integration and network development.

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    Comparative Study on the Governance Framework of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area: From the Perspective of Institutional Environment
    Chengpeng Wu, Xianchun Zhang, Yingjie Hu
    Tropical Geography    2022, 42 (2): 256-268.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003446
    Abstract1513)   HTML67)    PDF (2787KB)(1483)      

    As the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area has become a national strategy, bay area governance has become an important issue of academic attention. Existing studies pay more attention to specific governance measures and current situation, and there are few studies on the environmental causes behind them. In addition, most of the existing studies focus on the governance of the Greater Bay Area from a single perspective of politics, law, economy, culture and society, and lack of a more comprehensive institutional environment perspective to summarize the theoretical explanation of the political, legal and participant issues that are particularly prominent in the governance of the Greater Bay Area. Therefore, studying the construction of a comparative analysis framework around the institutional environment is aimed to examine the internal causes of the governance characteristics of the Greater Bay Area, enrich the research perspective of domestic regional governance, and provide suggestions for the governance of the Greater Bay Area. This paper constructs a comparative research framework of bay area governance institutional environment, including three dimensions of power structure, legal structure and social capital structure. Using the text/desktop analysis method, it systematically summarizes the governance frameworks of the Greater Bay Area, San Francisco Bay Area and Tokyo Bay Area, and comparatively analyzes the governance institutional environment of the three bay areas. The study holds that the mode characteristics and effects of bay area governance are closely related to the institutional environment composed of power structure, legal structure and social capital structure. The power structure affects the flexibility of governance, and the power structure of the Greater Bay Area is asymmetric and fragmented, which is relatively closed and centralized, resulting in a single governance model always dominated by the government; the legal structure affects the transaction cost of governance, and the Greater Bay Area has not yet formed a unified and efficient legal system structure, resulting in higher transaction cost in the governance process; and the social capital structure affects the multiple participation in governance and the cohesion of the bay area, and in the Greater Bay Area, the positive social capital is relatively weak, the multiple participation in governance is insufficient and the bottom-up cohesion is not strong. Finally, it is suggested that the governance of the Greater Bay Area should start from the power, law and social capital structure, and explore the flexible reconstruction of the institutional space under the respective advantages of the three regions; in the construction of institutional environment, non-governmental subjects should be guided to participate in governance stably and orderly, so as to enhance the cohesion of the Greater Bay Area; and on the basis of ensuring the authoritative policies of the central and provincial governments, it should explore the decentralization and autonomy of local governments in the Greater Bay Area in due course. This paper constructs an institutional environment including power structure, legal structure and social capital structure, and comparatively analyzed the governance characteristics of the three bay areas under different institutional environments. From a more comprehensive perspective of environmental internal factors, it makes a theoretical explanation of the particularly prominent issues of politics, legal system and participants in the governance of the Greater Bay Area, which enriches the research perspective of regional governance in China.

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    Research on the urban-rural integration and rural revitalization in the new era in China
    LIU Yansui
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2018, 73 (4): 637-650.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb201804004
    Abstract11296)   HTML507)    PDF (1333KB)(12098)      

    Cities and villages are components of a specific organism. Only the sustainable development of two parts can support the prosperous development as a whole. According to the theory of man-earth areal system, urban-rural integrated system and rural regional system are the theoretical bases for entirely recognizing and understanding urban-rural relationship. To handle the increasingly severe problems of "rural disease" in rapid urbanization, accelerating rural revitalization in an all-round way is not only a major strategic plan for promoting the urban-rural integration and rural sustainable development, but also a necessary requirement for solving the issues related to agriculture, rural areas, and rural people in the new era and securing a decisive victory in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. This study explores the basic theories of urban-rural integration and rural revitalization and analyzes the main problems and causes of rural development in the new era, proposing problem-oriented scientific approaches and frontier research fields of urban-rural integration and rural revitalization in China. Results show that the objects of urban-rural integration and rural revitalization is a regional multi-body system, which mainly includes urban-rural integration, rural complex, village-town organism, and housing-industry symbiosis. Rural revitalization focuses on promoting the reconstruction of urban-rural integration system and constructs a multi-level goal system including urban-rural infrastructure networks, zones of rural development, fields of village-town space and poles of rural revitalization. Currently, the rural development is facing the five problems: high-speed non-agricultural transformation of agriculture production factors, over-fast aging and weakening of rural subjects, increasingly hollowing and abandoning of rural construction land, severe fouling of rural soil and water environment and deep pauperization of rural poverty-stricken areas. The countryside is an important basis for the socioeconomic development in China, and the strategies of urban-rural integration and rural revitalization are complementary. The rural revitalization focuses on establishing the institutional mechanism for integrated urban-rural development and constructs the comprehensive development system of rural regional system, which includes transformation, reconstruction and innovation in accordance with the requirements of thriving businesses, pleasant living environments, social etiquette and civility, effective governance, and prosperity. Geographical research on rural revitalization should focus on the complexity and dynamics of rural regional system and explore new schemes, models and scientific approaches for the construction of villages and towns, which are guided by radical cure of "rural disease", implement the strategy of rural revitalization polarization, construct the evaluation index system and planning system of rural revitalization, thus providing advanced theoretical references for realizing the revitalization of China's rural areas in the new era.

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    Cited: Baidu(55) CSCD(210)
    Spatial evolution of new infrastructure and its determinants: A case study of big data centers
    WANG Jiaoe, DU Fangye, XIAO Fan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (2): 259-272.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202302001
    Abstract1962)   HTML456)    PDF (2376KB)(1387)      

    Data center is a new infrastructure system based on new development concepts, technological innovation, and information networks. It provides services for digital transformation, smart upgrading, and integrated innovation to meet the needs of high-quality development. The new infrastructure covers the construction of 5G base stations, intercity high-speed rail, intercity rail transit, new energy vehicle charging piles, big data centers, artificial intelligence, and industrial internet. It could promote resource integration, nurture new growth points, and shape new locations. Analyzing the spatial patterns of new infrastructures and their influencing factors is of great significance for understanding the regional development advantages. Using the data center as an example, this paper explores the spatial distribution and determinants of new infrastructure. Since the data center is not only infrastructure but also a strategic emerging industry, it is different from traditional infrastructure in terms of technical requirements and energy consumption. Since this difference will be reflected in the spatial layout, this paper proposes the macro layout principle of the data center. Then, the evolution characteristics and influencing factors of the spatial pattern of data centers in China are analyzed, and the following conclusions are drawn: (1) The macroscopic distribution of data centers should follow four principles: demand-oriented, cost oriented, operating environment-oriented, and safety oriented. (2) The distribution of data centers presents a spatial structure centered on the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and Chengdu-Chongqing urban agglomeration. (3) Economic development, internet development, the number of high-tech enterprises, labor costs, and educational institutions have a positive impact on the macro layout of data centers. The impacts of location conditions, land costs, and layout policies of data centers on their macro layout begin to appear at a certain stage. (4) There are three types of data center distribution models in China: demand-orientated, cost-oriented, and demand-cost-operating environment-oriented. At present, the data center in China is demand-oriented and will develop into a comprehensive demand-cost-operating environment-oriented model in the future. Our conclusion could provide guidance and suggestions for scientific site selection and the optimal layout of data centers.

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    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    1990, 9 (3): 31-37.   DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.1990.03.008
    Abstract613)      PDF (1041KB)(2437)      
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    Research progress in spatialization of population data
    BAI Zhongqiang, WANG Juanle, YANG Fei
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2013, 32 (11): 1692-1702.   DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.11.012
    Abstract2258)      PDF (528KB)(4483)      
    Readily available and accurate data on spatial population distribution is essential for understanding, and responding to, many social, political, economical and environmental issues, such as humanitarian relief, disaster response planning, environment impact assessment, and development assistance. Research on spatialization of demographic data plays an important role in grid transformation of social-economical data. Furthermore, as gridded population data can be effectively interoperate with geospatial data and remote sensing images, it is a useful supplement to census data. This paper reviewed spatialization methodologies, predictive modeling factors and typical datasets in the literature of population data spatialization research. Shortcomings of demographic data and advantages of spatial population distribution data are compared and summarized firstly. The spatialization methodologies are grouped into three categories, i.e., population distribution models from urban geography, areal interpolation methods and spatialization methods based on remote sensing and GIS. Population models from urban geography include the Clark's model and allometric growth model. The areal interpolation methods had been distinguished by point based method and area based method. Spatialization methods based on remote sensing and GIS are most widely used in nowadays, which can be further grouped into three categories for two reasons: one is the relationship between population and land use, urban area, traffic network, settlement density, image pixel characteristics, or other physical or socioeconomic characteristics, and the other is the calculation strategy. Various methods mentioned above have their own application environment and limitations. We reviewed the principles and applicability of every method in detail. After that, we generalized the frequently used factors in the spatialization process, involving land use/land cover, traffic network, topography, settlements density, night light, texture variable, and spectral reflectance. In the meantime, some typical research cases about the factors also were exemplified and analyzed. In addition, we introduced a few widely used spatial population distribution datasets or influential population spatialization projects. They consisted of China km grid population datasets, UNEP/GRID, GPW/GRUMP, LandScan, AfriPop & AsiaPop & AmriPop. The producers, resolution, characterization year and generation method of each one were presented exhaustively. Based on the above review, we discussed the current research problems and outlined research priorities in the future. The problems include the temporal inconsistency of input data, coarse resolution of demographic data, lack of in-depth study on scale effect, the scarcity of time series products and few validation works. To deal with these issues, more studies should be conducted to the following aspects: comprehension of population distribution mechanism, calculation of consistency and validation of existing datasets, application of multi-sources remote sensing data and volunteered geographic information, continuous space-time simulation of population distribution in the typical areas, sub-block-level population estimation, self-adaptive spatialization method which integrates multiple elements and multiple models. In summary, the research on spatialization of demographic data has made breakthroughs in the past two decades. Meanwhile, there are a few problems that need to be solved immediately. Since these two aspects had been reviewed as comprehensively as possible, we hope issues discussed in this paper could enlighten and promote the future study in this field.
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    Cited: CSCD(34)
    Discussion on the impact of COVID-19 on China's tourism industry and its responses
    TANG Chengcai, ZHANG Honglei, ZHAO Lei, YANG Yuanyuan, WEI Ge
    ECOTOURISM    2022, 12 (1): 169-183.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20220011
    Abstract11288)   HTML386)    PDF (5059KB)(1693)      

    The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has brought enormous impacts and challenges to global tourism. How to cope with the pandemic has become the focus of attention. This paper analyzes the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism of China from the aspects of residents' travel willingness, tourist site space capacity, operation of tourism market entities, and tourism policy supply. The research results show that: (1) The pandemic has greatly impacted residents' consumer confidence, willingness, and ability to travel, but the potential travel demand still exists. (2) The pandemic has caused great physical and psychological compression to the tourism space environment. The production space capacity of the cultural industry and the entertainment industry, which are closely related to tourism, has also been indirectly affected. (3) The pandemic has had a comprehensive and far-reaching impact on the tourism industry chain and the operation of tourism market entities. (4) Under the normalization of pandemic prevention and control, the tourism policy has mainly been based on "flow control" and "industry rescue". Eventually, based on the response system, spatial response mechanism, and the resilience of tourism enterprises, the responses of China's tourism industry to the pandemic are explored. First, the trinity response system of tourism to resist the pandemic should be constructed from the three dimensions of hierarchical government support, management department drive, and industry organization coordination. Second, the spatial response mechanism of the tourism system based on the three-level collaborative destination (point) - link (line) - network structure (network) under the normalization of pandemic prevention and control is proposed. Third, the countermeasures to enhance the resilience of tourism enterprises are put forward from five aspects: enterprise organization, product service, management and the marketing, and market brand and employee psychology.

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    Water at the Bottom of a Cauldron:The Flood and Flood Control of Wen’anwa Depression during Ming and Qing Dynasties
    Bu Fan
    Historical Geography Research    2022, 42 (3): 28-41.  
    Abstract361)   HTML9)    PDF (1920KB)(1265)      

    Located along the lower reaches of Daqing River and Ziya River, the Wen’anwa(文安洼) in Wen’an and Dacheng County of Hebei Province is a low-lying depression and shaped like “the bottom of a cauldron” in colloquial language. It is difficult to drain its water reserve, which often caused severe flood disasters in the past. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Wen’an County took many measures, such as building dikes, diverting river courses, and planting rice in shallow water, to control the flood but to no avail. It was not only the environmental factors, such as the low-lying terrain and the silt of the lower reaches of Daqing River and Ziya River, that made it hard to control the flood in the Wen’anwa Depression, but also social factors, such as the conflicting interests of water control between Wen’an County and the surrounding prefectural and counties, and the lack of ability and tactfulness of water management by Wen’an County itself.

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    Regionalization of flash floods in China
    CHEN Yuehong, XU Congcong, ZHANG Xiaoxiang, ZHANG Ruojing, MA Qiang, LIU Changjun, REN Liliang, SHI Kaixin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (5): 1059-1073.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202305001
    Abstract1574)   HTML359)    PDF (4275KB)(1244)      

    According to the Ministry of Water Resources of the People's Republic of China, the number of casualties in flash flood disasters accounts for nearly 70% of flood disaster casualties in recent years and flash flood has become one of the major natural disasters causing casualties in China. Flash flood regionalization is fundamental for implementing the local measures of the flash flood prevention and mitigation according to local conditions. Using results from existing flash flood relevant physiographical regionalization schemes, and in accordance with the principles of comprehensive, dominant factors, the relative consistency within units, the relative difference between units, the integrity of spatial distribution and the hierarchical divisions, this paper firstly constructs an index system of the flash flood trigger factors and its underlying surface environment for the flash flood regionalization in China. In the combination of top-down and bottom-up regionalization, the hybrid self-organizing-map-based spatial clustering algorithm is then built. Finally, nine homogeneous regions at the first-grade and thirty-three subregions at the second-grade are delineated for flash floods in China. The historical flash flood events and the Geodetector method are adopted to evaluate the developed regionalization schemes. Results show that the first-grade and the second-grade flash flood regionalization schemes in China can respectively provide the determinant power of 66.4% and 75.4% for the spatial distribution of historical flash flood events in the whole country, indicating the developed flash flood regionalization has a good spatial consistency with the distribution of historical flash flood events with different densities. The developed flash flood regionalization not only effectively delineates the regional differentiation pattern of flash floods, but also provides a scientific basis for the implementation of localized flash flood prevention and mitigation measures in China, which benefits for the sound development of flash flood disasters prevention and management in China.

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    The finding and significance of the super altitudinal belt of montane deciduous broad-leaved forests in central Qinling Mountains
    ZHANG Baiping, YAO Yonghui, XIAO Fei, ZHOU Wenzuo, ZHU Lianqi, ZHANG Junhua, ZHAO Fang, BAI Hongying, WANG Jing, YU Fuqin, ZHANG Xinghang, LIU Junjie, LI Jiayu, JIANG Ya
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (9): 2236-2248.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202209007
    Abstract5096)   HTML271)    PDF (3374KB)(1199)      

    Mountain altitudinal belts are the miniature of horizontal differentiation and succession of climatic and vegetational zonation. However, altitudinal belts' vertical range, transition model, inner structure and combining pattern vary from place to place. In Mt. Taibai of the central section of China's north-south transitional zone, we have found an altitudinal belt with the largest range in the world, namely, the montane deciduous broad-leaved forest, which extends continuously from the mountain base to about 2800 m, including basal oak belt, typical oak belt of two sub-belts and cold-tolerant pioneer birch belt of two sub-belts, which could otherwise develop independently. Characterized by a "three layers and five sub-belts" structure, this "super altitudinal belt" is much vertically broader than the threshold of 1000 m for normal altitudinal belts. Its formation is closely related with its transitional geographic location, integral spectrum of altitudinal belts in central Qinling Mountains, rich and diverse species of deciduous woody plants, and their strong competitiveness. The finding of the super altitudinal belt has multiple significance: Its existence is another significant physio-geographic feature of China's north-south transitional zone; it shows that an altitudinal belt may have rather complex inner structure and broad vertical range in some special mountain environment. This broadens our understanding of altitudinal belt structures and their mechanisms, and is of great significance for developing structural theory for montane altitudinal belts. This finding also demonstrates that there are many big questions for us to explore and study in the north-south transitional zone, and it is expected that our finding could trigger in-depth study of local climate and biodiversity responsible for the formation of this super belt, and of the complex structure and ecological effect of China's north-south transitional zone.

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    Assessment of ecological benefits of key national ecological projects in China in 2000-2019 using remote sensing
    SHAO Quanqin, LIU Shuchao, NING Jia, LIU Guobo, YANG Fan, ZHANG Xiongyi, NIU Linan, HUANG Haibo, FAN Jiangwen, LIU Jiyuan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (9): 2133-2153.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202209001
    Abstract2446)   HTML285)    PDF (10476KB)(1170)      

    We propose a theoretical framework for assessing the ecological benefits provided by national key ecological projects in China over the past 20 years. A dataset consisting of six primary indicators and nine secondary indicators of ecosystem structure, ecosystem quality, and ecosystem services for the period 2000-2019 was generated using ground survey and remote sensing data. Ecological benefits were quantitatively evaluated following the implementation of national key ecological projects in China. Areas with medium, relatively high, and high degrees of ecological restoration accounted for 24.1%, 11.9%, and 1.7% of the national land area, respectively. Degrees of ecological restoration were higher in areas with a greater number of ecological projects. Areas with relatively high and high degrees of ecological restoration were mainly concentrated in the Loess Plateau, the farming-pastoral zone of northern China, the Northeast China Plain, and an area spanning the border areas of Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Chongqing, and Hunan. The relative contributions of climatic factors and ecological projects to changes in vegetation net primary productivity were 85.4% and 14.6%, respectively, and the relative contributions of climatic factors and ecological projects to changes in water erosion modulus were 69.5% and 30.5%, respectively. The restoration potential of national vegetation coverage was 20%, and the restoration potential percentages of forest and grassland vegetation coverage were 6.4% and 23%, respectively. Climatic conditions can inhibit ecological restoration. Areas with relatively high and high degrees of ecological restoration were mainly distributed in areas with an annual average temperature greater than 0 ℃ and annual precipitation greater than 300 mm. Therefore, the limitations associated with climate conditions should be considered during the implementation of national ecological projects. The implementation of single ecological projects or single ecological restoration measures should be avoided, the use of combined measures should be emphasized, and the benefits of ecological investment funds should be maximized.

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    Progress in the studies on carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystem
    TAO Bo, GE Quan-sheng, LI Ke-rang, SHAO Xue-mei
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2001, 20 (5): 564-575.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2001050006
    Abstract3376)      PDF (450KB)(8708)      

    The concentration of the atmospheric CO2, one of the most important greenhouse gases, is increasing since the beginning of industrialization from its pre-industrial value of 280ppmv to its present value of 366ppmv. It has been proved that human activities, including fossil fuel burning, cement production, and land-use change, have severely disrupted the model of the carbon cycle, thereby alter the climate system and affect the processes and mechanisms in terrestrial ecosystems. Understanding the consequences of these changes in the coming decades is critical for the formulation of political, economic, energy, and security policies. So recently,studies in carbon cycle have increasingly become a focus of global change and geo-science in the world. The terrestrial ecosystem,one of the most important parts of the global carbon cycle, is most complex and most greatly affected by human activities. This paper, combined with the latest reports related to carbon cycle in IGBP and IPCC, introduces some major carbon pools, namely, lithosphere, atmosphere, ocean,and terrestrial ecosystem,in the global carbon cycle and their sizes and characteristics. Furthermore, four major approaches, including inventories method, eddy covariance measurements, inverse modeling and model of carbon cycle, which have been used to evaluate the biosphere-atmospheric exchange of CO2in the terrestrial ecosystems,are introduced. Using inventories method we can get an estimate of the actual accumulation of carbon in terrestrial ecosystem. The eddy covariance approach can detect small changes in net CO2exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere over various time scales. Inverse modeling approach can be used to infer carbon sources or sinks based on 3-D atmospheric tracer transport models and CO2 records from the atmospheric observations, fossil fuel combustion and land use change. Model of carbon cycle is a powerful tool to estimate and evaluate the temporal and spatial patterns of carbon sources or sinks in various scales. The existing problems of using these four methods are also analyzed. Moreover, the uncertainties in terrestrial carbon process are analyzed particularly.Additionally,some problems unsettled in carbon cycle and development tendency are specified concisely.

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    Cited: CSCD(73)
    Unbalanced trend of urban and rural development on the east and west sides of Hu Huanyong Line and micro-breakthrough strategy along the Bole-Taipei Line
    FANG Chuanglin, LI Guangdong, QI Wei, SUN Si'ao, CUI Xuegang, REN Yufei
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (2): 443-455.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202302011
    Abstract2081)   HTML274)    PDF (2438KB)(1122)      

    Under the background of promoting more balanced and fuller regional development in the new era, standing at the strategic height of national regional coordinated and balanced development, it is necessary to comprehensively consider the natural environment, the unbalanced situation of economic and social development and the reality of widening gap on both sides of the Hu Huanyong Line, and put forward the basic idea of the Hu Huanyong Line to achieve micro-breakthrough along the Bole-Taipei Line. The Hu Huanyong Line is an important dividing line of population geography, natural geography and ecological environment in China, the dividing line of national main function area and national ecological function area, the dividing line of new urbanization main area and non-main area in China, and the dividing line of unbalanced and inadequate economic and social development in China. In the past 40 years, the gap of economic and social development between the two sides of the Hu Huanyong Line has been widening at an accelerating speed. In the next 30 years, the gap can be narrowed to achieve micro-breakthroughs, focusing on achieving "ten 10%", namely, the proportion of population in the northwest half of China will be 10%, the proportion of total economy will be 10%, with the economic growth rate being more than 10%, the proportion of fixed asset investment in the whole society will be more than 10%, the proportion of local fiscal revenue will be more than 10%, the proportion of actual use of foreign capital will be 10%, the growth rate of per capita GDP will be more than 10%, the rate of increase in the absolute difference in the per capita disposable income of urban residents will be controlled within 10%, the rate of increase in the absolute difference in the per capita disposable income of rural residents will be controlled within 10%, and the absolute gap in education resources will be narrowing at an average annual rate of 10%. In order to achieve the strategic goal of micro-breakthrough, this paper puts forward the main paths and countermeasures to narrow the development gap between the east and the west of the Hu Huanyong Line and attain the micro-breakthrough from the aspects of population micro-layout, economic micro-layout, urbanization micro-layout, industrial micro-layout, moderate water diversion nearby, improvement of ecological compensation and transfer mechanism, construction of the Bole-Taipei Line and implementation of the strategy of further development in the western region.

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    On the Urbanization Curves: Types, Stages, and Research Methods
    Yan-guang CHEN
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2012, 32 (1): 12-17.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2012.01.12
    Abstract39578)   HTML463)    PDF (410KB)(4628)      

    The curves on the change of level of urbanization over time are called urbanization curves, which are in fact models of the progress of urbanization based on empirical evidences from developed countries and developing countries. There are two types of urbanization curves. One is S-shaped curve, and the other, J-shaped curve. The S-curve can be modeled with the logistic function, while the J-curve cannot be described by the logistic function. The former is applicable to the developed countries, whereas the latter is applicable to the developing countries. So far, there have been more studies on the S-shaped curve. However, fewer studies have been devoted to the J-shaped curve of urbanization. Consequently, we know little about the general principle on the J-shaped curve and its underlying rationale, which remain to be further explored in the future. In this paper, various studies on urbanization curves are systemized to form a framework of models on the level of urbanization. The logistic curve was once divided into three stages by Northam (1979): initial stage, acceleration stage, and terminal stage. However, the Northam's proposal is just a phenomenological theory with several defects: first, the definition of 'acceleration stage' is not correct; second, there are no theoretical basis and critical scale for the divisions. It can be proved that the logistic process falls into four phases. Taking half of urbanization level capacity as a tipping point, the logistic curve is divided into two stages: acceleration stage (urban majority) and deceleration stage (urban minority). The tipping point can be determined by two methods of elementary mathematics. Then the two stages are respectively divided into two sub-stages by means of the exponential law of urban-rural ratio with a parameter as characteristic length. Now, urbanization process can be divided into four stages: initial stage, acceleration stage, deceleration stage, and terminal stage. Also it can be divided into three stages: initial stage, celerity stage (including acceleration stage and deceleration stage), and terminal stage. Two methods are always applied to the research of urbanization curves and the related urbanization dynamics. One is phenomenological analysis, and the other, theoreticalogical analysis, which consists of three approaches: urban-rural allometric growth, urban-rural population replacement, and urban-rural population interaction dynamics. Urban-rural allometric growth analysis is a kind of scaling analysis. Urban-rural population replacement suggests a new dynamical analysis. Urban-rural interaction comprises linear dynamics and nonlinear dynamics. The linear dynamics is based on the well-known Keyfitz-Rogers model, whereas the nonlinear dynamical analysis can be employed to interpret the similarities and differences between the S-shaped and J-shaped curves. China’s urbanization process can be described with the J-shaped curve rather than the S-shaped curve. The studies on the urbanization curves will be significant for understanding the dynamical mechanism and essence of Chinese urbanization.

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    Study on the model of tourist satisfaction index about tourism environment:a case study of Huangshan Mountain
    WANG Qun, DING Zu-rong, ZHANG Jin-he, YANG Xing-zhu
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2006, 25 (1): 171-181.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2006010020
    Abstract3635)      PDF (286KB)(35863)      

    Assessments on tourist satisfaction about tourism environment is very popular but difficult in the field of tourism environment management.Using the model of American Customer Satisfaction Index(ACSI) for reference,this paper establishes the model of Tourist Satisfaction Index(TSI) on beauty spots.TSI includes six sections: environmental perceptions,tourism expectations,tourism values,tourist satisfaction,tourist complains and tourist loyalty.Its aim is to measure the degree of tourist satisfaction,look for the relevant factors influencing tourist satisfaction,and manage the tourism environment more effectively.This paper applies the model to Huangshan Mountain and finds its TSI is 82.34.The score is high,but it does not match with Huangshan Mountain and many problems still exist in tourism environment.By TSI,from six sections influencing tourist satisfaction,tourism value is the main influencing factor(β32=1.266),then the environmental quality(β31=0.672);the influence of tourist expectations on tourism values and satisfaction index is relatively small(γ21=-0.147,γ31=-0.265 respectively);the relations between tourist satisfaction and loyalty is obvious(β53=0.972),whether a tourist is satisfied or not directly influences whether he is loyal to destination or not.But the influence on tourist complain is small(β43=-0.16),also,if the tourist is not satisfied,perhaps he will not complain.Analyses on factors influencing six sections,the social service environment perception is the main factor influencing environmental perceptions(λ21=0.878),but natural environment is only 0.188;the influence of social service expectations on total tourism expectation is also intensive(λ2=0.94);price perceptions are the very important factor influencing tourism values(λ52=0.913).By this token,in Huangshan Mountain,the natural environment is very good,but reasonable ratio of price to quality must be given,social service environment should be improved,and the transparency of the result of travel complaint should be increased.Finally, the paper adopts multiple linear regression analysis and the model of factor-important deduction to validate.The same conclusions are made.

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