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    Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Grassland Degradation in Northern Tibet
    GAO Qingzhu, LI Yu'e, LIN Erda, Jiangcun Wangzha, WAN Yunfan, XIONG Wei, WANG Baoshan, LI Wenfu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2005, 60 (6): 965-973.   DOI: 10.11821/xb200506009
    Abstract868)      PDF (1255KB)(21590)      

    Ranging from 83o41' to 95o11'E and from 30o27' to 35o39'N, northern Tibet in the highest of Tibet is known as the ridge of the roof of world with a mean elevation of 4500 m. Northern Tibet is the headstream of the Yangtze River, Nujiang River and Lancang River. It is both the "sensitive area" of climate system and the "water tower" of China. The environmental condition of this area has significant effect on the main rivers, climate and eco-environment of Tibet and the whole country, even on the globe for its rigorous natural condition and fragile ecosystem. This study selected vegetation cover as the main evaluation index, calculated the grassland degradation index (GDI) and established the remote sense monitoring and evaluation system for grassland degradation in northern Tibet, according to the national standard (GB19377-2003), based on the remote sensing data such as NDVI data derived from NOAA/AVHRR with a spatial resolution of 8 km of 1981-2000 and from SPOT/VGT with a spatial resolution of 1 km of 2001 and from MODIS with a spatial resolution of 0.25 km of 2002-2004 respectively in this area, in combination with the actual condition of grassland degradation. The grassland degradation processes and their response to climate change during 1981-2004 were discussed and analyzed systematically in the study. The result indicated that grassland degradation in northern Tibet is very severe, and mean value of the GDI in recent 20 years is 2.54 which belongs to the severe degradation grade. From 1981 to 2004, the grassland degradation fluctuated evidently with great interannual variations in proportion of degradation degree and GDI but the total tendency turned to severe during this period with the grassland degradation grade changed from light to severe in northern Tibet. The extremely seriously degraded and seriously degraded respectively occupied 1.7% and 8.0% of the study area, the moderately and lightly degraded grassland accounted for 13.2% and 27.9% respectively and un-degraded grassland occupied 49.2% of the total grassland area in 2004. The grassland degradation was severe especially in the conjunctive area of Naqu, Biru and Jiali counties, the headstream of the Yangtze River that is Galadandong snow mountain, the areas along the Qinghai-Tibet railway and highway, and areas around the Tanggula and Nyainqentanglha snow mountains and glaciers. So the snow mountains and glaciers as well as their adjacent areas in northern Tibet which were sensitive to climate change and the areas along the vital communication line with frequent human activities experienced relatively severe grassland degradation.

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    Cited: Baidu(119)
    The Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Grassland Degradation in the Three- River Headwaters Region in Qinghai Province
    LIU Jiyuan, XU Xinliang, SHAO Quanqin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2008, 63 (4): 364-376.   DOI: 10.11821/xb200804001
    Abstract926)      PDF (3054KB)(12280)      

    Using MSS images in the middle and late 1970s, TM images in the early 1990s and TM/ETM images in 2004, grassland degradation in the Three-River Headwaters Region is interpreted through analysis on RS images in two time series, then the spatial and temporal characteristics of grassland degradation since the 1970s in the Three-River Headwaters Region are analyzed. The results show that grassland degradation in the Three-River Headwaters Region is a continuous changing process which has large area of influence and long time scale, and the drastic intensification phenomenon does not exist in the 1990s as a whole. Grassland degradation pattern in the Three-River Headwaters Region took shape initially in the middle and late 1970s, since the 1970s, this degradation process has taken place continuously, characterizing obviously different rules in different regions. Such as, in humid and sub-humid meadow grassland, grassland firstly fragmentizes, then the degree of vegetation coverage decreases continuously, and finally "black-soil-patch" degraded grassland formed. But in semiarid and arid steppe regions, the degree of grassland vegetation coverage decreases continuously, and finally desertification formed. Because grassland degradation has obvious regional diversity, grassland degradation in the Three-River Headwaters Region could be classified into seven regions, and each region has different characteristics in type, grade, scale and time process of grassland degradation.

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    Cited: Baidu(181)
    Development Process and Industry Aggregation of Ogun Guangdong Free Trade Zone in Nigeria
    Guangwen Meng, Chunzhi Wang, Mingming Du, Jiguang Wang, Chuan Zhao, Xiaonan Lu, Hongmei Wang
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2018, 38 (5): 727-736.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2018.05.010
    Abstract707)   HTML4)    PDF (813KB)(4816)      

    The article uses the index of trade combination degree to analyze the dependence of China and Nigeria on each other, and summarize the characteristics of China's investment and trade with Nigeria. Then, by reviewing the progress of development of Nigeria Ogun Guangdong Free Trade Zone, analyzing the Free Trade Zone aggregation degree by using the EG index, the results show that most industries have high agglomeration degree, and conform to the requirements of Nigeria to encourage pioneer industry. The third, through the analysis and discussion of the results, the article sums up the challenges faced by the Zone in terms of industry, infrastructure, the host country's political and economic environment. Finally, it puts forward some suggestions on the future optimization and development of the park from the government and the enterprise.

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    Cited: CSCD(4)
    Research on the urban-rural integration and rural revitalization in the new era in China
    LIU Yansui
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2018, 73 (4): 637-650.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb201804004
    Abstract5627)   HTML217)    PDF (1333KB)(8057)      

    Cities and villages are components of a specific organism. Only the sustainable development of two parts can support the prosperous development as a whole. According to the theory of man-earth areal system, urban-rural integrated system and rural regional system are the theoretical bases for entirely recognizing and understanding urban-rural relationship. To handle the increasingly severe problems of "rural disease" in rapid urbanization, accelerating rural revitalization in an all-round way is not only a major strategic plan for promoting the urban-rural integration and rural sustainable development, but also a necessary requirement for solving the issues related to agriculture, rural areas, and rural people in the new era and securing a decisive victory in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. This study explores the basic theories of urban-rural integration and rural revitalization and analyzes the main problems and causes of rural development in the new era, proposing problem-oriented scientific approaches and frontier research fields of urban-rural integration and rural revitalization in China. Results show that the objects of urban-rural integration and rural revitalization is a regional multi-body system, which mainly includes urban-rural integration, rural complex, village-town organism, and housing-industry symbiosis. Rural revitalization focuses on promoting the reconstruction of urban-rural integration system and constructs a multi-level goal system including urban-rural infrastructure networks, zones of rural development, fields of village-town space and poles of rural revitalization. Currently, the rural development is facing the five problems: high-speed non-agricultural transformation of agriculture production factors, over-fast aging and weakening of rural subjects, increasingly hollowing and abandoning of rural construction land, severe fouling of rural soil and water environment and deep pauperization of rural poverty-stricken areas. The countryside is an important basis for the socioeconomic development in China, and the strategies of urban-rural integration and rural revitalization are complementary. The rural revitalization focuses on establishing the institutional mechanism for integrated urban-rural development and constructs the comprehensive development system of rural regional system, which includes transformation, reconstruction and innovation in accordance with the requirements of thriving businesses, pleasant living environments, social etiquette and civility, effective governance, and prosperity. Geographical research on rural revitalization should focus on the complexity and dynamics of rural regional system and explore new schemes, models and scientific approaches for the construction of villages and towns, which are guided by radical cure of "rural disease", implement the strategy of rural revitalization polarization, construct the evaluation index system and planning system of rural revitalization, thus providing advanced theoretical references for realizing the revitalization of China's rural areas in the new era.

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    Cited: Baidu(55) CSCD(210)
    Geodetector: Principle and prospective
    Jinfeng WANG, Chengdong XU
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2017, 72 (1): 116-134.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb201701010
    Abstract8755)   HTML351)    PDF (5534KB)(7337)      

    Spatial stratified heterogeneity is the spatial expression of natural and socio-economic process, which is an important approach for human to recognize nature since Aristotle. Geodetector is a new statistical method to detect spatial stratified heterogeneity and reveal the driving factors behind it. This method with no linear hypothesis has elegant form and definite physical meaning. Here is the basic idea behind Geodetector: assuming that the study area is divided into several subareas. The study area is characterized by spatial stratified heterogeneity if the sum of the variance of subareas is less than the regional total variance; and if the spatial distribution of the two variables tends to be consistent, there is statistical correlation between them. Q-statistic in Geodetector has already been applied in many fields of natural and social sciences which can be used to measure spatial stratified heterogeneity, detect explanatory factors and analyze the interactive relationship between variables. In this paper, the authors will illustrate the principle of Geodetector and summarize the characteristics and applications in order to facilitate the using of Geodetector and help readers to recognize, mine and utilize spatial stratified heterogeneity.

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    Cited: Baidu(49) CSCD(342)
    Studies of Urban Regeneration
    YAN Ruogu, ZHOU Suhong, YAN Xiaopei
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2011, 30 (8): 947-955.   DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.08.001
    Abstract1524)      PDF (437KB)(5601)      
    “Urban regeneration”is a re-development process which is an inevitable experience at certain urbanization stage, and urban regeneration under different backgrounds and geographical environments has different motivation mechanism, development mode and power relations, and has different economic, environmental and social effects. Based on the English literature in recent years about "urban regeneration" and the literature about urban renewal in China in the past 30 years, this paper summed up the studies on urban regeneration from the perspectives of geography, including the research scope, the study characteristics and the theories related to urban regeneration, to explain the formation mechanism of urban regeneration, the regeneration policy, the regeneration mode, the regeneration tools and the methodologies, as well as the developers in the regeneration project and the regeneration effects in different regions at different developing stages. Urban renewal movement originated the massive urban renewal activities in the West after World War II. Because this kind of physical renewal destructed the previous social fabric and the integrity of the internal space, it was widely questioned. The term “urban regeneration”originally referred to an urban renaissance strategy which responded to the decline of old industrial cities after the transfer of the global industrial chain in the West, especially in Britain. Then it gradually evolved to a city's comprehensive urban redevelopment activities, including other improvement areas within the city, to stimulate economic growth, to enhance urban vitality and to improve the competitiveness. With the “globalization”and“localization”, the researchers in the world began to show concern on various types of urban renewal movement and re-urbanization strategy. This paper summed up three future research directions of urban regeneration, including the internal mechanism between urban regeneration, city construction and economic development, the micro-study of the individual behavior in urban regeneration and integrated urban redevelopment under the concept of sustainable development, and gave some suggestions to studies on future urban redevelopment in China.
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    Cited: CSCD(10)
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    1993, 12 (3): 16-20.   DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.1993.03.004
    Abstract1542)      PDF (464KB)(8607)      
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    Evapotranspiration estimation methods in hydrological models
    ZHAO Lingling, XIA Jun, XU Chong-yu, WANG Zhonggen, SOBKOWIAK Leszek, LONG Cangrui
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2013, 23 (2): 359-369.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-013-1015-9
    Abstract1708)      PDF (308KB)(2030)      

    Actual evapotranspiration is a key process of hydrological cycle and a sole term that links land surface water balance and land surface energy balance.Evapotranspiration plays a key role in simulating hydrological effect of climate change,and a review of evapotranspiration estimation methods in hydrological models is of vital importance.This paper firstly summarizes the evapotranspiration estimation methods applied in hydrological models and then classifies them into the integrated converting methods and the classification gathering methods by their mechanism.Integrated converting methods are usually used in hydrological models and two differences exist among them:one is in the potential evaporation estimation methods,while the other in the function for defining relationship between potential evaporation and actual evapotranspiration.Due to the higher information requirements of the Penman-Monteith method and the existing data uncertainty,simplified empirical methods for calculating potential and actual evapotranspiration are widely used in hydrological models. Different evapotranspiration calculation methods are used depending on the complexity of the hydrological model,and importance and difficulty in the selection of the most suitable evapotranspiration methods is discussed.Finally,this paper points out the prospective development trends of the evapotranspiration estimating methods in hydrological modeling.

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    Cited: Baidu(53) CSCD(1)
    Full Three-Dimensional GIS and Its Key Roles in Smart City
    zhu qing
       2014, 16 (2): 151-157.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1047.2014.00151
    Abstract1411)      PDF (3709KB)(3800)      

    Three-dimensional GIS (3D GIS) is one of the primary and typical contents of GIS technology at present and in the future, which overcomes the constraints of representing 3D GIS spatial information in two-dimensional map, as well as provides a more effective decision-making support for people's daily life. This paper focuses on the research progress and its key technologies of 3D GIS, including the data model, database management and visual analysis. The pilot applications of 3D GIS in Wuhan are also illustrated. The entire 3D space of the city is represented by 3D GIS. Then construction of the large-scale city digitalization is enabled with the improvement of city management. Finally, the applications of 3D GIS for spatio-temporal information bearing engine and spatial intelligence in smart city and city safety are investigated.

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    Cited: CSCD(27)
    Yi Fuke, Li Chonghao, Zhao Kuiyi, Zheng Xuangfeng, Ding Shouqin
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    1982, 2 (4): 375-384.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.04.375
    Abstract196)      PDF (3311KB)(1826)      
    The Sanjiang Plain is situated in the Northeast China,it’s a low alluvial plain formed by three rivers:Songhuajiang,Helongjiang,Wusulijiang.The plain is one of concentrated distribution areas of marshland and swamp meadows in our country. The vegetation type in the Sangjiang Plain is comprised of forest,meadow and swamp vegetation,in which vegetation of swampy meadow and marshland is dominant,about 74% of natural vegetation.This paper introduced the classification system of vegetation and describes the costituent,construction and distribution of all vegetation types there (figures and photographs of main types),and the formation and succession regularity of swamp vegetation as well,finally comprehensive utilization and necservation of reginal vegetation resources.
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    Review on the Development of Rural Tourism in China
    GUO Huancheng, HAN Fei
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2010, 29 (12): 1597-1605.   DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.12.018
    Abstract1644)      PDF (562KB)(5561)      

    Rural tourism is such a new industry which combines primary industry with tertiary industry. Rural tourism is based on agriculture, aiming at developing tourism in rural area and serving the urban residents by providing various services. Rural tourism can develop landscape resources in rurban fringe to promote eco-tourism and to realize the coordinated development of the cities and countryside. In China, rural tourism successively experiences three stages, eg. early rising stage, initial development stage and later normative operating stage. This paper, based on the background and the concept of rural tourism, comprehensively discusses the development of rural tourism in China, analyzes the current situations and the main patterns of rural tourism, and puts forward some relevant countermeasures for the current problems. Finally, the paper discusses the prospect of the future sustainable development of rural tourism in China.

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    Cited: CSCD(28)
    Discussion on Hexi Sub-CBD Development in Nanjing
    GUI Yaoyao, ZHU Xigang
       2010, 30 (2): 188-193.  
    Abstract1911)      PDF (480KB)(5922)      
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    Progress and prospect of research on urban ecological space
    Fuyuan WANG, Kaiyong WANG, Tian CHEN, Ping LI
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2017, 36 (2): 207-218.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.02.007
    Abstract1521)   HTML11)    PDF (776KB)(4440)      

    Urban ecological space is a main part of urban space, which is the interdisciplinary research topic in the urban planning, ecology and geography domain. Based on the analysis of literature related to urban ecological space(UES) home and abroad, the paper defined the urban ecological space and summarized the advance and limitations of domestic studies, pointed out that the foreign studies made important progresses in the effects of UES on residents' well-being and its mechanism, the UES perception, use behaviors and its influencing factors, economic and socio-cultural impacts of UES, UES governance methods and principles, UES pattern and optimization guided by social justice concept. In addition, humanistic approaches were applied widely. Accordingly, the paper proposed that future researches should focus on residents' well-being and pay more attention to social-ecological interaction and its mechanism, and the governance of public available UES, promote UES pattern and planning research guided by the concept of justice. At the same time, the application of multidisciplinary cross methods (such as humanism and behaviorism methods) should be strengthened.

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    Cited: CSCD(20)
    Progress in Urban Land Expansion and Its Driving Forces
    LIU Tao,CAO Guangzhong
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2010, 29 (8): 927-934.   DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.08.005
    Abstract701)      PDF (1431KB)(2227)      

    Urban land expansion has received considerable attentions in the recent debates in the studies in geography, environmental science, land science and urban planning. The sustained rapid urban land expansion in China has led to a series of problems and many papers focusing on this issue have been published in recent years. This paper summarizes the characteristics, spatial patterns and its driving forces of urban land expansion at national, regional and urban scales from perspectives of LUCC, regional statistics and case studies. China has been experiencing a rapid urban land expansion with a significant spatial diversity since the 1990s. The rapid growth of urban land is driven mainly by urban population and economic growth, industrialization and national and local policies. As a multidisciplinary science, researches on urban land expansion in different subjects keep separate and distinct from each other in perspective, scale, methods and data. There are abundant approaches for empirical study, while few for model establishment, not to mention the theoretical research. The absence of basic theories and research paradigms leads to the incomparability of researches from different perspectives, which will restrict further studies in this field. At last, the authors argue for intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary communication and integration to improve the theoretical research on urban land expansion.

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    Cited: CSCD(37)
    Evaluation of urban resilience of Dalian city based on the perspective of "Size-Density-Morphology"
    XIU Chunliang,WEI Ye,WANG Qi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2018, 73 (12): 2315-2328.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb201812004
    Abstract1307)   HTML50)    PDF (1903KB)(3302)      

    Aiming at building a safe city, this study proposed a “Size-Density-Morphology” based three-dimensional urban resilience evaluation framework according to the theories and methods of geography and landscape ecology. By using the framework, the urban resilience of each county in Dalian city during 2000-2016 was evaluated. There are three kinds of urban resilience, namely size resilience, density resilience and morphology resilience. The size resilience could be measured by ecological infrastructure tools; the density resilience could be measured by ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity; the morphology resilience could be measured by "Source-sink" landscape average distance index. In addition, this paper also analyzed the combining forms of the three types of resilience. This study demonstrates that the three-dimension evaluation framework has a unique capacity to identify the resilience characteristics of city, and it is a key bond which creates the connection of urban planning and urban resilience research. Findings are as follows: (1) The size safety is the primary constraint condition for urban spatial expansion. (2) Ecological carrying capacity is the safe threshold for urban density. (3) The spatial coupling of source and sink landscape is a basic feature of good urban morphology. (4) It is the combination of size-density-morphology resilience to determine the safety of the city rather than each single one. According to the analysis of combination characteristics of the "Size-Density-Morphology" resilience, four suggestions were put forward for the development of Dalian city in future. (1) Strictly limit the development intensity of central urban area and Jinzhou district to curb the urban sprawl trend; (2) Strictly control the development of the coastal zone and maintain the integrity of natural mountain and green vegetation patches; (3) Promote the balanced development on a whole city scale to improve the city's overall resilience; (4) Optimizing the development strategy of new urban area in order to form a good urban morphology.

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    Cited: CSCD(5)
    Cheng Chuankang
    Acta Geographica Sinica    1994, 49 (3): 226-235.   DOI: 10.11821/xb199403004
    Abstract3071)      PDF (475KB)(7433)      
    Modern geography mainly researches the chronicle and spatial development order of regional characters and differentiation about “earth’s substance” and “earth’s phenomena” on epigeosphere.Starting with foods and dishes as earth’s substance; while dietary culture as earth’s phenomena,this paper expounds the chronicle and spatial development order of the regional characters and differentiation about Chinese dietary culture after studying the territorial differentiation of dietary culture,formation of cuisine systems (diet set) and comparative researches on Chinese four main diet sets.All of this will promote and guide the dissemination and management for chinese dietary business.Different regional diet customs and cuisine skills, which forms their own corresponding diet set. banquet style and mass collation, together with the local habits to various tastes, contribute the culture of chinese diet.Diet set refers to those local diet in restaurants (even for banquet), selected from rural diet and common daily diet with local unusual tastes, Local diet, while it is cooked other than where it is from. could be innovated somehow, e. g. Shandong cuisine in Beijing style, Guangdong cuisine in Hongkong style. Chaozhou cuisine in Thailand style. in the development of diet set. super executive chief explores new diets. Meanwhile, traditional rural diet and common dialy diet (esp. mass collation on the street. with specific cooking process and tastes) gets popular, as a result, some rural diet joins in local diet set, In general, diet set contains various styles of rural diet, local diet, external taste diet, newly innovated diet.Taste of diet set is the essential for the diet culture. The four most popular chinese diet set,generaly divied into seasoned taste cuisine and original taste cuisine, tastes strongly and clearly salted and fresh, generaly dressed with paste, fermented soya beans, green chinese onion and garlic.Sichuan cuisine. also as seasoned taste cuisine. emphasizing on piquant and funny tastes . bears heavy subsidiary soup. the outer and inner of the main ingredient both get seasoned, and different cuisine tastes quite different. Yue cuisine, as the main branch of Guangdong cuisine, cares native taste. light and live, and the subsidiary soup seasons in a way of cooking and baking. Chaozhou cuisine. as subbranch of Guangdong cuisine. cares more light and native tastes. using brine instead of paste, as well as subsidiary soup, each dish has its condiment companied. so that attends could take as much they prefer. Weiyang cuisine emphasizes on native tastes and well-done. Yue cuisine prefers sweet. it cooks sweet cuisine and salt cuisine seperately. With regard to Weiyang cuisine (esp. its branch of Wuxi cuisine). seasoning always be sugar. so its salt cuisine also has sweet taste.As a result of historical communication, diet set is mixed up gradually. e. g. Qing & Han royal dynasty feast, which is the luxurious banquet for emperor. high officiais and noble lords, mixed up the flavour of the Man (Manzhou) nationality. Beijing cuisine. Shandong cuisine and Weiyang cuisine. Nowaday, the menus in the People’s Hall carry on this mixed style of diet to fit various attends.In fact. people prefer more pure flavour of local diet set. Since the open policy in the mainland of China, Sichuan cuisine once extends all over China and dominates in low and middle level restaruant. Yue cuisine extends northward and becomes popular all around. dominating middle and hight level market. and Chaozhou cuisine, as a new force suddenly coming to the fore. becomes the most popular high level diet. dominating the high level market in Beijing and Shanghai. Shandong cuisine retreats in defeat again and again and falls into middle and low level diet. Menwhile, Weiyang cuisine takes no action. still distributes within the Provinces of Jiangsu, Shanghai and Anhui. If Weiyang cuisine innovates something like the morning tea candy of Yue cuisine, and explores medical diet and delicacies from land and sea, it is possible that Weiyang cuisine join into h
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    Cited: Baidu(84) CSCD(12)
    Pang Tingyi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    1996, 51 (3): 224-229.   DOI: 10.11821/xb199603004
    Abstract1662)      PDF (389KB)(3013)      
    There are many mountains and vast plateaus in the western region in China.Owing to the influence of vertical zonality,It is difficult to divide the climatic belts.But the vertical climate is established based on the base vertical climatic belts that have the characters of latitudinal zonality.Therefore,the divided western sub-tropical thermal belts are latitudinal zones.Thereafter,YunnanGuizhou Plateau and Jinsha River Velley should be in the middle sub-tropical zone.The latitudinal zonality is destroyed by the Tibetan Platearu.Therefore,there is a boundary of western sub-tropical zone which is located on the eastern side of the Tibetan Plateau.It is a boundary on the north,the middle and the south of the sub-tropical which runs into the Tibetan Plaleau.But there is not a transitional zone between the sub-tropical belt and the Tibetan Plateau.The method of dividing the western subtropical is advanced in this paper.
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    Cited: Baidu(12) CSCD(3)
    A literature review on optimization of spatial development pattern based on ecological-production-living space
    Jinchuan HUANG, Haoxi LIN, Xiaoxiao QI
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2017, 36 (3): 378-391.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.03.014
    Abstract1235)   HTML8)    PDF (785KB)(3379)      

    In the process of rapid economic growth and social restructuring, solving the problems such as spatial development disorder and costly resources and environmental impact has been an important scientific proposition of regional sustainable development in the field of human-economic geography. In accordance with the report to the Eighteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China, optimizing spatial development pattern nationally is placed as the primary measure of ecological progress, followed by the specific requirements stated as "the space for production is used intensively and efficiently, the living space is livable and proper in size, the ecological space is unspoiled and beautiful." Shaping the ecological-production-living space by following these requirements will become the foundation of the spatial planning system. Moreover, it also contributes to improving the protection system of spatial development and implementing major function oriented zoning at all scales. Revolving around the target of optimizing geographical space and regional sustainable development, this article systematically reviews existing literature on ecological-production-living space both in China and internationally, focusing on the quantitative proportion and spatial layout of ecological-production-living space. Following the requirements of improving precision and increasing spatial resolution and with a focus on functional classification, spatial identification, and spatial development pattern optimization, this article finally put forward the research framework of ecological-production-living space. To promote the progress of theoretical research and practical applications on ecological-production-living space, the following measures can be implemented: (1) Establish an improved research framework and technical process through multidisciplinary partnerships. (2) Expand the scope of basic units of analysis. (3) Explore new methods for function identification and attach more importance to the dynamic evolution of ecological, production, and living spaces. (4) Promote the integration of suitability evaluation at different scales. (5) Meet the practical needs of multiple-planning integration and ultimately serve the national efforts of optimizing the spatial development pattern.

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    Cited: CSCD(48)
    The development of COVID-19 in China: Spatial diffusion and geographical pattern
    WANG Jiaoe, DU Delin, WEI Ye, YANG Haoran
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (7): 1450-1462.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200329
    Abstract1609)   HTML244)    PDF (13259KB)(1218)      

    The study of the spatial diffusion and geographical mode of COVID-19 is of great significance for the rational allocation of health resources, the management and response of public health emergencies, and the improvement of public health system in the future. Based on multiple spatio-temporal scale, this paper studied the spatial spreading process of COVID-19 between cities and its evolution characteristics in China, and then explored its influencing factors. The results are shown in the following: the inter-city spreading process of COVID-19 in China mainly experienced six stages, namely, stage I: diffusion in Wuhan, stage II: rapid multi-point diffusion in space, stage III: rapid increase of confirmed cases, stage IV : gradual decrease of new confirmed cases, stage V: the epidemic under control, and stage VI: cases imported from overseas. In the context of globalization and open regional system, the social and economic development of regions are closely related to each other. With the development of fast and convenient high-speed railway network, the spatial characteristic of population migration shows a cross-regional and hierarchical pattern, and forms a certain spatial cascade structure along the transport corridor. Accordingly, the spatial spread of COVID-19 mainly showsthe characteristics of adjacent diffusion, relocation diffusion, hierarchical diffusion, and corridor diffusion. The study found that geographical proximity, population migration and population size, traffic network, epidemic prevention and control measures have significant influence on the spatial diffusion process of COVID-19. Among different modes of transportation, airplanes play agreater role than others in the early stage of the epidemic. In addition, the population flow during the Spring Festival had a certain impact on the spread of the epidemic. In conclusion, to some extent, the spatial spread process and pattern of COVID-19 epidemic reflects the spatial organization pattern of social and economic activities under the "space of flows" network, which is closely related to the geographical proximity, the social and economic linkages between regions, and the spatial an temporal patterns of human activities. From the perspective of geography, this paper analyzed the inter-city spread pattern of COVID-19 epidemic and provided some implications for prevention and control measures against the epidemic in other countries, and also offered some suggestions for China to deal with public health emergency risks in the future.

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    Yang Yichou, Li Bingyuan, Yi Zesheng, Zhang Qingsong
    Acta Geographica Sinica    1982, 37 (1): 76-87.   DOI: 10.11821/xb198201009
    Abstract1505)      PDF (917KB)(2785)      
    Landform on the Xizang Plateau is generally characterized by gentle rolling plateau surface. There are also a series of continous and towering mountains standing above the plateau surface, and these lofty mountains are the centres where both the ancient and modern glaciers developed. Numerous broad valleys and basins are inlaid in the interior of plateau surface. The upstreams of the exterior drainage system and most portions of the interior drainage system are meandering in the broad valleys while lakes dotted and spread all over the basins. The plateau surface is down cut by channels of middle and lower reaches of the exterior drainage system. In addition, karstie, aeolian and volcanic landforms have been developed on the plateau surface.The landform on the Qinghai-xizang plateau is a result of underthrust with a small angle of Indian plate into Eurasion plate. Since late Cretaceous, the Indian plate has, (due to the continous expansion of Indian Ocean floor,) pushed northward, approached and finally underthrust underneath the Eurasian plate. The different mountain-making movements of Hercynia, Indo-China, Yanshan and Himalaya acted upon Indian plate with horizontal movement and caused it disintegrated internally. As a result, the disintegrated smaller and younger plates, underthrusting along rift zones in stages underneath the Eurasian plate. The Yanshan movement exerted the greatest influence and laid the foundation of landforms of the plateau, while the early Himalayan movement finally made the plateau as an independent macromorphologic entity. The premitive plateau is thus formed. The ncotectonic movements, occurred since the end of Tertiary and acted upon the plateau, in the form of vertical movement have caused intense uplift of the plateau in stages, this open up the new era for the formation of the "World Koof". The strong uplifting of the plateau, coordinated with the global climatic cold-warm fluctuation created unique water-heat regime for the plateau. The complicated and homogeneous distribution and integration of the various land-forms are originated horizontally and vertically by many times of climatic alternation of glacial and interglacial periods.
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    Feng Yan, He Daming
    Acta Geographica Sinica    1999, 54 (s1): 165-172.   DOI: 10.11821/xb1999S1022
    Abstract722)      PDF (487KB)(3858)      
    Tlie international water law is guiding activities and theoretic basis of coordinating and managing the de-velopment and utilization of international rivers, is used to coordinate the rights and duties among the coun-tries in developing and utilizing international rivers; the national water law is the rales and policies to managethe development and utilization of water resource, is a law to control and guide the activities of developmentand utilization in the state. In the paper, Combining the present situations of the competing utilization andconflicts in sharing water resource of international rivers, the relationship between the rules and its developingtendency of the international water law is analyzed and the following principles are ansidered necessaryly; eq-uitable and reasonable utilization; obligation not to cause significant harm, general obligation to cooperate;obligation to regular exchange of data and information; obligation to protect and preserve the water resourceand ecosystems, etc.. In the rules of Chinese Water Laws system, it is considered that there are some prob-lems: no strict managing institution; no completed basic rules of developing, utilizing and protecting waterresource; especial lack of the rule to protect aquatic - ecosystem which has close relation with water re-source; To conclude, it is proposed that, in order to strengthen reasonable development, utilization and pro-tection of the sharing water resource of China, and to achieve regional sustainable development, the ChineseWater Law should stipulate clearly the basic rules like the equitable and reasonable utilization, etc., improvemanaging institution, strengthen the planning of integrated river basin development and coordinated manage-ment.
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    The street networks evolution in Beijing old city since the establishment of the Republic of China: A syntactical view
    ZHOU Lin,TIAN Li,ZHANG Zhen,LI Wei
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2018, 73 (8): 1433-1448.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb201808004
    Abstract1078)   HTML20)    PDF (7189KB)(3153)      

    By using space syntax techniques with digital historical maps in different times, this study tries to reveal the evolution process of Beijing old city's street network since the establishment of the Republic of China in the 1910s from three aspects, which are phenotype of street networks, part-whole hierarchical relation and operation efficiency. The results show that: first, the vicissitudes of dynasties divide evolution process into two parts. In the Republican Period, the street network transformed from feudal isolation structure to modern connective structure. The axisymmetric hook-ups NAIN and NACH cores patterns were broken up together. After the founding of New China in 1949, the geometry grid features of old city's street network became obvious, and the ring and big grid movement skeleton system sprang up gradually. Meanwhile, the accessibility and through frequency of different street segments became more and more similar. Second, the accessibility hierarchical relationship in each sub-area of the old city was in a constant change, however, the through frequency relationship stabilized for more than 100 years. Compared with other sub-areas, the east city had obvious spatial advantages of accessibility and through frequency. Third, two insertions of new structure and the path dependence of subsequent plan made the operation efficiency of street network experienced rise and fall. This process also emerged in east city, west city and outer city, and the stronger geometry grid feature urged east city to have a higher rising range and operation efficiency. Moreover, the imperial city's operation efficiency experienced a descent stage because of its opening wider to the outside world. In summary, this research completely organizes the phylogeny of Beijing old city's street network, provides the logical support from the street network perspective to protect the capital's traditional and inherit historical context, and expands the theoretical algorithm system of space syntax.

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    Cited: CSCD(2)
    The extensive value of eleven world-renowned maps from ancient and modern China
    Qizhang LIANG, Qingwen QI, Xun LIANG
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2017, 72 (12): 2295-2309.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb201712013
    Abstract1124)   HTML9)    PDF (2516KB)(3082)      

    The core content of ancient Chinese cartography is "the six principles of cartography" pioneered by Pei Xiu (Hawn) in the 3rd century, which was subsequently developed by several generations of renowned cartographic experts in China. A large number of highly valuable ancient and modern maps had been completed by the end of the 19th century. Eleven Chinese world-renowned maps were selected based on the author’s personal participation in the Basic Science & Technological Special Program National Project, which also referred to three ancient Chinese atlases (published in AD 1990-1997). The eleven maps include the following: Dixing Fangzang Tu (a general map), the first scientific map produced in the 3rd century; Hainei Huayi Tu (a general map covering Asia), made in the 8th century; Astronomical figure, a first scientific star figure depicted 1440 constellations made in 1190, which was the original drawing of Suzhou stone carving astronomical figure; Yu Ditu (a general map), made in 1315, which marked the perfection of ancient Chinese cartography; Daming Hunyi Tu (a general map), made in 1389; Genglu Bo (a South China Sea chart used by fishermen), and Zheng He's Nautical Chart, made in the 15th century; Guangyu Tu (a comprehensive atlas) made in 1541; Kunyu Wanguo Quantu (a large Chinese world map in color), made in 1602; Kangxi Quanlan Tu (a general map), which was the first large map including measurements of latitude and longitude made in 1718; Haiguo Tuzhi (a world atlas and annals), which is the predecessor of the contemporary and modern Chinese world atlases made in 1842-1852. The discussion of these ancient maps focused on their scientific, historical, foreign, sailing, territorial, military, and cultural values. Simultaneously, we evaluated their innovations and evolution of map-positioning technology between Chinese and Western cartography. Finally, we hope that the National Bureau of Surveying and Mapping of China provide more support and promote the construction of an ancient Chinese map ecosystem to accelerate the use, evaluation, and mining of the heritage of ancient Chinese maps.

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    Relief degree of land surface and its geographical meanings in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China
    FENG Zhiming, LI Wenjun, LI Peng, XIAO Chiwei
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (7): 1359-1372.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202007003
    Abstract2381)   HTML130)    PDF (4161KB)(1207)      

    Relief degree of land surface (RDLS) is one of the key indicators in the fields of suitability assessment of human settlements (SAHS) as well as resources and environmental carrying capacity (RECC) evaluation at the regional scale. Currently, there is still a lack of in-depth research on the determination of the optimal window size for the RDLS calculation and evaluation and its correlation analysis with two topographical parameters, e.g., elevation and relative height difference. These issues further affect the effective representation of the RDLS in the delineation of local to regional topographic relief. Therefore, an objective understanding of the RDLS in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China greatly contributes to promoting the construction of national ecological security barrier and regional green development. In this study, based on the 30 m Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM Version 2), the optimal window size for calculating and evaluating the RDLS in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was accurately determined using the average change-point method, and the first 30 m RDLS thematic map for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was generated accordingly. Next, the interrelation between the RDLS and elevation and relative height difference was quantitatively examined. Based on that, the effective representation or geographical meanings of the RDLS in the plateau were defined. The results/conclusions include: (1) The optimum window size for the RDLS calculation and evaluation in the study area based on the 30 m GDEM is a rectangular neighborhood of 41×41 pixels, equaling to an area of about 1.51 km2. The average change-point analysis approach shows that the optimum window size for regional RDLS analysis is unique. (2) The average RDLS of the study area is approximately 5.06, along with over 60% of the plateau ranging between 4.5 and 5.7. On the whole, the topographic relief increases from the northeast to the southwest and west parts. Gentle to small-relief landforms are mostly seen in the Qaidam Basin, the Southern Tibet Valley, and the Hehuang Valley (Yellow and Huangshui river valleys). Also, the differences in the local surface relief in varied latitudinal sections (along the mountain range) are small, while those at longitudinal level are big, showing hierarchical and regular fluctuations (crossing the mountain trending). (3) Correlation analyses showed that different values of the RDLS in the plateau correspond to geomorphic units with different elevations and relative height differences. The profile characteristics of the mountains in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau based on different terrain reliefs indicate that the height above sea level of low mountains steadily increases first, then experiences sudden rise and severe fluctuation in surface relief, and finally forms the orderly ups and downs of the extreme mountains, e.g., the Himalayas.

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    Guo Laixi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    1994, 49 (5): 385-393.   DOI: 10.11821/xb199405001
    Abstract1848)      PDF (623KB)(2988)      
    Ports,as doors of the country opening toward the world,is playing double roles making a bridge between the domestic market and the overseas market and defending state sovereignty.In China,the ports are some seaports,railstations,passways,and airports where the goverments permit passengers,goods and vehicles to pass through and some facilities (e. g. frontier inspection stations.customhouse,harbour superintendency administrations and quarantine stations for human being,animals and plants,etc),infrastrucutre and administration offices are established.This paper includes five sections: (1)Classification and function.China’s ports can be divided into the state ports and the localports based administrative level and seaports.airports and local ports based on modes of transportation.(2)Fundamental elements of ports.A basic port includes the external transportation system,the foreign trade system.the supervisory and testing system,the service system and the comprehensive administrative system.(3)Allocation of ports and regional development.(4)Distribution of China’s ports.The author discussed mainly the seaport system along the coast,the trading port system along the interior border,the waterport system along the Changjiang River(Yangtze River).(5)Some suggestions for the development of China’s port system.They are :(a)The establishment of ports must depend on the development of external passways,airline networks.(b)The function of ports in the interior area and along the Changjiang River(Yangtze River)should be diversified.(c)The port planning must march the urban construction.
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    Review of urban form, structure and morphology in China during 2003-2013
    WANG Huifang, ZHOU Kai
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2014, 33 (5): 689-701.   DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.05.010
    Abstract1118)      PDF (4156KB)(3990)      
    This paper reviews research on urban form, urban structure, and urban morphology of Chinese cities published in major geography, urban planning, and architecture academic journals in the last decade (from 2003 to 2013). By firstly clarifying the working definitions of these three concepts, this paper categorizes current literatures into six major research themes: impacting factors of urban forms, application of new methods and models, time- space dimensions, sustainable urban forms, planning and management of urban forms, and regional case studies. Perspectives, findings, methods, and limitations of the reviewed research were evaluated together with their implementations in planning practices in recent years. By comparing the differences between research approaches in Chinese and English literature, this review shows that Chinese scholars are searching for an "ideal urban form model", which is built on historical studies on reform and reconstruction of urban form and borrowing classic theories from the West, while researchers in the West are currently searching for operational knowledge about a "sustainable urban form" and exploring the development policy and planning approach towards sustainability. Looking into the outcomes of the rapid contemporary urbanization in China, the "ideal urban form model" is problematic due to its ignorance of the smoothness and continuity in spatial change and the unique local cultural context in China, which led to general spatial and social conflicts between the new and old districts and the disappearing of historical and cultural blocks. Therefore, this paper suggests that further efforts should be made on studying local, micro-scale morphological pattern, in order to provide constructive knowledge within a framework that crosses time-space dimensions. Therefore more inclusive and sustainable urban forms could be achieved in the future planning and management practices.
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    Xia Dongxing, Wang Wenhai, Wu Guiqiu, Cui Jinrui, Li Fulin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    1993, 48 (5): 468-476.   DOI: 10.11821/xb199305010
    Abstract1704)      PDF (590KB)(2990)      
    Since the end of the 1950s', coastal erosion has taken place extensively in China and has been accelerated. At present,nearly all of the muddy coasts and 70% of the Snady coasts are subject to erosion. Coastal erosion has threatened villages,roads,factories coast-protection forests and tourism resources. The speed of erosion of muddy coasts changes considerably from place to place while that of the sandy coasts ranges between 1 and 2 m/ yr in general. The coral- reef coasts and platform coasts are subject to serious erosions too. The coasts located to the north of the Yangtze River are more seriously eroded than those to the south of the river. Intense coastal erosion has taken place in the provinces of Jiangsu,Shandong,Hebei and Liaoning and in Tianjing Municipality,all of them are located to the north of the Yangtze River. While to the south of the river,strong coastal erosion occurs only along the coasts in Fujian and Hainan provinces. The main causes of coastal erosion in China are the quarrying of sands and the decrease of sediment discharges of the rivers into the sea. It is estimated that about 4000 million tons of beach sands have been exploited annual throughout the country,while the decreased amount of river sediment discharge into the sea is much larger than the amount of beach sands exploitation. The annual sediment discharge of the Huanghe River in the 1980s' was decreased over 300 million tons compared to the average. Sea level rise and ground subsidence in the future 50一100 years will cause the lowlying coastal areas in China to be subject to seawater transgression,and coastal erosion will cause a great loss of land area in China.
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    Global warming facilitates plant migration and biological invasion
    ZHONG Yong de, LI Mai he, Norbert Kraeuchi
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2004, 23 (3): 347-356.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2004030008
    Abstract1721)      PDF (326KB)(4502)      

    Global warming will lead to changes in many environmental factors and disturbance regimes (e g fire, drought, insect outbreak etc ) As a consequence, changes in characteristics of existing ecosystems, such as species composition and competition, stability and productivity, ecosystem health, ecological safety and ecosystem services, are to be expected Palaeoecological evidence and palaeoclimatic records pointed out plant pole ward migration in latitude and upward shift in elevation with increased temperature after the last glaciation Ecological observations also showed that the elevation of the alpine timberline moved upward worldwide with increasing global temperatures during the last 100 years Current global warming could mean that the plants currently growing at lower elevations or at lower latitudes might progressively migrate to higher elevations and latitudes However, it does not mean that all plants of an ecosystem move upward or pole ward with the same velocity Many species may re adapt to the changed and changing environmental conditions and survive for generations at their present location Many species will shift their ranges to track climate change As climate may change faster than plants are able to migrate from one region to another, species will become extinct An extinction of a plant species will also harm the animals depending on this specific species On the other hand, global warming and new disturbance regimes could favour the invasion of non native species due to the reduced stability and resistance of ecosystems Biological invasions will lead to massive losses of biological diversity on local, regional and global scales Global warming during the past 20 30 years has already had a severe impact on sensitive biological systems As a continued warming has to be expected, the global warming issue should be addressed by conservation planners and policy makers, as one of the most serious and immediate threats to biodiversity

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    Progress on the Study of Urban Architecture FAR
    BAO Zhenhong,LI Chaokui
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2010, 29 (4): 396-402.   DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.04.002
    Abstract727)      PDF (1288KB)(2342)      

    FAR(Floor Area Ratio)is an an important indicator of describing the intensity of urban land development. At present, the contradiction between people and land is becoming increasingly acute. The urban development principle of “High volume, low density” has been widely accepted. However, a lot of problems were exposed when the policy implemented in practice, such as traffic jam, lack of sunlight and fire-threat. These problems affected people's health and cities’ sustainable development seriously. How to determine a rational FAR becomes a current research focus.This paper started with the concept, characteristics and influencing factors of FAR (Floor Area Ratio), researched and analyzed the FAR in urban planning, including the effects of FAR on land price, the estimation of present floor area ratio and the determination of planning plot ratio, compared the advantages and disadvantages of methods which can determine the correction coefficient in assessing urban land price, expounded the application and development of high resolution satellite imagery in estimating the present FAR of a city, explored an effective approach to determine the rational FAR values—comprehensive balance method, found out that the bottleneck that limits the increase of FAR was environmental capacity by carding the research history of FAR, tried to explore a method for estimating maximum FAR by using the 3DCM sunshine analysis model, and determined the future study focus of FAR.

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    Draft of major function oriented zoning of China
    Jie FAN
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2015, 70 (2): 186-201.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb201502002
    Abstract3693)   HTML72)    PDF (3878KB)(7234)      

    Major Function Oriented Zoning (MFOZ) is the blueprint for the future developmnt and protection pattern of China's territory, and has been raised to from major function zones planning to major function zoning strategy and major function zoning institution. From 2004 to 2014, the author organized a series of research projects to compose MFOZ for the country, studied basic theory of regional function and MFOZ technical process, and proposed that space controlling zones of national and provincial scales can be divided into four types: urbanized zones, foodstuff-security zones, ecological safety zones, cultural and natural heritage zones. On this basis, major function zones of county scale should be transferred to optimized, prioritized, restricted, and prohibited zones. In this paper, a regional function identification index system comprising nine quantitative indicators (including water resources, land resources, ecological importance, ecological fragility, environment capacity, disaster risk, economic development level, population concentration and transport superiority) and one qualitative indicator of strategic choice is developed. Based on the single index evaluation, comprehensive evaluation using regional function suitability evaluation index is conducted, aiming at testing several key parameters including lower limit of protection zones and upper limit of development zones at the provincial level. In addition, a planning-oriented zoning method of major function zones is also discussed, which has brought the first MFOZ planning in China. According to the MFOZ caliber, it is forecasted that national spatial development intensity will rise from 3.48% in 2010 to 3.91% in 2020. Furthermore, according to caliber of the provincial integrated MFOZ planning, the area of optimized, prioritized and restricted zones accounts for 1.48%, 13.60% and 84.92%, respectively, and that of urbanized, foodstuff-security and ecological safety zones accounts for 15.08%, 26.11% and 58.81%, respectively. In combination of analyses of development level, resources and environmental carrying status and quality of the people's livelihood, the main characteristics of MFOZ were identified. Through verification, MFOZ draft of national and provincial scales, which is interactively accomplished with "MFOZ Technical Process" put forward by the author, is mostly above 80% identical with what have been forecasted.

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