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    Historical Geography Research    2019, 39 (2): 83-94.  
    Abstract443)   HTML51)    PDF (4303KB)(313)      
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    The ideological origins and geographical demarcation significance of Hu Huanyong Line
    DING Jinhong, CHENG Chen, ZHANG Weijia, TIAN Yang
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (6): 1317-1333.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202106001
    Abstract976)   HTML44)    PDF (986KB)(273)      

    In the early 20th century, China was faced with domestic crisis and foreign invasion, and the man-land contradictions were unprecedented fierce. Geographers pondered and explored the issues of national fortune such as China's population status, northwest exploitation and internal migration, thus China's population geography emerged as the times required. "The distribution of population in China" published by Hu Huanyong in 1935 is a symbol of maturity of China's population geography. The Hu Huanyong Line (also known as Hu Line) proposed in this paper, which he originally called the Aihui-Tengchong Line, is a significant geographical demarcation of China's population. The existence and stability of the Hu Line have been repeatedly verified by census data, and its scientific principles have also been revealed and explained by the academic circles from aspects of nature, economy, social culture, etc. This paper points out that grain and employment are the two hidden logics behind the Hu Line. The Hu Line is becoming a crucial national geographic demarcation, which has an increasingly essential impact on the cognition and analysis of China's national conditions. Recent research on the Hu Line has been widely extended in various fields and meanings, and there arose some amendments and adaptations of the line in practice. Under the influence of "Premier Li Keqiang's three questions", whether the Hu Line can be broken through has become an academic hot spot. This paper holds that it is more important to create more opportunities of the northwest region than to increase the share of population so as to balance regional development.

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    Spatial patterns of village and town built areas in the Pearl River Delta:A land-use perspective
    Jiheng LI, Yue GONG, Guicai LI
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (6): 829-839.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.06.004
    Abstract596)   HTML15)    PDF (11311KB)(723)      

    During China's rural industrialization, land in villages and towns has been rapidly transformed into non-agricultural use. The Pearl River Delta in South China is the most representative of China's rural industrialization and urbanization. In the Pearl River Delta, the cities of Dongguan, Zhongshan, and Foshan are typical cases of both rural industrialization and land-use change. The dataset used in this study includes the land-use data of 2015 in Guangdong Province and the land-use data of the three cities between 2009 and 2015. This dataset provides valuable information on the post-2010 spatial structure of villages and towns in the Pearl River Delta. Based on this dataset, we examined the current (around the mid-2010s) spatial conditions of villages and towns in the Pearl River Delta. We first analyzed the spatial attributes of construction land. The analysis was based on eight indices or methods: land patch density index, spatial discrete index, spatial uniformity index, the mean of land patch area, fractal dimension index, landscape fragmentation index, buffer analysis, and Moran's I analysis. Then, we analyzed the spatial distribution relations between industrial and non-industrial land uses, and between construction land and transportation land through a statistical analysis. Finally, we discussed the industrial factors of the detected spatial pattern through the gray associative analysis. Our findings indicate a high fragmentation and even distribution pattern of village and town built-up areas in Dongguan, agglomerated and discrete pattern in Foshan, and medium level fragmentation and discreteness in Zhongshan. Diverse industrial development in the three cities had a major impact on the formation of the spatial patterns. In the future, the transformation of the spatial pattern of built-up areas in villages and towns in the Pearl River Delta must coordinate with the industrial development and the ongoing development of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Great Bay Area. Approaches to facilitating the transformation include the modification of the industrial structure and an adjustment of land use and transportation across these villages and towns. This article aimed to reveal the current spatial patterns of crucial rural-to-urban transformation in a rapidly urbanizing region and to provide relevant policy recommendations. The results may contribute to our understanding of China's continuous rural urbanization and industrialization.

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    Spatiotemporal patterns and influencing factors of rainstorm-induced flood disasters in China
    HU Pan, CHEN Bo, SHI Peijun
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (5): 1148-1162.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202105008
    Abstract655)   HTML69)    PDF (10412KB)(363)      

    Understanding the influencing factors and controls of rainstorm-induced floods, which have caused tremendous losses of human lives and national economy, is a pressing need for flood risk management in China. Based on the meteorological disaster census data of counties in China, hourly precipitation data at 2420 stations, statistical yearbook, terrain data and other data, the authors (1) investigated the spatiotemporal pattern of flood impacts in China over the period from 1984 to 2007 using trend analysis techniques and (2) explored the driving factors of the spatiotemporal pattern by adopting the geospatial statistical analysis tool (Geodetector). This study considered the spatiotemporal patterns and their interplays among county-level flood impacts (i.e., flood-induced mortality rate, proportion of population affected, and economic loss in percentage), disaster-formative environmental factors (i.e., population density, urban population percentages, average elevation, river density, average slope, and average distance to the seashore), and extreme precipitation characteristics (i.e., annual average volume and duration of extreme rainfall). The results show that: (1) there were no consistent temporal trends of extreme rainfall characteristics over the study period across China. (2) The frequencies of flood disasters in the Yangtze and Pearl rivers and southeast coastal areas increased significantly, but the casualties over these regions decreased. (3) Flood-induced casualties, proportion of population affected and economic loss in percentage increased in Northwest China; and meteorological factors, disaster-formative environment factors such as geographical conditions and social economy, and geographical conditions contribute mostly to the proportion of population affected, flood-induced death and economic loss in percentage. These results indicate that more attention should be paid to improving the flood control capacity of small or medium-sized cities in the inland river basins, especially in Northwest China, and we should recognize the important roles that disaster-formative environment plays in triggering flood losses.

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    Geodetector: Principle and prospective
    Jinfeng WANG, Chengdong XU
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2017, 72 (1): 116-134.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb201701010
    Abstract8755)   HTML351)    PDF (5534KB)(7337)      

    Spatial stratified heterogeneity is the spatial expression of natural and socio-economic process, which is an important approach for human to recognize nature since Aristotle. Geodetector is a new statistical method to detect spatial stratified heterogeneity and reveal the driving factors behind it. This method with no linear hypothesis has elegant form and definite physical meaning. Here is the basic idea behind Geodetector: assuming that the study area is divided into several subareas. The study area is characterized by spatial stratified heterogeneity if the sum of the variance of subareas is less than the regional total variance; and if the spatial distribution of the two variables tends to be consistent, there is statistical correlation between them. Q-statistic in Geodetector has already been applied in many fields of natural and social sciences which can be used to measure spatial stratified heterogeneity, detect explanatory factors and analyze the interactive relationship between variables. In this paper, the authors will illustrate the principle of Geodetector and summarize the characteristics and applications in order to facilitate the using of Geodetector and help readers to recognize, mine and utilize spatial stratified heterogeneity.

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    Cited: Baidu(49) CSCD(342)
    Changing spatial patterns of internal migration to five major urban agglomerations in China
    CAO Guangzhong, CHEN Sichuang, LIU Tao
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (6): 1334-1349.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202106002
    Abstract807)   HTML45)    PDF (3104KB)(232)      

    Internal migration in China has presented a series of new characteristics recently. The secondary migration and spatial redistribution of existing migrants become increasingly important in determining the future patterns of urbanization. Urban agglomerations (UAs) have long been the major destination of China's internal migration. They are also appointed as the main form of future urbanization in the recently released national planning of new-type urbanization. Five major UAs were selected as a case study, including three coastal ones, namely the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), the Pearl River Delta (PRD), and the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (BTH), and two inland ones, namely the Middle Yangtze River (MYR) and the Chengdu-Chongqing (CC) region. Based on data of the latest population census and the dynamic monitoring survey of floating population in the five major UAs, this paper first examined the spatial patterns of in-migrants from multiple dimensions of destination, origin, and distance of migration. The trends and urbanization effects of migration on the destination and origin were then assessed by comparing the settlement and hukou transfer intentions of migrants with different origins and destinations. The results showed the coexistence of common and distinct features in these mega regions. Although the continuous attractiveness of central cities for migrants was observed in all regions, peripheral cities in the YRD and PRD have become increasingly attractive as well, leading to a moderately dispersing trend in these two pioneering coastal UAs. Moreover, the concentration level and spatial distribution of migrants among cities were generally stable in the YRD and PRD but continuously adjusting in the BTH and two inland UAs. The fastest growth was found in inter-county migration within province and the slowest in intra-county migration. The coastal UAs were strongly preferred by inter-provincial migrants, while the inland ones could only attract migrants from the same or surrounding provinces. Despite this, significant distance attenuation was found in all of them. In terms of the origins of migrants, those from central provinces had flowed mainly to the YRD and PRD, whereas those from the northeast showed a high preference for the BTH region. We can anticipate the future patterns of migration and urbanization from the settlement intentions of migrants from and to different cities. From the destination view, the advantage in public services made central cities considerably more attractive than other cities. Hence, they are expected to be continuously faced with severe contradiction between supply and demand of public services. In the inland UAs, however, central cities and ordinary ones are able to share the pressure of public service provision. From the original view, the high-quality and equally accessible public services are important for inland regions to attract return migrants, and providing high possibility for the return-migration-induced urbanization. However, the population loss in the northeast may become a long-term trend that can hardly be reversed in the visible future.

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    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    1993, 12 (3): 16-20.   DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.1993.03.004
    Abstract1542)      PDF (464KB)(8616)      
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    Spatial distribution characteristics of network structure of tourism flow in five major urban agglomerations of coastal China
    CHENG Xuelan, FANG Yelin, SU Xueqing, LI Jinglong
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (6): 948-957.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.06.005
    Abstract103)   HTML4)    PDF (12438KB)(217)      

    The research of tourism flow network structure based on big data mining is one of the main directions of advanced tourism flow research. Using web crawler technology, this study captured the tourism flow data of five major urban agglomerations in coastal China from Ctrip, then examined the spatial structure of tourism flow network, and analyzed the spatial network structure characteristics of tourism flow from the aspects of network density, node structure, network aggregation subgroups, core-periphery characteristics, and structural holes. The results show that: Firstly, the tourism flow network structure of the five major urban agglomerations in coastal China has hierarchical and rank-size characteristics. Secondly, the cohesive subgroups are closely related to each other, but there is little interaction among them. Thirdly, the core areas are all located in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration, and the "trickling down effect" of the core nodes on the peripheral nodes is limited. Lastly, Beijing, Xiamen, Qingdao, Guangzhou, Zhongshan, and Hangzhou have obvious advantages in the tourism flow network. Revealing the characteristics of spatial network structure of tourism flow using big data is of great significance for further understanding the connotation of flow space and optimizing the spatial layout of urban tourism.

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    The scope and spatial correlation features of the core area of hierarchic culture of Beijing Xuannan in Qing Dynasty from the field view
    GUO Yan, YANG Changming, ZHANG Yuyang
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (4): 836-852.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020190246
    Abstract308)   HTML8)    PDF (16943KB)(259)      

    The "Xuannan culture", as an important part of Beijing history and culture, which formed in the Xuannan district of Beijing in the Qing Dynasty, was a kind of "hierarchic culture" with celebrities and scholars. From the "field" view, Xuannan district was a field of hierarchic culture. By extracting POI of the three kinds of core architectural culture landscape elements: 327 temples, 211 celebrity residences, 535 guild halls, which mainly bore the hierarchic culture of Xuannan district, this study analyzed the spatial distribution of the three types of "micro field" respectively and as a whole, as well as the relation and aggregation between two. Thus, it proactively explored the existence, scope and spatial characteristics of the core area of hierarchic culture of Xuannan as "sub-field", and the aggregation of the elements and the internal causes of its formation. The conclusions mainly include: (1) By using the average nearest neighbor calculation and spatial density analysis, we found that the core area of hierarchic culture was the "two-kidney" shaped area in the central and north-central part of the western outer city, which was close to the secular culture area, and its range was stable and had no absolute clear boundary. The locations of the core hierarchic and the secular culture areas reflected the relation of the two cultures: exclusive and dependent, infiltrative and complementary. (2) By using the overlapping analysis of core density, OD distance and the bivariate spatial correlation analysis, we concluded that the spatial characteristic of the core area of hierarchic culture was "chain type" of "three elements, and two gatherings". The first gathering was the relationship between the temples and the celebrity residences. The second was that between the celebrity residences and the guild halls. Through two cluster analyses, it is found that the hierarchical spatial structure of "center -- transition center" was formed in the core area of Xuannan hierarchic culture. (3) It is quantitatively verified that "the feeling of hometown" was the driving force of celebrity residences and guild halls gathering. Under the strategic positioning of Beijing "cultural center", this article lays a historical research foundation for the proposal of Xuannan culture protection and inheritance strategy. In the history and culture research field, this research has innovation and reference significance in perspective and method.

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    Studies of Urban Regeneration
    YAN Ruogu, ZHOU Suhong, YAN Xiaopei
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2011, 30 (8): 947-955.   DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.08.001
    Abstract1524)      PDF (437KB)(5601)      
    “Urban regeneration”is a re-development process which is an inevitable experience at certain urbanization stage, and urban regeneration under different backgrounds and geographical environments has different motivation mechanism, development mode and power relations, and has different economic, environmental and social effects. Based on the English literature in recent years about "urban regeneration" and the literature about urban renewal in China in the past 30 years, this paper summed up the studies on urban regeneration from the perspectives of geography, including the research scope, the study characteristics and the theories related to urban regeneration, to explain the formation mechanism of urban regeneration, the regeneration policy, the regeneration mode, the regeneration tools and the methodologies, as well as the developers in the regeneration project and the regeneration effects in different regions at different developing stages. Urban renewal movement originated the massive urban renewal activities in the West after World War II. Because this kind of physical renewal destructed the previous social fabric and the integrity of the internal space, it was widely questioned. The term “urban regeneration”originally referred to an urban renaissance strategy which responded to the decline of old industrial cities after the transfer of the global industrial chain in the West, especially in Britain. Then it gradually evolved to a city's comprehensive urban redevelopment activities, including other improvement areas within the city, to stimulate economic growth, to enhance urban vitality and to improve the competitiveness. With the “globalization”and“localization”, the researchers in the world began to show concern on various types of urban renewal movement and re-urbanization strategy. This paper summed up three future research directions of urban regeneration, including the internal mechanism between urban regeneration, city construction and economic development, the micro-study of the individual behavior in urban regeneration and integrated urban redevelopment under the concept of sustainable development, and gave some suggestions to studies on future urban redevelopment in China.
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    Cited: CSCD(10)
    The effect of urbanization on extreme climate events in Beijing
    JIAO Yimeng, ZHAO Na, YUE Tianxiang, DENG Jiayin
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (2): 461-472.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020181343
    Abstract363)   HTML18)    PDF (10532KB)(329)      

    It had been proved that the process of urbanization had an effect on extreme weather events under the global warming. This study analyzed the urbanization effects on extreme climate events for the period 1980-2014 by classifying 20 meteorological stations into urban, suburban, and rural categories, based on the daily precipitation, temperature data and raster data of socio-economic, population, land cover and the night-time light images combined with cluster analysis and analytic hierarchy methods. The results show that the number of extreme cold events in Beijing showed decreasing trends, while that of the extreme warm events exhibited increasing trends, and the extreme precipitation events showed no obvious change trend. Compared with rural sites, urbanization has a significant impact on extreme temperature events. In urban areas, the number of extreme cold events was reduced faster; that of extreme warm events increased faster; and the daily-temperature-range significantly became smaller than that in urban areas. Compared with the decreasing trends of annual precipitation and annual rainfall days at rural sites, urbanization increased total precipitation amount. Besides, the urbanization in Beijing slowed down the growth trend of consecutive dry days, and at the same time, it intensified the extreme heavy precipitation events. However, the impact of urbanization on extreme precipitation events is not significant.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Characteristics of Danxia Landform in the Northern Shaanxi and A Comparison with Other Danxia Areas in and Outside China
    Pan Zhixin, Ren Fang, Chen Liuqin, Wu Hao, Zhan Yiyong
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (6): 1069-1078.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.06.016
    Abstract84)   HTML5)    PDF (12598KB)(213)      

    The northern Shaanxi is a key region for the distribution of red beds and Danxia landform in China, it has significant differences with Danxia landform in southeast China and abroad. However, few research was concerned with this issue. Based on field investigation and analysis of geologic literature and rock samples, this study focuses on the development of Danxia landform in the northern Shaanxi from the aspects of geologic background, lithologic characteristics, geomorphic features, and evolution process. Then, a comparison with Danxia landform in the humid southeast China and foreign countries was conducted to summarize their commonalities and differences. It reveals that Danxia landform in the northern Shaanxi is developed in a large inland depression basin, the Ordos Basin. The dominant red beds for the development of Danxia landform is Luohe Formation, which is mainly composed of medium to fine-grained sandstone and was deposited in an arid desert during Early Cretaceous, and featured by large cross-bedding. Experimental analysis shows that the Luohe sandstones are well-sorted and well-rounded but poorly cemented, typical features of aeolian sandstone such as disc-shaped impact craters are found on surfaces of quartz particles. The most remarkable geomorphic feature of Danxia landform in the northern Shaanxi is that there is a Quaternary loess cap on the top, forming a type of covered Danxia. In terms of landform evolution, Danxia landform in the northern Shaanxi is generally in young stage, featured by a combination of plateau and canyons, with closely spaced gullies and continuous Danxia cliffs developed, but there are few isolated individual landforms. The developmental process of Danxia landform in the northern Shaanxi could be divided into four stages: 1) Red beds deposition during Early Cretaceous; 2) Tectonic uplift and the development of paleo-Danxia landform during Late Cretaceous; 3) Intermittent uplift since Paleogene and covered by loess in Quaternary. As for comparison with Danxia landform in other regions at home and abroad, Danxia landform in the northern Shaanxi has many differences with those in the humid Southeast China, but it has more similarities with Danxia landform in the western United States. The current theories based on Danxia landform in the humid southeast China cannot well reflect these regional differences, more further comparative research on Danxia landform in and outside China should be conducted, so as to improve our understanding on Danxia landform.

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    Spatiotemporal variation of NDVI in different ecotypes on the Loess Plateau and its response to climate change
    SUN Rui, CHEN Shaohui, SU Hongbo
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (5): 1200-1214.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020190399
    Abstract414)   HTML22)    PDF (21827KB)(656)      

    Understanding the spatio-temporal changes of vegetation and its climatic control factors can provide important theoretical basis for the protection and restoration of ecological vegetation. Based on MOD13A1 and meteorological data, the spatial patterns and trends of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in the Loess Plateau were analyzed. The response of NDVI to temperature and precipitation was analyzed on the annual and monthly scales. The results showed that the vegetation coverage in the study area was improving continuously, and the climate showed a warm and wet trend. Of the degraded areas in the Loess Plateau, some 83.77% (area only 5.79%) was below 2000 m and the number of vegetation degradation types were not significantly reduced. The altitude distribution and degraded proportion of different vegetation degraded areas were significantly different. The degraded area ratio of wetland was the highest (23.91%), followed by cultivated land (11.88%). On the annual scale, the area with positive correlation between NDVI and precipitation was higher than that of temperature, and about 75.06% of the area was affected by precipitation. Precipitation was the main factor affecting the growth of shrub land (altitude distribution < 2200 m, the same below), cultivated land (< 3000 m), grassland (< 3000 m) and bare land (600-3700 m). Temperature was the main factor affecting the growth of forests (< 1000 m, 1700-3700 m) and wetlands (>2500 m). On the monthly scale, the overall response lag period of the Loess Plateau to temperature was one month, and there was no response lag period to precipitation. The response lag period of different vegetations to hydrothermal conditions was obvious. Grassland (lagging altitude distribution 710-3800 m, the same below), wetland (> 860 m), cultivated land (< 150 m, 350-2250 m, 2550-2900 m, 3430-3560 m) and bare land (760-2100 m) had a one month lag effect on temperature response, while forest (< 2900 m, > 3450 m) and shrub land (< 1270 m, > 1860 m) had no lag effect on temperature response, and six types of vegetation had no lag effect on water condition response. With the time lagging, the proportion of precipitation control gradually decreases. Temperature becomes the main factor affecting vegetation. The main control of water and heat and the lagging distribution of response are obviously affected by altitude. The proper vegetation type should be selected in different areas and altitudes, and water resources should be used reasonably for vegetation restoration.

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    Communication route and its evolution on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau during the prehistoric time
    HOU Guangliang, , ZHU Yan, PANG Longhui
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (5): 1294-1313.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202105018
    Abstract246)   HTML5)    PDF (13664KB)(233)      

    Eurasia mainland cultural exchange has been at the center of the international concern, especially after the Belt and Road Initiative was proposed. The unique geographical location of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau made it important to strengthen the cultural exchange between the East and the West. This paper uses natural geographical factors and cultural sites in various time periods as data sources, based on cyclic cumulative analysis of the lowest cost path-multipoint connectivity, and GIS spatial analysis (R language) to construct cultural exchange routes from the Neolithic to Bronze Age. We constructed 27 routes in the Neolithic Age with a total length of 6000 km and 30 routes in the Bronze Age with a total length of 7800 km. During the Neolithic Age, the cultural exchange routes mainly exhibited a crescent form along the Northeast-East-Southeast-Southwest margin. By the Bronze Age, the cultural exchange routes expanded to the hinterland in a net form, due to the development of cultural exchange between the settlements. The reconstructed route testified the dissemination path of colored pottery, millet, jade, sheep, wheat and bronze technology, and concretized these archaeologically conceptualized roads. In addition, this paper identified that evolution of the early plateau route was significantly influenced by climate, and also influenced by agricultural technology, introduction of domesticated livestock.

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    The Bowen Ratio of an Alpine Grassland in Three-River Headwaters, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, from 2001 to 2018
    ZHAO Xuanlan, WANG Junbang, YE Hui, MUHAMMAD Amir, WANG Shaoqiang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2021, 12 (3): 305-318.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2021.03.001
    Abstract100)   HTML2)    PDF (14203KB)(207)      

    The Bowen ratio (β) is used to quantify heat transfer from the land surface into the air, which is becoming a hot topic in research on the biogeophysical effects of land use and cover changes. The Three-River Headwaters (TRH), as a sensitive and fragile region, was selected as the study area. The β for 2001-2018 was estimated from the evapotranspiration product (ETMOD16) of MODIS and the net radiation of the land surface through the albedo from GLASS. The ETMOD16 data were evaluated against the observation data (ETOBS) at two alpine grassland flux towers obtained from ChinaFLUX. The interannual trend of the β was analyzed by multiple linear regression (MLR) and structure model (SEM) with the multiple factors of precipitation, temperature, humidity, albedo, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, MOD09Q1). The results show that the ETMOD16 values were significantly correlated with ETOBS, with a correlation coefficient above 0.70 (P < 0.01) for the two sites. In 2001-2018, the regional mean β was 2.52 ± 0.77 for the whole grassland, and its spatial distribution gradually increased from the eastern to western region. The interannual β showed a downward trend with a slope of -0.025 and a multiple regression coefficient (R 2) of 0.21 (P = 0.056). Most of the variability (51%) in the interannual β can be explained by the linear regression of the above multiple factors, and the temperature plays a dominant role for the whole region. The SEM analysis further shows that an increasing NDVI results in a decreasing albedo with a path coefficient of -0.57, because the albedo was negatively correlated with NDVI (R 2 = 0.52, P < 0.01), which indicates a negative and indirect effect on β from vegetation restoration. An obvious warming climate was found to prompt more evapotranspiration, and restoring vegetation makes the land surface receive more radiation, which both resulted in a decreasing trend in the annual β. This study revealed the biogeophysical mechanisms of vegetation restoration under a changing climate, and demonstrated the Bowen ratio can be applied as an indicator of climate-regulating functions in ecosystem assessments.

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    The Distribution of Population in China,With Statistics and Maps
    Huan Yong Hu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    1935, 2 (2): 33-74.   DOI: 10.11821/xb193502002
    Abstract5255)      PDF (2498KB)(3051)      
    China is the most populous country of the world.Besides her great numberof population she has also the most densely inhabited regions which are notcomparable with any other country of the world.
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    Coupling effects of climate change and ecological restoration on vegetation dynamics in the Qinling-Huaihe region
    LI Shuangshuang, ZHANG Yufeng, WANG Chengbo, WANG Ting, YAN Junping
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (6): 1026-1036.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.06.012
    Abstract71)   HTML6)    PDF (23123KB)(192)      

    Using the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data (MOD13Q1) and land cover data, and the observed daily temperature, precipitation, and sunlight hours data obtained from 196 meteorological stations in the north and south of the Qinling-Huaihe region, this study explored the spatiotemporal characteristics of the vegetation dynamics in the region. It also analyzed the effects of the driving forces of climate change and human activities (such as urbanization and ecological restoration programs) on vegetation restoration and degradation between 2000 and 2019. As China's north-south transitional zone, the Qinling-Huaihe region has experienced overall greening (54.6% significant NDVI increase at P<0.05) and partial degradation (6.4% significant NDVI decrease at P< 0.05) from 2000 to 2019. The area of vegetation restoration was mainly in the Qinling-Daba Mountains, which are characterized by multi-dimensional zonal structures and biological diversity; and the percentage of NDVI increase was 96.7%. The other areas of restoration were the Qinba Mountains, Wushan Mountains and the Guanzhong Plain, which are all key implementation areas of ecological restoration programs. In terms of vegetation degradation, there was an NDVI decrease of 6.4%, which was mainly concentrated in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration and sporadically spread across other rapid urbanization areas. With regard to the impacts of climatic factors on vegetation dynamics, the areas of NDVI change affected by temperature only accounted for 9.1% of the total area of the region, which is lower than the areas affected by precipitation (13.1%) and sunlight (14.5%). It indicates that the areas with significant (P<0.05) correlation between climatic factors and NDVI are limited. The reason is that there are the good hydrothermal conditions and irrigation facilities in the study region, climatic factors are not the primary limiting factors of vegetation growth. With regard to the driving forces of vegetation change, among the areas of significant greening (54.6%), 19.2% and 30.0% were identified to be related to climate change and ecological restoration programs, respectively. Ecological engineering had an influence on the vegetation dynamics of the Qinling-Huaihe region. The spatial pattern of significant restoration was consistent with the ecological restoration programs, such as the Qinling-Daba Mountains ecological protection and restoration and the Dabie Mountains ecological restoration programs. These findings enrich our understanding of the relationship between vegetation expansion, climate change, and human activities in the subtropical and warm-temperate zones of China.

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    Guo Laixi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    1994, 49 (5): 385-393.   DOI: 10.11821/xb199405001
    Abstract1848)      PDF (623KB)(2988)      
    Ports,as doors of the country opening toward the world,is playing double roles making a bridge between the domestic market and the overseas market and defending state sovereignty.In China,the ports are some seaports,railstations,passways,and airports where the goverments permit passengers,goods and vehicles to pass through and some facilities (e. g. frontier inspection stations.customhouse,harbour superintendency administrations and quarantine stations for human being,animals and plants,etc),infrastrucutre and administration offices are established.This paper includes five sections: (1)Classification and function.China’s ports can be divided into the state ports and the localports based administrative level and seaports.airports and local ports based on modes of transportation.(2)Fundamental elements of ports.A basic port includes the external transportation system,the foreign trade system.the supervisory and testing system,the service system and the comprehensive administrative system.(3)Allocation of ports and regional development.(4)Distribution of China’s ports.The author discussed mainly the seaport system along the coast,the trading port system along the interior border,the waterport system along the Changjiang River(Yangtze River).(5)Some suggestions for the development of China’s port system.They are :(a)The establishment of ports must depend on the development of external passways,airline networks.(b)The function of ports in the interior area and along the Changjiang River(Yangtze River)should be diversified.(c)The port planning must march the urban construction.
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    The Transformation of the Hong Temple and the Construction of Urban Social Space in Modern Shanghai
    Chen Yunxia
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (2): 133-143.  
    Abstract166)   HTML20)    PDF (4476KB)(388)      

    After the port opening of Shanghai city, social condition experienced great changes. A founding was that the main worshipers of Hong Temple became the prostitute group. The main reasons of such transformation were the prosperity of prostitution thereby and the policy change for sacrificial ceremonies. Newspapers and modern novels accelerated the transformation of traditional folk beliefs in modern Shanghai as well.

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    Spatiotemporal patterns of energy carbon footprint and decoupling effect in China
    PAN Jinghu, ZHANG Yongnian
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (1): 206-222.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202101016
    Abstract454)   HTML43)    PDF (7443KB)(478)      

    The global environment issue resulting from carbon emissions has aroused worldwide concern for governments, the public and scientific communities. A precise measurement of the time-resolved and spatial distribution characteristics of carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon footprint as well as its long-period evolution mechanism, can help clarify the relationship between environmental carbon load and economic growth, and are critical references to the formulation of scientific carbon emission reduction targets with reasonable and differential emission reduction policies. In this study, the mainland of China is taken as the research object. According to the quantitative correlations between DMSP-OLS nighttime light image data and carbon emission statistics, the carbon emission panel data model was simulated for China's carbon emissions in the period 2000-2013, and then the spatiotemporal evolving trend and spatial distribution characteristics of carbon emissions in the 14-year research period were discussed using Theil-Sen Median trend analysis and Mann-Kendall test method. Based on the framework of exploratory spatial-temporal data analysis (ESTDA), the spatial pattern and spatiotemporal dynamic evolution of carbon footprint from 2001 to 2013 were analyzed from the perspective of spatiotemporal interaction. In the three periods, the decoupling effect between environmental carbon load and economic growth of 336 prefecture-level cities were analyzed using the improved Tapio decoupling model. The results show that the overall carbon emissions in China had been on the rise from 2000 to 2013, in which the stable-slow rise type was dominant. China's carbon footprint and carbon deficit increased year by year, and the central and western regions became the focus of the growth of carbon footprint and carbon deficit from 2001 to 2013. At different administrative city scales, the spatial distribution pattern of carbon footprint and carbon deficit show obvious administrative orientated and spatial zonal differentiation characteristics. The annual average of global Moran's I index of each level unit is 0.491, which indicates that there is a significant spatial auto-correlation feature in the carbon footprint of China's prefecture-level units. The relative length of the LISA time path is greater in the north than in the south, and it tends to increase from the coastal areas to the central and western regions. The curvature of LISA time path decreases from coastal areas to inland areas on the whole. The curvature of northeast and central regions is higher, while that of eastern and western regions is lower. There is a different trend of the decoupling effect of environmental carbon load in China. Meanwhile the expansion-connection and expansion of negative decoupling regions continuously increased and spatially agglomerated, presenting an "E"-shaped distribution pattern from the north to the south. The national average decoupling elastic value is gradually increasing, while the coefficient of variation continues to decline, and the decoupling type has a significant evolution trend. Therefore, the unbalanced trend of economic growth and carbon emissions in China will continue for a certain period.

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    Changes of the Distribution Pattern of the Xining-Lhasa Road (Qinghai Section) from the Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China: Analysis Based on Digitized Ancient Maps
    Li Zhende, Zhang Ping
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (2): 120-132.  
    Abstract335)   HTML31)    PDF (12961KB)(294)      

    Against the background of modernization, the distribution pattern of roads in Qinghai changed significantly from the beginning of Qing Dynasty to the founding of People's Republic of China. The Xining-Lhasa road was the main line of the traffic network of Qinghai. The changes of the distribution pattern in modern times epitomize the road network distribution patterns of those in the history. Based on a set of old maps from 1935 in the National Library of China, the changing process of the distribution pattern of Xining-Lhasa road in Qinghai were restored. Three driving forces led to road network changes in modern Qinghai: the abolition of the postal system, which led to the collapse of the official road system in last Qing Dynasty, the new transportation system brought by new vehicles, and the developing activities in the period of Republic of China in Qinghai. The changes of the distribution pattern of Xining-Lhasa Road showed the road network pattern in ecologically vulnerable area was prone to the influences from ever changing human factors in the historical period. The restoration of modern roads based on richly surveyed map data was a preliminary work towards accurate restoration of ancient roads.

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    Spatiotemporal evolution and driving forces of natural capital utilization in China based on three-dimensional ecological footprint
    Defeng ZHENG, Xiaoxing LIU, Yanyan WANG, Leting LV
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2018, 37 (10): 1328-1339.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2018.10.003
    Abstract451)   HTML7)    PDF (11489KB)(749)      

    Dynamic assessment of natural capital utilization can help to track consumption demand of residents and ecological sustainability of regions. To date, studies on natural capital utilization in China's provinces based on the three-dimensional ecological footprint has only measured and evaluated the spatial patterns of regional natural capital stock and flow from the perspective of production. In this study, the footprint depth and size of regions and different land use types in 30 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) of China from 2006 to 2015 were first calculated from the consumption perspective. Then the regional sustainability of natural capital utilization was characterized by utilization ratio of stock to flow and occupancy rate of capital flows. Lastly, the driving factors and effects of natural capital utilization were quantified by the methods of ordinary least squares (OLS) and geographically weighted regression (GWR). The results are as follows: (1) China's footprint depth was highly consistent with the changing trend of ecological footprint and ecological deficit—it showed a trend of first growing and then decreasing during 2006 to 2015, and the value changed from 3.04 to 4.06. The main reason is that the continuous rising trend of ecological pressure was reversed due to the reduced contribution of fossil energy land. Ecological footprint depth presented significant differences from east to west—in Shanghai it is up to 30.69 and in Qinghai it is a minimum of 1.70. (2) Ecological footprint size in China was influenced by resource endowments and showed a small fluctuation through time, with an overall pattern of western region > central region > eastern region in space, and the maximum and minimum footprint sizes were respectively 0.81 ghm2 in Xinjiang and 0.09 ghm2 in Shanghai. Natural capital flow can be improved greatly in the central and western regions. (3) The main components of footprint depth in Chinese provinces were fossil energy land and grassland, and the utilization degrees of other lands varied in different regions. The main components of footprint size in Chinese provinces were cultivated land and construction land, followed by woodland, grassland and water area accounting for a small proportion. (4) The sustainability of natural capital utilization has become better in China, and it showed the spatial pattern of "weak east and strong west". By using OLS regression and GWR, we found that the significant factors that affected the sustainability of natural capital utilization were the intensity of ecological footprint, urbanization rate, and ecological carrying capacity. The influence degree of these factors in different geographical locations showed spatial differences.

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    Effect of Soil Erosion on Soil Organic Carbon in Cropland Landscape
    FANG Huajun, YANG Xueming, ZHANG Xiaoping
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2004, 23 (2): 77-87.   DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2004.02.010
    Abstract852)      PDF (1460KB)(891)      

    Soil organic carbon releases CO2 at the aeration status, which results in greenhouse effect and consequently influences global change. Currently sequestrating CO2 to agricultural soil is a front field in soil carbon cycle studies, among which whether agricultural soil redistribution leads to carbon sequestration has developed scientific,political and social interests. In this paper, the effects of soil redistribution on soil organic carbon in multi-scales are discussed. The significance of soil erosion and redeposition in the study of terrestrial carbon cycles, the relationship between soil redistribution and the missing sink, and the mechanism of carbon sequestration resulting from soil redistribution are expounded. Based on above analysis the stringent problems needed to resolve are put forward.

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    Cited: CSCD(19)
    Inequality and driving forces of energy-related CO 2 emissions intensity in China
    JIANG Wanbei, LIU Weidong, LIU Zhigao, HAN Mengyao
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (9): 1425-1435.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.09.001
    Abstract366)   HTML20)    PDF (3775KB)(1063)      

    Research on the driving forces of the change of CO2 emissions intensity inequality in China could provide a scientific basis for formulating sound, fair, and efficient regional carbon emission abatement strategies. This study adopted the Theil index to measure the inequality in energy-related CO2 emissions intensity in China during 2005-2015, and conducted source decomposition focusing on geographical regions, economic sectors, energy types, and explanatory factor decomposition of the inequality. The results show that China's CO2 emissions intensity gradually decreased from 2005 to 2015, but the provincial gap continued to expand. From a regional perspective, the inequality in CO2 emissions intensity is mainly found within China's northeastern, eastern, central, and western regions. Besides, the ever-expanding internal differences of CO2 emissions intensity within the eastern and the western regions increasingly became the main driver of the inequality enhancement. The industrial sector and coal were respectively the major sources of CO2 emissions intensity inequality in terms of economic sectors and energy sources, which were also the key drivers of the intensity inequality exacerbation. With regard to the determinants, the provincial differences in CO2 emissions intensity were mainly dominated by the technological development level, followed by the industrial structure and energy structure. Among them, the widening provincial differences in technology level and energy structure enhanced the inequality in CO2 emissions intensity, and the contribution of technology level was much larger than that of energy structure. The narrowing disparity among provinces in the industrial structure, however, promoted the reduction of the provincial CO2 emissions intensity inequality in China. The research results can provide a scientific basis for the formulation of China's regional emission reduction strategy.

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    Urban pluvial flood scenario modeling and emergency response assessment using high resolution Lidar-DSM
    Jie YIN
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2017, 36 (6): 1138-1146.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj201706011
    Abstract848)   HTML6)    PDF (15714KB)(451)      

    In the context of climate change and urbanization, increasing pluvial flood disasters leads to severe losses and impacts of urban inhabitants, properties and functions, particularly in the interruption of public services (e.g. urban transportation and emergency response). Therefore, the emergency management and risk adaptation of urban pluvial flooding have been one of the hotspots in natural hazards research. The city center (East Nanjing Road-Central Business District) of Shanghai, China has been selected as a study area because it exhibits enhanced consequences of pluvial flooding. A simple 2D hydrodynamic model (FloodMap-HydroInundation2D), which couples hydrological processes with surfacewater flow modeling in urban environment, was used to derive pluvial flood inundation associated with urban road network. Furthermore, GIS-based spatial analysis (network analysis and cost distance algorithm) was employed to evaluate the transportation conditions and emergency responses (accessibility and service coverage) of critical public service sectors (Medical Treatment and Public Security) under multiple scenarios of rainfall magnitudes (1 in 10 year and 1 in 100 year return periods) and flood thresholds (30 cm and 50 cm). The results show that: (1) at normal (no rainfall or less than 1 in 1 year rainfall) condition, urban emergency response could cover almost the total (more than 99%) area in 10 minutes or less, among which ambulances and police vehicles could reach the majority (82% and 87%) of the study area within 5 minutes. (2) During 1 in 10 year rainfall scenario, most of the urban roadways was predicted to be accessible and more than 90% of the city center would be reachable in 10 minutes. The response areas of large or medium emergency vehicles with better performance of water-wading (above 50 cm) would even be close to the service coverage at normal condition. (3) Under 1 in 100 year rainfall scenario, as the rainfall intensity significantly overwhelm the design capacity of storm sewer drainage system, majority of the urban road network would be highly inundated. Over half of the study area could be completely inaccessible within 10 minutes, according to 30 cm threshold. By contrast, the emergency service area would largely increase to about 93% of the city center when flood restriction subject to 50 cm threshold. This study suggests that the framework developed for coupling high resolution pluvial flood modeling with urban emergency response assessment, is proved to be practical and effective and will provide a scientific basis for urban flood mitigation and smart emergency management.

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    Jiaoyufication community: Its formation mechanisms and socio-spatial consequences
    Shuju HU, Chenggu LI, Jing ZHANG, Zuopeng MA, Wei LIU
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (5): 1175-1188.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020170968
    Abstract652)   HTML15)    PDF (14223KB)(424)      

    Jiaoyufication has become an important factor affecting urban residential differentiation in China. In this study, a Jiaoyufication community was taken as an example to explore how the construction of a school led to gentrification in Changchun’s suburbs and we also revealed its characteristics, formation mechanisms and demographic and socio-spatial consequences. Results showed that: (1) the combination of a private school and real estate speculations pawned a new variety of gentrification, which had different characteristics and formation mechanisms compared to classic school gentrification, which emerged in catchment areas of public schools. The Jiaoyufication community was a residential differentiation as well as the reconstruction of urban demographic and socio-economic space caused by educational inequality. (2) The community was built on a “real estate and elite school” model, and its participants included local government, real estate developers, schools and middle-class parents. Local governments played a pioneering role in the school gentrification process. The developer was the driving force behind promoting the physical upgrade of the community by investing heavily in constructing an upscale gated community and school. The school was the key to the successful development of the community, which attracted the incoming of the gentry. The school attracted the influx of the gentry to suburbs, promoted the suburb’s physical and socio-economic upgrade, thus, reconstructing the urban demographic and socio-economic space. (3) Contrary to the mainstream view that school gentrification would bring education unfair, the emergence of school gentrifying community led the capital, the middle class family and quality educational resources to suburbs, which was conducive to educational equality to some extent. However, Jiaoyufication community inevitably produced displacement and marginalization to the urban poor, as well as serious residential segregation and social stratification.

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    Review on the Development of Rural Tourism in China
    GUO Huancheng, HAN Fei
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2010, 29 (12): 1597-1605.   DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.12.018
    Abstract1644)      PDF (562KB)(5561)      

    Rural tourism is such a new industry which combines primary industry with tertiary industry. Rural tourism is based on agriculture, aiming at developing tourism in rural area and serving the urban residents by providing various services. Rural tourism can develop landscape resources in rurban fringe to promote eco-tourism and to realize the coordinated development of the cities and countryside. In China, rural tourism successively experiences three stages, eg. early rising stage, initial development stage and later normative operating stage. This paper, based on the background and the concept of rural tourism, comprehensively discusses the development of rural tourism in China, analyzes the current situations and the main patterns of rural tourism, and puts forward some relevant countermeasures for the current problems. Finally, the paper discusses the prospect of the future sustainable development of rural tourism in China.

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    Cited: CSCD(28)
    Nonlinear effects of bus micro-environments on passengers’ comfort
    ZHANG Lin, ZHOU Suhong, KWAN Mei-Po, CHEN Fei
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (6): 967-979.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.06.007
    Abstract77)   HTML3)    PDF (4289KB)(158)      

    Buses play an important role in the daily travel of urban residents. Bus micro-environmental pollution and its adverse impacts on passengers' physical and psychological well-being has become an increasing concern among the general public, researchers, and policymakers. However, few studies have examined the nonlinear effects of bus micro-environments on passengers' comfort, analyzed the threshold values of multiple micro-environmental variables, and ascertained the optimal micro-environmental exposure levels for passengers. In this study, real-time monitoring data of bus micro-environments, questionnaire survey data of 520 passengers, travel characteristics, and environments outside the buses were simultaneously collected on six bus routes in Guangzhou City. Nonlinear regression models constructed by random forest were then employed to explore the relationships between bus micro-environments and passengers' comfort. The results show that in-bus temperature, relative humidity, PM2.5 concentrations, noise, and passenger load have nonlinear effects on the comfort, but the importance and mechanism of each micro-environmental variable in influencing comfort is different. Passengers have a higher degree of comfort when in-bus temperature is 23.5-28.0 ℃, relative humidity is 45%-58%, PM2.5 concentrations are lower than 28 μg/m3, noise level is lower than 75 dB, and passenger load is 8-26 persons. Also, there are some differences between the optimal micro-environmental exposure levels identified in this study and current environmental standards. These findings have theoretical and practical implications for policymakers, transportation planners, and bus operators when improving bus micro-environments and promoting passengers' comfort.

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    Research on the urban-rural integration and rural revitalization in the new era in China
    LIU Yansui
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2018, 73 (4): 637-650.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb201804004
    Abstract5627)   HTML217)    PDF (1333KB)(8057)      

    Cities and villages are components of a specific organism. Only the sustainable development of two parts can support the prosperous development as a whole. According to the theory of man-earth areal system, urban-rural integrated system and rural regional system are the theoretical bases for entirely recognizing and understanding urban-rural relationship. To handle the increasingly severe problems of "rural disease" in rapid urbanization, accelerating rural revitalization in an all-round way is not only a major strategic plan for promoting the urban-rural integration and rural sustainable development, but also a necessary requirement for solving the issues related to agriculture, rural areas, and rural people in the new era and securing a decisive victory in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. This study explores the basic theories of urban-rural integration and rural revitalization and analyzes the main problems and causes of rural development in the new era, proposing problem-oriented scientific approaches and frontier research fields of urban-rural integration and rural revitalization in China. Results show that the objects of urban-rural integration and rural revitalization is a regional multi-body system, which mainly includes urban-rural integration, rural complex, village-town organism, and housing-industry symbiosis. Rural revitalization focuses on promoting the reconstruction of urban-rural integration system and constructs a multi-level goal system including urban-rural infrastructure networks, zones of rural development, fields of village-town space and poles of rural revitalization. Currently, the rural development is facing the five problems: high-speed non-agricultural transformation of agriculture production factors, over-fast aging and weakening of rural subjects, increasingly hollowing and abandoning of rural construction land, severe fouling of rural soil and water environment and deep pauperization of rural poverty-stricken areas. The countryside is an important basis for the socioeconomic development in China, and the strategies of urban-rural integration and rural revitalization are complementary. The rural revitalization focuses on establishing the institutional mechanism for integrated urban-rural development and constructs the comprehensive development system of rural regional system, which includes transformation, reconstruction and innovation in accordance with the requirements of thriving businesses, pleasant living environments, social etiquette and civility, effective governance, and prosperity. Geographical research on rural revitalization should focus on the complexity and dynamics of rural regional system and explore new schemes, models and scientific approaches for the construction of villages and towns, which are guided by radical cure of "rural disease", implement the strategy of rural revitalization polarization, construct the evaluation index system and planning system of rural revitalization, thus providing advanced theoretical references for realizing the revitalization of China's rural areas in the new era.

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    Cited: Baidu(55) CSCD(210)
    A literature review on optimization of spatial development pattern based on ecological-production-living space
    Jinchuan HUANG, Haoxi LIN, Xiaoxiao QI
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2017, 36 (3): 378-391.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.03.014
    Abstract1235)   HTML8)    PDF (785KB)(3380)      

    In the process of rapid economic growth and social restructuring, solving the problems such as spatial development disorder and costly resources and environmental impact has been an important scientific proposition of regional sustainable development in the field of human-economic geography. In accordance with the report to the Eighteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China, optimizing spatial development pattern nationally is placed as the primary measure of ecological progress, followed by the specific requirements stated as "the space for production is used intensively and efficiently, the living space is livable and proper in size, the ecological space is unspoiled and beautiful." Shaping the ecological-production-living space by following these requirements will become the foundation of the spatial planning system. Moreover, it also contributes to improving the protection system of spatial development and implementing major function oriented zoning at all scales. Revolving around the target of optimizing geographical space and regional sustainable development, this article systematically reviews existing literature on ecological-production-living space both in China and internationally, focusing on the quantitative proportion and spatial layout of ecological-production-living space. Following the requirements of improving precision and increasing spatial resolution and with a focus on functional classification, spatial identification, and spatial development pattern optimization, this article finally put forward the research framework of ecological-production-living space. To promote the progress of theoretical research and practical applications on ecological-production-living space, the following measures can be implemented: (1) Establish an improved research framework and technical process through multidisciplinary partnerships. (2) Expand the scope of basic units of analysis. (3) Explore new methods for function identification and attach more importance to the dynamic evolution of ecological, production, and living spaces. (4) Promote the integration of suitability evaluation at different scales. (5) Meet the practical needs of multiple-planning integration and ultimately serve the national efforts of optimizing the spatial development pattern.

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    Cited: CSCD(48)