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    Evolution of transportation in China since reform and opening-up: Patterns and principles
    JIN Fengjun, CHEN Zhuo
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (10): 1941-1961.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb201910001
    Abstract3277)   HTML391)    PDF (9943KB)(2448)      

    Since the reform and opening-up in 1978, historic changes have been seen in the transportation geography pattern of China. Understanding its evolutionary characteristics and regularity is significant and meaningful for future transportation construction and territory development. This paper reviewed the process of transportation construction in China and investigated the evolutionary characteristics and spatial effects of transportation geography pattern with the technologies in big data mining and GIS. In addition, the regular rules of transportation geography evolution from the aspects of stages, structures, and orders are systematically analyzed. The investigation showed that China's transportation construction has entered the stage of quality improvement. The construction mode has upgraded from scale-expanding driven by investment to quality-improving driven by innovation. The development direction has changed from "prior development" to "integrated coordinated development". The rapid growth and development of transportation networks have significantly influenced the relationship between time and space. The resulting spatial convergence and superiority pattern are coupled with economic-social distribution, which facilitates the development of the economic-social spatial structure. Consequently, territory development that is traditionally centralized by corridors has changed into the networked mode centered on metropolises and metropolitan areas. In brief, the transportation geography pattern is of evolutionary principles. China has been evolving from the stage of ordered structure to the stage of cascade-order structure. Simultaneously, the economic-social pattern has changed from the axis structure to the hub-and-spoke structure with a preliminary ordered network. As transportation networks grow and expand, China's functional spatial structure and ordered network will be gradually stabilized and balanced.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Establishment and application of one map of current situation of territorial spatial planning according to the foundations of natural resources: Taking Qingdao city as an example
    HAN Qing, SUN Zhong-yuan, SUN Cheng-miao, LI Dan, LIU Yi-ping
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2150-2162.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191011
    Abstract555)   HTML34)    PDF (4151KB)(2300)      

    The construction of the territorial spatial planning system has been fully carried out. The clear and detailed status map and data are an important basis for understanding the natural resources, and also an important support for the preparation of territorial spatial planning. However, the current land classification standards, data accuracy and application targets of the current territorial spatial data are not uniform. Based on remote sensing images, geographic conditions and Internet POI data, this paper studies one map of land and space status, synthesizes existing land classification standards and data accuracy, and constructs one map of territorial spatial planning status of Qingdao city. On this basis, the application direction of one map of territorial spatial planning is discussed, including the preliminary delimitation of "Production-Living-Ecological Space" in Qingdao city. The suitability of urban construction, the importance of ecological service function and the suitability of agricultural production were analyzed. The construction of one map of the status of territorial spatial planning plays an important role in defining the resource utilization cap and the environmental quality bottom line, standardizing the territorial spatial planning data, and supporting the preparation and management of territorial spatial planning.

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    Development and management tasks of the Yellow River Basin: A preliminary understanding and suggestion
    LU Dadao, SUN Dongqi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (12): 2431-2436.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb201912001
    Abstract4045)   HTML377)    PDF (828KB)(2235)      

    The Yellow River Basin and the areas along the Yellow River play an important strategic role in national development. Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the CPC, delivered an important speech at the symposium on ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin in Zhengzhou, which is of great strategic significance. This paper gives a preliminary understanding of the comprehensive governance and the sustainable development of the Yellow River Basin. It points out that the task of the comprehensive and profound transformation and development of the Yellow River Basin in the new era is still arduous, and change of concept is required. Continuing to promote the clean and efficient use of energy, promoting industrial development in accordance with local conditions, preventing extensive development and protecting cultivated land resources should be regarded as important measures to strengthen the comprehensive management and guarantee the sustainable development of the Yellow River Basin. It is believed that the "Yellow River Economic Belt" does not exist at the national economic level, and it is not appropriate to identify "the Yellow River Delta" as a national strategy.

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    Cited: CSCD(13)
    Pattern evolution and formative mechanism of aging in China
    ZHOU Rong, ZHUANG Rulong, HUANG Chenxi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (10): 2163-2177.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb201910015
    Abstract1535)   HTML124)    PDF (5061KB)(1631)      

    Based on the Sixth National Census and annual China Statistical Yearbook, the paper characterizes the spatial patterns and variation features of the "quantity" and "quality" of China's aging and its mechanism over the past 30 years or more by using spatial autocorrelation, Sullivan healthy life expectancy measurement model, and geographical weighted regression. The results are shown as follows: (1) Overall, the development of "quantity" of aging is not coordinated with that of "quality", and there are spatial differences between them. (2) In terms of "quantity", the figure of aging in the southeast half of "Hu Huanyong Line" is higher than that in the northwest half, but the change of growth rate has a phased feature. There are high and low value agglomeration areas at the aging level. The high-value agglomeration area expands from the coastal area to the inland area, while the low-value agglomeration area located in the northwest of China is gradually shrinking. (3) In terms of "quality", the figure of the southeast half of "Hu Huanyong Line" is better than that of the northwest half, and the eastern coastal provinces enjoy far higher figures than other regions. (4) In terms of "quality" characteristics represented by life expectancy, the figure of the life expectancy and the healthy life expectancy are not synchronized, and there are gender differences and morbidity expansion effect. Compared with the central and western regions, the eastern region has higher life expectancy and healthy life expectancy. (5) From the perspective of formation mechanism, the formation of the "quantity" pattern of aging is affected by the interaction between natural and migrating population variations, with the birth rate being the major element. As for "quality", differences in natural environment and uncoordinated development of social environment are significant factors affecting life expectancy, and economic development and the health and medical services progress are the main driving forces for greater longevity.

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    Cited: CSCD(2)
    The evolution process and regulation of China's regional development pattern
    FAN Jie, WANG Yafei, LIANG Bo
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (12): 2437-2454.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb201912002
    Abstract1935)   HTML184)    PDF (5095KB)(1593)      

    China's per capita GDP has reached 64520 yuan (about 10,000 US dollars). The development process of countries around the world and the inverted U-shaped curve of regional development gaps indicate that the evolution of China's regional development pattern will step into an inflection point segment and that the development gap between regions has witnessed a switch from continuing widening to narrowing. In this paper, we discuss the evolution process of China's regional development pattern over the 40 years since 1978 before the inflection point: (1) The gap in per capita GDP between the upstream areas (the top 9 most developed provinces) and the downstream (the last 8 underdeveloped provinces) increased from 407 yuan in 1978 to 53817 yuan in 2018. (2) Under the pull of export-oriented economy and non-state-owned economy, the mean center of urbanization and economic development rotates in a clockwise direction. Southeast China has become an area with accelerated economic agglomeration. (3) China's regional development pattern has presented a diamond structure with the four core regions of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta and Chengdu-Chongqing as the apex and the connection of adjacent regions as the boundary. The GDP in these regions accounts for about 75% of the national total. In 2020, China's regional development pattern will enter an inflection point of evolution. The form is characterized by the narrowing of the regional economic gap, which is essentially a transition from non-high-quality regional development to high-quality regional development. The high-quality development of the region is a process of growth in which the ecological and social benefits will be basically synchronized in the process of sustained economic growth, and a regional high-quality development model that is differentiated by geographical functions is presented. In the next 30 years, the regulation and optimization of China's regional development pattern should focus on three types of regions: key urbanization regions, relatively underdeveloped regions, and key areas for security, as well as inter-regional interactions according to the dual objectives of promoting regional balanced (coordinated) development and high-quality development. Establishing a space governance system with the major function zoning-strategy-planning-system as the mainstay will become the basic guarantee for regulating and optimizing the regional development pattern.

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    Cited: CSCD(9)
    Thoughts on unifying the regulation of territorial space use
    LIN Jian, WU Ting, ZHANG Ye-xiao, ZHAO Ye
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2200-2208.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191015
    Abstract302)   HTML9)    PDF (1014KB)(1376)      

    In recent years, the unification of territorial space use regulations has been upgraded to an unprecedented level of national strategic deployment, which is an extremely important reform task with overall significance. Based on the systematical review on the institutional evolution of territorial space use regulation since 1949, this paper puts an emphasis on summarizing the major features of previous territorial space use regulations in China. In general, we conclude that the key to implement territorial space use regulations is to control the three important aspects which consist of planning, licensing and supervision, to coordinate the utilization of continental space and ocean space and to discriminate the management of construction and non-construction purposes. On the premise of system construction, we propose four suggestions to institution on how to unify the territorial space use regulations: (1) Establishing a unified control line system for territorial space use regulations at the planning level; (2) Building an abundant and effective measure system for territorial space use regulations; (3) Constructing a unified and explicit regulatory system for territorial space use regulations at the supervision level; (4) Improving the legal system to help territorial space use governance at the support level.

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    Shenyang's practice and optimizing exploration of "Three Control Lines" in territorial spatial planning
    ZHANG Nian-guo, WANG Na, YIN Jian
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2175-2185.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191013
    Abstract389)   HTML7)    PDF (4011KB)(1300)      

    Before the institutional reform of the State Council, the "Three Control Lines" of ecological protection red line, permanent basic farmland and urban development boundary were delineated by different ministries, which resulted in insufficient coordination and overlapping results, and difficulties in implementing management. After the institutional reform of the State Council, the Ministry of Natural Resources is responsible for establishing a spatial planning system. It requires that the three control lines be delineated from top to bottom on the basis of the evaluation of the urban capacity of resources and environment and the suitability of territorial spatial development. This paper summarizes the manifestations and causes of contradictions and conflicts in the delimitation of the three control lines in Shenyang as a pilot city, constructs relationships between the three control lines and the three spaces of ecology, agriculture and cities, establishes the management system and adjustment rules, and explains the adjustment and optimization practices within the scope of the city. The study found that it is difficult to distinguish the functions of the three control lines overlapped in space, mainly because permanent basic farmland undertakes the mission of restricting urban spatial spread, and the index can not be adjusted across administrative regions, which results in some permanent basic farmland having to be arranged in cities; different definitions leading to some urban parks are classified as ecological protection redline; some cultivated land in ecological protection redline was previously classified as permanent basic farmland. The paper puts forward the optimization proposals of three control lines under the background of territorial spatial planning: First, we highlight the characteristics of both the policy line and the technical line, and delimit them from top down and bottom up; second, the country needs to carry on the innovation to the basic farmland adjustment policy and system; third, we will establish a hierarchical management mechanism to properly reserve the flexibility of local administrative power.

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    Rural regional system and rural revitalization strategy in China
    LIU Yansui, ZHOU Yang, LI Yuheng
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (12): 2511-2528.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb201912007
    Abstract1994)   HTML112)    PDF (2889KB)(1259)      

    Rural regional system is a spatial system with certain structure, function and inter-regional relationship, which is composed of humanity, economy, resources and environment that are connected and interacted with each other. It is a regional multi-body system, including urban-rural integrity, rural synthesis, village-town organism, and housing-industry synergy. Targeting the rural regional system and supporting the rural revitalization strategy provides new opportunities and challenges for innovation of Chinese geography in the new era. Guided by the theory of regional system of human-land system and the science of human-land system, the research on rural revitalization geography should serve national strategy by finding solutions to problems hindering rural sustainable development, and make contribution to the comprehensive study of rural regional system structure, transformation process, evolution mechanism, differentiation pattern, regional function, and rural revitalization path and model under the interaction of surface's human-land system. There is an urgent requirement to better understand and reveal differences in the types of rural regional system and their differentiation law. Taking 39164 townships in China as research object, this paper used quantitative and qualitative methods to detect and identify the dominant factors that restrict the sustainable development of rural regional systems in China. Then we divided the types of Chinese rural regional systems, revealed the pattern of rural regional differentiation and further proposed scientific approaches to rural revitalization in different areas. Results demonstrate that topographic conditions, climate conditions, ruralization level, land resources endowment, population mobility and aging level are the dominant factors restricting the sustainable development of rural regional system, of which reflects the level of resource endowment, endogenous power and external aid of rural development. Through cluster analysis and spatial overlay of dominant factors, China's rural regional system can be divided into 12 first-class zones and 43 second-class zones. The first-class zones are named by means of 'geographical location + driving force of dominant factors', and the second-class zones are named by means of 'regional scope + driving force of dominant factors + economic development level'. The driving force of rural sustainable development in different regional types are varied. The regional pattern and path of rural revitalization in different types of areas are varied, and promoting the rural revitalization strategy should be based on local conditions to realize the coordination and sustainable development of rural economy, society, culture and ecosystem.

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    Cited: CSCD(9)
    Understanding geographic coupling and achieving geographic integration
    SONG Changqing, CHENG Changxiu, YANG Xiaofan, YE Sijing, GAO Peichao
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (1): 3-13.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202001001
    Abstract2404)   HTML166)    PDF (3429KB)(1240)      

    Coupling, as a classic physical concept, provides a suite of ideas and methods for describing interactions of multi-agents across disciplines. In contrast, the concept of integration is not from a certain discipline, but it is widely used in many natural and socioeconomic sciences fields due to its great generalization capacity. Both concepts are frequently mentioned in Earth science. Geography, as a multi-disciplinary research area between natural and socioeconomic sciences, owns regional, comprehensive, and complex characteristics. The understanding of coupling varies across geographic sciences. This paper presents an advanced understanding from six geographic perspectives based on different disciplines and scenarios, which is helpful to accurately explore patterns, processes, and mechanisms of land surface system. Firstly, this paper clarifies six perspectives on geographic coupling, and presents corresponding research cases, which include geographic spatial coupling, geographic features coupling, geographic interfaces coupling, geospatial scale coupling, geographic relationship coupling and geographic coupling interpretation. Secondly, the paper interprets the concept of integration from a geographic perspective, and introduces a pathway to achieving an integration in Heihe River Basin's research practice. Finally, the paper proposes intrinsic connections between geographic coupling and geographic integration.

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    The development of COVID-19 in China: Spatial diffusion and geographical pattern
    WANG Jiaoe, DU Delin, WEI Ye, YANG Haoran
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (7): 1450-1462.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200329
    Abstract1609)   HTML244)    PDF (13259KB)(1218)      

    The study of the spatial diffusion and geographical mode of COVID-19 is of great significance for the rational allocation of health resources, the management and response of public health emergencies, and the improvement of public health system in the future. Based on multiple spatio-temporal scale, this paper studied the spatial spreading process of COVID-19 between cities and its evolution characteristics in China, and then explored its influencing factors. The results are shown in the following: the inter-city spreading process of COVID-19 in China mainly experienced six stages, namely, stage I: diffusion in Wuhan, stage II: rapid multi-point diffusion in space, stage III: rapid increase of confirmed cases, stage IV : gradual decrease of new confirmed cases, stage V: the epidemic under control, and stage VI: cases imported from overseas. In the context of globalization and open regional system, the social and economic development of regions are closely related to each other. With the development of fast and convenient high-speed railway network, the spatial characteristic of population migration shows a cross-regional and hierarchical pattern, and forms a certain spatial cascade structure along the transport corridor. Accordingly, the spatial spread of COVID-19 mainly showsthe characteristics of adjacent diffusion, relocation diffusion, hierarchical diffusion, and corridor diffusion. The study found that geographical proximity, population migration and population size, traffic network, epidemic prevention and control measures have significant influence on the spatial diffusion process of COVID-19. Among different modes of transportation, airplanes play agreater role than others in the early stage of the epidemic. In addition, the population flow during the Spring Festival had a certain impact on the spread of the epidemic. In conclusion, to some extent, the spatial spread process and pattern of COVID-19 epidemic reflects the spatial organization pattern of social and economic activities under the "space of flows" network, which is closely related to the geographical proximity, the social and economic linkages between regions, and the spatial an temporal patterns of human activities. From the perspective of geography, this paper analyzed the inter-city spread pattern of COVID-19 epidemic and provided some implications for prevention and control measures against the epidemic in other countries, and also offered some suggestions for China to deal with public health emergency risks in the future.

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    Relief degree of land surface and its geographical meanings in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China
    FENG Zhiming, LI Wenjun, LI Peng, XIAO Chiwei
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (7): 1359-1372.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202007003
    Abstract2381)   HTML130)    PDF (4161KB)(1207)      

    Relief degree of land surface (RDLS) is one of the key indicators in the fields of suitability assessment of human settlements (SAHS) as well as resources and environmental carrying capacity (RECC) evaluation at the regional scale. Currently, there is still a lack of in-depth research on the determination of the optimal window size for the RDLS calculation and evaluation and its correlation analysis with two topographical parameters, e.g., elevation and relative height difference. These issues further affect the effective representation of the RDLS in the delineation of local to regional topographic relief. Therefore, an objective understanding of the RDLS in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China greatly contributes to promoting the construction of national ecological security barrier and regional green development. In this study, based on the 30 m Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM Version 2), the optimal window size for calculating and evaluating the RDLS in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was accurately determined using the average change-point method, and the first 30 m RDLS thematic map for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was generated accordingly. Next, the interrelation between the RDLS and elevation and relative height difference was quantitatively examined. Based on that, the effective representation or geographical meanings of the RDLS in the plateau were defined. The results/conclusions include: (1) The optimum window size for the RDLS calculation and evaluation in the study area based on the 30 m GDEM is a rectangular neighborhood of 41×41 pixels, equaling to an area of about 1.51 km2. The average change-point analysis approach shows that the optimum window size for regional RDLS analysis is unique. (2) The average RDLS of the study area is approximately 5.06, along with over 60% of the plateau ranging between 4.5 and 5.7. On the whole, the topographic relief increases from the northeast to the southwest and west parts. Gentle to small-relief landforms are mostly seen in the Qaidam Basin, the Southern Tibet Valley, and the Hehuang Valley (Yellow and Huangshui river valleys). Also, the differences in the local surface relief in varied latitudinal sections (along the mountain range) are small, while those at longitudinal level are big, showing hierarchical and regular fluctuations (crossing the mountain trending). (3) Correlation analyses showed that different values of the RDLS in the plateau correspond to geomorphic units with different elevations and relative height differences. The profile characteristics of the mountains in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau based on different terrain reliefs indicate that the height above sea level of low mountains steadily increases first, then experiences sudden rise and severe fluctuation in surface relief, and finally forms the orderly ups and downs of the extreme mountains, e.g., the Himalayas.

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    Discussion on the application framework of big data in territorial spatial planning
    QIN Xiao, ZHEN Feng, LI Ya-qi, CHEN Hao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2134-2149.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191010
    Abstract282)   HTML7)    PDF (3290KB)(1116)      

    In the new era, the core goal of territorial spatial planning is to meet the people's needs for a better life and also to protect natural resources. As a new type of planning, the method of territorial spatial planning is generally lacking. Based on the endowment of natural resources, scholars use data based on statistics and surveys, as well as methods of statistical analysis, spatial analysis and deduction to evaluate the carrying capacity and suitability of land space at the national and provincial levels, and make a static delimitation of the ecological red line, prime farmland protection line and urban development boundary. However, the existing studies rarely consider the dynamic impact of human activities on the use of land space, and lack the scientific arrangement of ecological space, agricultural space and urban space under the new development trend. This paper introduces the big data which can directly reflect the temporal and spatial changes of human activities. It mainly discusses the direction and specific methodological framework of the application of big data from the four parts of territorial spatial suitability evaluation, ecological spatial planning, agricultural spatial planning and urban spatial planning. Meanwhile, it emphasizes the scientific path of territorial spatial planning compilation under the interaction of "natural space" and "social and economic activities".

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    Analysis of Water Resources Carrying Capacity of the “Belt and Road” Initiative Countries based on Virtual Water Theory
    ZHENG Xin, XU Zengrang
    Journal of Resources and Ecology    2019, 10 (6): 574-583.   DOI: 10.5814/j.issn.1674-764X.2019.06.002
    Abstract353)   HTML19)    PDF (520KB)(1114)      

    Most countries along the route of the “Belt and Road” initiative are faced with a shortage of water resources. However, successful implementation of the initiative depends on water availability to support economic and social development. We designed a water resources carrying capacity evaluation index system, assigned grades and weights to each evaluation index and calculated a water resources carrying index for the 65 countries along the route. We used virtual water theory to analyze China’s net virtual water import from key bulk agricultural products through international trade. For more than half of the countries along the route, their water resources will be unable to support the economic development that will be necessary for fulfilling the goals of the Initiative. As a country with insufficient water resources carrying capacity, China is a net virtual water importer in the virtual water trade. This virtual water trade can improve China’s water resources support capacity, and ensure China’s water and food security for the future.

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    Regional integration and interaction of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
    LIU Yi, WANG Yun, YANG Yu, MA Li
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (12): 2455-2466.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb201912003
    Abstract2178)   HTML169)    PDF (2168KB)(1110)      

    The integration of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area will inevitably encounter a series of frictions because of the cross-social system, cross-legal system and cross-administrative hierarchy. Research on the cooperation and conflict between Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao is an important supplement to the integration study of the area. This paper reviews the process of integration development of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area from 1997 to 2019 through the global news event database GDELT. The results show that: (1) the relationship between China's mainland and Hong Kong presents a "M" type fluctuation, and the conflict between them has been amplified by the news media compared with the mainland-Macao relationship. (2) The policy and public opinion between China's mainland and Macao are highly consistent, as the verbal cooperation between them is the leading factor of the interaction. (3) The interaction between China's mainland, Hong Kong and Macao has generally become closer, along with the increasing frequency of cooperations and conflicts. The importance of the mainland-Hong Kong relationship in the interactive relationship between Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macao has been increasingly highlighted. (4) Material cooperation projects are still insufficient in the process of the regional integration of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, and there is an urgent need for diversified cooperation. The economic and technological competitions and cooperations between Guangdong and Hong Kong are the main factors affecting the interactive relationship between Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao, as well as the tensions in Hong Kong. In the future, the coordinated development of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area should focus on not only the projection of regional policies on space, but also its projection on social public opinion and the news media. It is necessary to combine the integration of physical space and virtue/discourse space, and strengthen the interactions between "hard connection" and "soft connection".

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    Cited: CSCD(7)
    Human-land coupling and sustainable human settlements in the Yellow River Basin
    WANG Fang, AN Lizhe, DANG Anrong, HAN Jianye, MIAO Changhong, WANG Jing, ZHANG Guanghan, ZHAO Yong
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2020, 39 (8): 1707-1724.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200217
    Abstract967)   HTML62)    PDF (1743KB)(1107)      

    The Yellow River Basin is one of the regions with the most complex human-land relationship in China, and takes responsibility for the construction of ecological security and economic and social development. Since ancient times, human beings and the Yellow River has been in the process of coevolution. In recent years, there is an increasing pressure of ecological protection brought about by economic development. And there is a higher risk and greater vulnerability of water resources in the river basin. In order to resolve the human-land contradiction, it is necessary to explore the dynamic coupling mechanism of urban settlements and rivers. As "ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin" has become a major national strategy, this study focuses on the spatial differentiation and evolution of human-land relationship in this basin, as well as the difficulties and opportunities of resources and ecological protection, from the perspective of urban and rural planning, physical geography, environmental archaeology, ecology, hydrology and water resources, land resource management and other related fields. The balance between built environment and natural environment is the basis of sustainable development. The Yellow River Basin should be regarded as a “community of life”, in which the natural and human environment interact and depend on each other, and sustainable development strategies should be discussed from the aspects of systematization, intersection, locality and adaptability.

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    Progress of applied research of physical geography and living environment in China from 1949 to 2019
    CHEN Fahu, WU Shaohong, CUI Peng, CAI Yunlong, ZHANG Yili, YIN Yunhe, LIU Guobin, OUYANG Zhu, MA Wei, YANG Linsheng, WU Duo, LEI Jiaqiang, ZHANG Guoyou, ZOU Xueyong, CHEN Xiaoqing, TAN Minghong, WANG Xunming, BAO Anming, CHENG Weixin, DANG Xiaohu, WEI Binggan, WANG Guoliang, WANG Wuyi, ZHANG Xingquan, LIU Xiaochen, LI Shengyu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (9): 1799-1830.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202009001
    Abstract2041)   HTML87)    PDF (3064KB)(1107)      

    Physical geography is a basic discipline of natural science. Since its research object is the natural environment, it is closely related to human survival and development. China's natural environment is complex and diverse; therefore, according to national demand and regional development needs, physical geographers have also made remarkable achievements in applied foundation and application, making important contributions to the planning of national major economic construction and social development, protection of macro-ecosystem and resources and environment, and regional sustainable development. This paper summarizes the practice and application of physical geography in China in the last 70 years (1949-2019), differences between the natural environment and natural zoning, land use/cover change, natural disasters and risk prevention and control, the process of desertification and its administration, lower-yield field transformation of Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, engineering construction of permafrost areas, geochemical element abnormity and endemic disease prevention and control, positioning observation of natural geographical factors, geographical spatial heterogeneity identification, and geographical detector. Finally, it proposes the future application research directions of physical geography.

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    Geographical thinking on the relationship between beautiful China and land spatial planning
    CHEN Mingxing, LIANG Longwu, WANG Zhenbo, ZHANG Wenzhong, YU Jianhui, LIANG Yi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (12): 2467-2481.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb201912004
    Abstract2121)   HTML142)    PDF (2675KB)(1105)      

    Beautiful China is the new goal of ecological civilization construction in the new era of socialism, which can meet the real needs of the people for a better life. National land space planning is a major deployment of the state to coordinate various types of space planning. Beautiful China is the new leading goal of the country's second centenary development. Its connotation is not only "ecological beauty", but also the comprehensive beauty of "economy-politics-culture-society-ecology". The construction of beautiful China needs a differentiated evaluation index system based on the local conditions. Beautiful China is closely related to the land spatial planning. The former provides an important direction for the latter, while the latter provides an important approach and space guarantee for the construction of the former. The establishment of land spatial planning needs to strengthen the further discussion of the regional system of human-environment interaction, point-axis system, the main functional area planning, sustainable development and resource environmental carrying capacity, new urbanization and rural regional multi-body system. This paper puts forward the thinking framework of land spatial planning from the perspective of geography, including scientifically analyzing the natural geographical conditions, economic and social development basis, and the interrelationship between land and space, planing the goal, vision and path of land and space, encouraging the public to participate in and carry out dynamic evaluation, and building an intelligent system platform for land and spatial planning with the goal of beautiful China, which provide ideas for the compilation and implementation of land spatial planning.

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    Cited: CSCD(4)
    Impacts of urbanization on spatio-temporal variations of temperature over the Pearl River Delta
    WU Zixuan, ZHANG Qiang, SONG Changqing, ZHANG Fen, ZHU Xiudi, SUN Peng, FAN Keke, YU Huiqian, SHEN Zexi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (11): 2342-2357.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb201911011
    Abstract1215)   HTML312)    PDF (5834KB)(1099)      

    Daily temperature data at 21 stations across the Pearl River Delta during the period of 1967-2015 were selected, and these stations were divided into urban stations and suburban stations based on population, population density and DMSP/OLS data. Meanwhile, spatio-temporal variations due to urbanization were investigated by comparing the temperature changes at urban and suburban stations. The results show that: (1) In the past 50 years, the annual average temperature, the average maximum temperature and the average minimum temperature in the Pearl River Delta region increased significantly, and the average minimum temperature increased at the highest rate, or 1.05-1.16 times of the average temperature and 0.95-1.32 times of the average maximum temperature, respectively. Among them, the seasonal difference of annual average temperature change rate is generally manifested as the strongest temperature increase in autumn and winter, with the temperature increase rate higher than 0.3 ℃/10a, and the temperature increase rate is weaker in spring and summer, with the temperature increase rate as low as 0.16 ℃/10a. (2) Using urban and Sea Surface Temperature (SST) comparison to study the urbanization effect, affected by urbanization, the annual average temperature of the Pearl River Delta is increasing by 0.096 ℃/10a. (3) Using urban and rural comparison to study the urbanization effect, from 1967 to 2015, urbanization leads to the temperature increase in urban areas. Generally speaking, urbanization contributes the most to the increase of average minimum temperature. Meanwhile, the seasonal difference in the contribution rate of urbanization to the annual average temperature change indicates that the increase rate is stronger in summer and winter, with the contribution rate higher than 11.8%, and lower in spring and autumn, with the contribution rate being only 4.46%. (3) The selection of stations division method, the different periods of urbanization development and time scale of research all lead to the uncertainty of the research results on the warming effect of urbanization. Different stations classification methods indicate that urbanization contributes the most to the increase of the minimum temperature, and for a longer time scale, the contribution rate of urbanization to the increase of the minimum temperature is up to 38.6%.

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    Inequality and driving forces of energy-related CO 2 emissions intensity in China
    JIANG Wanbei, LIU Weidong, LIU Zhigao, HAN Mengyao
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (9): 1425-1435.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.09.001
    Abstract366)   HTML19)    PDF (3775KB)(1063)      

    Research on the driving forces of the change of CO2 emissions intensity inequality in China could provide a scientific basis for formulating sound, fair, and efficient regional carbon emission abatement strategies. This study adopted the Theil index to measure the inequality in energy-related CO2 emissions intensity in China during 2005-2015, and conducted source decomposition focusing on geographical regions, economic sectors, energy types, and explanatory factor decomposition of the inequality. The results show that China's CO2 emissions intensity gradually decreased from 2005 to 2015, but the provincial gap continued to expand. From a regional perspective, the inequality in CO2 emissions intensity is mainly found within China's northeastern, eastern, central, and western regions. Besides, the ever-expanding internal differences of CO2 emissions intensity within the eastern and the western regions increasingly became the main driver of the inequality enhancement. The industrial sector and coal were respectively the major sources of CO2 emissions intensity inequality in terms of economic sectors and energy sources, which were also the key drivers of the intensity inequality exacerbation. With regard to the determinants, the provincial differences in CO2 emissions intensity were mainly dominated by the technological development level, followed by the industrial structure and energy structure. Among them, the widening provincial differences in technology level and energy structure enhanced the inequality in CO2 emissions intensity, and the contribution of technology level was much larger than that of energy structure. The narrowing disparity among provinces in the industrial structure, however, promoted the reduction of the provincial CO2 emissions intensity inequality in China. The research results can provide a scientific basis for the formulation of China's regional emission reduction strategy.

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    Spatial organization pathway for territorial function-structure:Discussion on implementation of major function zoning strategy in territorial spatial planning
    FAN Jie
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (10): 2373-2387.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020190865
    Abstract1383)   HTML102)    PDF (5539KB)(1062)      

    The spatial organization law of territorial function-structure is the basic theoretical problem of human-earth system coupling research, as well as the basic theory of carrying out territorial spatial planning and shaping sustainable geographical pattern. Starting from the discussion of geography on the repetition, prediction, regulation and optimization of geographical processes, this paper explains that the spatial governance system is an important way for modern geography to regulate and optimize the sustainable geographical processes and patterns. The spatial and temporal evolution characteristics of the spatial structure of territorial function composed of ecological-life-production (also known as three living spaces) are adopted to express the spatial order law of territorial function - structure, and explain some spatial organization goals, e.g., the coordination between territorial function and natural geographical environment, the minimization of various functions and conflicts between different units in the same region, the effective transmission of territorial functions in different spatial scales, and the maximization of comprehensive benefits in a long time scale. On the one hand, from the perspective of sustainability, the concept of four attributes of natural elements -- resources, environment, ecology and disasters -- is proposed. Through the integration of the four attributes, the natural carrying capacity is constructed, and the function of the original value, remaining value and potential value of carrying capacity in spatial planning is analyzed, so as to form the basic method of analyzing spatial organization from bottom to top. On the other hand, starting from new spatial equilibrium, the basic method of top-down spatial organization analysis is formed based on the territorial functional suitability of carrying capacity, integrated position and spatial structure parameters. Furthermore, the basic and strategic values of the major function zoning formed by the two methods for spatial organization and planning are discussed, and a new idea of separation and interrelation of the zoning, strategy, system with planning of utilization is proposed. With the implementation of the strategy of major function zoning as the main line, the spatial scale-down conduction of major functions as the core scientific problem, and the key constraint parameters as the control indicators of spatial structure, this paper discusses the database and territorial function pedigree, functional and scale-dependent carrying capacity evaluation method and model, and the construction framework of "Three Zones and Three Lines" (Three Zones represent ecological space, agricultural space, and urban space; Three Lines represent ecological conservation redline, permanent capital farmland, and urban development boundary), and demonstrates the way to implement the strategy of major function zoning in spatial planning. Finally, the paper puts forward some suggestions that geography should strengthen the construction of scientific and technological support system, e.g., the basic theory, method and technology of large and medium spatial scale (regional) territorial spatial planning.

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    Cited: CSCD(8)
    Demarcating ecological space and ecological protection red line under the framework of territory spatial planning
    ZHANG Xuefei,WANG Chuansheng,LI Meng
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (10): 2430-2446.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020171221
    Abstract3230)   HTML69)    PDF (24466KB)(1054)      

    Territorial space planning at the provincial level is a brand-new attempt of "multiple planning integration" fundamental regime. The core content is demarcating the "urban space, agriculture space, ecological space, urban development boundary, permanent basic farmland and ecological protection red line", to analyze natural and social background scientifically, which are the strict assignments of all kinds of space boundary, so as to strengthen national spatial control. The "ecological space and ecological protection red line" refered to "ecological space and ecological protection red line", which is the concrete embodiment of the "concept of ecology priority" in the construction of ecological civilization in the new era of China. The ecological protection red line is the core of ecological space, which has three characteristics: the strongly underlying constraints, the wide range of coverage and the high level of constraints. With full absorption of the "Technical Guideline for Demarcating the Red Line of Ecological Protection" promulgated by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, this study, taking the whole land area of Fujian province as an example, carried out double assignments of ecological protection level and ecological protection priority, based on the thought of ecological carrying capacity and suitability; and then discussed and practiced the demarcation of ecological space and ecological protection red line under the framework of provincial spatial planning, so as to put forward "multiple planning integration" and to be a useful reference for the demarcation of territorial space planning in coastal and mountainous provinces. The results show that, the whole area of Fujian ecological space and ecological protection red line is about 95932.88 square kilometers, accounting for 78.76% of the province's land area. The ecological protection red line is about 25461.39 square kilometers, taking 20.90% of the province's land area. The "biodiversity maintenance red line" and "water source protection and water conservation red line ", which were subordinated to the ecological protection red line, accounting for 11.96% and 6.26% of the province's land area. The "biodiversity maintenance red line" and "water source protection and water conservation red line" were concentrated in Wuyi Mountains, Daiyun mountain, Zhejiang-Fujian mountainous region, southern Fujian mountainous region and southeastern coastal area, which are mainly consistent with Fujian ecological function zones.

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    Spatio-temporal evolution patterns and influencing factors of PM 2.5 in Chinese urban agglomerations
    WANG Zhenbo, LIANG Longwu, WANG Xujing
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (12): 2614-2630.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb201912014
    Abstract1148)   HTML127)    PDF (4567KB)(1042)      

    As the main form of China new urbanization, urban agglomerations are the important platform to support national economic growth, promote regional coordinated development and participate in international competition and cooperation, but they are also the core area of air pollution. This paper selects PM2.5 data from NASA atmospheric remote sensing image inversion from 2000 to 2015, and uses GIS spatial analysis and Spatial Durbin Model to reveal the temporal and spatial evolution pattern characteristics and main controlling factors of PM2.5 in China's urban agglomerations. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) From 2000 to 2015, the PM2.5 concentration of China urban agglomerations showed a volatility growth trend. In 2007, there was an inflection point. The number of low-concentration cities declined, and the number of high-concentration cities increased. (2) The concentration of PM2.5 in urban agglomerations was in the pattern of high in the east and and low in the west, with the "Hu Huanyong Line" as the boundary. The spatial difference between urban agglomerations is significant, and the difference is increasing. The concentration of PM2.5 is growing faster in urban agglomerations in the eastern and northeastern regions. (3) The urban agglomeration of PM2.5 has a significant spatial concentration. The hot spots are concentrated to the east of the "Hu Huanyong Line", and the number of cities continues to rise. The cold spots are concentrated to the west of the "Hu Huanyong Line", and the number of cities continues to decline. (4) There is a significant spatial spillover effect of PM2.5 pollution among cities within urban agglomerations. The main controlling factors of PM2.5 pollution in different urban agglomerations have significant differences. Industrialization and energy consumption have a significant positive impact on PM2.5 pollution. Foreign direct investment has a significant negative impact on PM2.5 pollution in the southeast coastal and border urban agglomerations. Population density has the significant positive impact on PM2.5 pollution in the region, and has the opposite result in the neighbouring areas. Urbanization level has a negative impact on PM2.5 pollution in national-level urban agglomerations, and has the opposite result in regional and local urban agglomerations. The high degree of industrial structure has a significant negative impact on PM2.5 pollution in the region, and has the opposite result in the neighboring regions. Technical support has a significant impact on PM2.5 pollution, but there are also lag effects and rebound effects.

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    Study on adaptive governance of social-ecological system: Progress and prospect
    SONG Shuang, WANG Shuai, FU Bojie, CHEN Haibin, LIU Yanxu, ZHAO Wenwu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (11): 2401-2410.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb201911015
    Abstract2094)   HTML109)    PDF (1883KB)(1039)      

    Social-Ecological System (SES) is composed of social subsystem, ecological subsystem and the interaction between them; its structure, functions, and characteristics are different from those of social subsystem or ecological subsystem alone. Relying on adaptive social mechanisms of power-sharing and decision making, the adaptive governance of SES aims to guarantee human well-being in a sustainable manner under dynamic conditions. Adaptive governance theory is influenced by "common pool resources management", "resilience" and "governance", and lays a foundation for the construction of transformative governance and collaborative governance. This theory has three main objectives: (1) understanding and coping with the multi-stability, nonlinearity, uncertainty, integrity and complexity of SES; (2) establishing non-confrontational social structure, power-sharing structure and decision-making structure, and match with social subsystem and ecological subsystem; (3) achieving sustainable management of ecosystem services through an integrated approach. Therefore, in the face of the "Anthropocene" of human-behaviour-dominant surface processes, achieving adaptive governance helps to deal with the complexity and uncertainty of SES. Given the rapid changes in China's environment and the increasingly complicated interactions between China and countries all over the world, it will be helpful for future studies to pay close attention to the following fields: (1) understand the multi-interaction processes of a coupled system, and enhance its adaptability; (2) emphasize the significance of a holistic approach of studying SES; (3) improve the ability to understand and predict system dynamics in the context of environmental change.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    The urban space and urban development boundary under the framework of territory spatial planning
    GAO Xiaolu,WU Danxian,ZHOU Kan,LIAO Liuwen
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2019, 38 (10): 2458-2472.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020171164
    Abstract5326)   HTML63)    PDF (14678KB)(1007)      

    The assessment of suitability for urban land-use and delimitation of urban space (US) and urban development boundary (UDB) are among the key tasks and is a challenge for carrying out basic evaluation and drawing up the base map of planning in the 'Pilot Program of Province-level Spatial Planning' launched by the State Council in 2016. In line with the framework of spatial planning reform, i.e. to achieve effective governance over national land- use with the tool of "Three Zones and Three Lines" (Three Zones represent ecological space, agricultural space, and urban space; Three Lines represent ecological conservation redline, permanent capital farmland, and urban development boundary), we first explored the conceptual ideas of US and UDB, and appropriate topological relationships and rules, upon which the principles and methodology for assessing suitability for urban land-use and delimitation of US and UDB were determined. Then, based upon the practice in Fujian province, we elaborated the procedures and the method. It was revealed that the proposed principles and methodologies are reasonable and feasible. One aspect that sets the work apart from previous practices is that, US and UDB were designated upon comprehensive assessment of the carrying capacity of resources and environments and the suitability of land for different functions. This improves the balance of urban development activities with resource and environments. In addition, the procedure for drawing up US and UDB incorporates the evaluation of urban development potentials and directions of each land parcel, and considers the objectives of spatial governance over the whole area, thus the randomness of US and UDB is well controlled. This practice is expected to provide useful reference for the improvement of the Chinese spatial planning system.

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    Cited: CSCD(4)
    Introduction to the Special Issue on Innovation in Territorial Spatial Planning under the Context of Smart Society
    ZHEN Feng, QIN Xiao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2037-2039.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191001
    Abstract317)   HTML6)    PDF (470KB)(1002)      
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    Carrying capacity reconsidered in spatial planning: Concepts, methods and applications
    HAO Qing, DENG Ling, FENG Zhi-ming
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2073-2086.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191005
    Abstract433)   HTML7)    PDF (1810KB)(976)      

    Resource and environment carrying capacity is the scientific basis and developing constraints of spatial planning. This paper combs the development of the concept, theory and practical application of carrying capacity, and points out the existing problems in research and application, such as concept's obscurity boundary, evaluation biased index calculation, and insufficient research on carrying capacity transmission mechanism. The reform of the spatial planning system and the changes in production modes, lifestyles and development modes in the new era have put forward new demands on spatial planning. It is necessary to explore and innovate the carrying capacity evaluation which is supporting the spatial planning: (1) Further clarify the conceptual connotation of carrying capacity and form a concept set; (2) Study the internal mechanism of carrying capacity and clarify the formation mechanism of carrying capacity; (3) Construct a multi-space scale, multi-evaluation unit's carrying capacity evaluation system to meet the needs of multi-level spatial planning. In practice, it should provide a scientific basis for determining the main indicators and main tasks of spatial planning according to spatial planning and spatial governance changes, supporting new goals of spatial planning, adapting to new modes of spatial governance, and taking new approaches to spatial governance.

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    Evolution of Chinese industrial geography since reform and opening-up
    HE Canfei, HU Xuqian
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (10): 1962-1979.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb201910002
    Abstract1606)   HTML103)    PDF (4049KB)(966)      

    Looking back on the 40 years of reform and opening-up, Chinese industry has achieved rapid growth and development, and Chinese industrial geography has been profoundly reshaped under the profound institutional evolution environment. Chinese industry has undergone a process of spreading in the inland to agglomeration in the coastal areas and then dispersion towards the inland again. However, the geographical pattern of different types of industries is influenced by different forces, leading to differences in the spatial restructuring process. Since the beginning of reform and opening-up in 1978, Chinese industries have been increasingly more agglomerated at different geographical scales, but still much lower than the European Union and the United States. Industrial agglomeration and decentralization drive industrial migration at different scales. In spite of the heterogeneity of industries, industrial migration has generally changed from a scattered layout to an agglomeration pattern in coastal areas; and in recent years, industrial migration has gradually shifted from developed eastern provinces to central provinces, indicating a new round of industrial migration. Remarkable regional industrial entries and exits have promoted the evolution and diversification of local industries. Overall, Chinese industrial space tends to be more complex and concentrated, the links between industries are further strengthened with a more obvious "path dependence" characteristics of industrial evolution in coastal areas. Theoretically, Chinese economic reform is not only the reform of development mode, but also the reform of institutions in essence. The fundamental triple process of marketization, globalization and decentralization has introduced market forces, local forces, and global forces to reshape Chinese industrial geography. And for the study of Chinese industrial geography, besides continuing to summarize patterns and dynamics from multiple perspectives, it is necessary to reveal the deep-level mechanism of the evolution of industrial geography pattern through phenomena, and evaluate the multiple effects of the reshaping of industrial geographical pattern systematically.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    The basic theory and methodology of rural revitalization planning in China
    LIU Yansui
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (6): 1120-1133.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202006002
    Abstract2223)   HTML101)    PDF (4130KB)(941)      

    Agricultural and rural modernization is the general goal of the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy. The scientific formulation of the rural revitalization planning is related to the implementation effect of the national rural revitalization strategy. How to establish the basic theory of rural revitalization and develop the methods of rural revitalization planning have become important tasks of academic research and government decision-making. This paper constructed the theoretical model and method system of rural revitalization planning, tried to carry out the main function-oriented zoning, dominant type classification and principal purpose classification of rural regional system, and established the spatial system of rural revitalization planning and its optimal adjustment scheme. This system was applied to the overall rural revitalization planning in Yanchi County of Ningxia. By establishing the principle of rural revitalization planning that sticks to ecological priority, adaptation to local condition, industrial support and urban-rural integration, it put forward that the priority should be given to the development of rural professional cooperation organizations and the mixed economy of villages and towns, and the acceleration of the construction of advantageous industrial system characterized by the industrialization of tan-sheep, day lily, and minor cereals, and highlighted by the wisdom of eco-cultural tourism. Moreover, it was encouraged to give prominence to the position of the central town in space, and form the village organism and housing industry coordination body with the county seat and three key towns as the center of integrated industry development. The typical case study of Yanchi County has shown that the main contents and technical points of rural revitalization planning were embodied in the following four aspects: (1) determining the overall orientation of rural revitalization planning, and clarifying the phased development mode, key areas; (2) developing the county area based on the main function-oriented zoning, leading type classification and main purpose classification system, and exploring the territorial pattern and differentiation rules; (3) establishing the county development mode and industrial system, formulating coordination schemes of different main function-oriented zones, and revealing the spatial configuration and structural relationship of different dominant types; (4) exploring the local association and hierarchical system of each dominant type in its scale and level. The main task of implementing the rural revitalization planning is to promote the formation of a new pattern of urban-rural development with factors gathering, reasonable structure and orderly space in accordance with the objective requirements of "industrial prosperity, ecological livability, rural civilization, effective governance and prosperous life". China is facing great differences in rural development and many problems in transformation. Regional disparities and urban-rural differences determine the complexity, diversity and differences of rural governance and rural revitalization planning. China's rural transformation-urban and rural integration-rural revitalization-high quality development will become the major development logic and new normal in the future. The research on rural revitalization planning in the new era should focus on the overall situation of regional coordination and urban-rural integration, and solve the practical problems of "rural disease", so as to serve the national rural revitalization planning and scientific decision-making.

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    Cited: CSCD(4)
    Spatio-temporal differentiation of agricultural regional function and its impact factors in the Bohai Rim region of China
    LU Shasha, LIU Yansui, QIN Fan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (10): 2011-2026.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb201910005
    Abstract1132)   HTML77)    PDF (4271KB)(929)      

    The agricultural regional function is an important scientific problem in agricultural geography research, and it is also the important practical issue related to the national food security and sustainable development of regional agriculture. Taking the Bohai Rim region of China as an example, this paper identified the agricultural regional function as four types including agricultural products supplying function (APF), labor employment and social security function (LEF), ecological conservation function (ECF), and cultural heritage and recreational function (CRF) and their spatial pattern and evolution process were explored. The study also identified the agricultural regional type and the impact factors affecting the four functions using cluster analysis method and spatial econometric model. The results indicate that: Firstly, the degrees of spatial concentration of the APF, LEF and CRF were low, while that of the ECF was high. The spatial distributions of the four functions presented obvious regularity. Secondly, the APF enhanced largely, its center of gravity was further concentrated in plain agricultural areas. The high value areas of the LEF shifted from inland to coastal areas. The ECF of hilly areas further highlighted. Advantage areas of the CRF were concentrating in the municipal districts and their surrounding counties. Thirdly, the leading counties of the APF were distributed in central and southern plains of Hebei province, the impact plain of northwest Shandong, the Jiaolai plain and the west of Liaohe plain. The leading counties of LEF were distributed in piedmont plain of Yanshan and coastal plain of Hebei province, Jiaodong Peninsula and the Yellow River Delta region. The leading counties of the ECF were distributed in Bashang plateau, mountainous region of Yanshan, hilly area of eastern and western Liaoning province, and the surrounding areas of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration. The leading counties of the CRF were distributed in the surrounding areas of central-south Liaoning urban agglomerations, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan region and Jinan metropolitan area. Comprehensive counties were distributed in the Huang-Huai plain and hilly areas of central-south of Shandong province. Fourthly, natural factors possessed a significant impact on the formation of the three functions including APF, LEF and ECF, while social and economic factors on the impact of the four functions were quite different. The study reveals the regularity and influence mechanism of the evolution of agricultural regional function, which can provide theoretical basis for scientific guidance of regional division of labor, strengthening of leading function, highlighting regional value and promoting regional coordinated development.

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    Approaches to rural transformation and sustainable development in the context of urban-rural integration
    CAO Zhi, LI Yurui, CHEN Yufu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (12): 2560-2571.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb201912010
    Abstract847)   HTML53)    PDF (1884KB)(917)      

    Exploring the evolution rules of rural transformation is significant for systematically understanding stages of rural development, judging trends of rural development, determining paths of rural sustainable development and promoting rural vitalization. Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, industrial structure evolution theory, and regional spatial structure theory, this paper deduced the evolutionary stages of rural transformation. The evolutionary stages were verified by analysis of the development process of typical villages. Further, this paper explored the implication for rural sustainable development in the new era. The results showed that: (1) Evolutionary process of rural transformation included four stages. The first was the cropland-engineering stage, aiming at realizing the need for food and clothing under the uniform distribution of productivity. The second was the agricultural structure adjustment stage, aiming at increasing income under the intensifying urban-rural relationship status. The third was the industrial restructuring, aiming at improving the quality of life under the strengthening of regional linkages. The fourth was the stage of promoting the equalization of public service facilities with the goal of urban-rural equivalence under the urban-rural integration. (2) The development course of typical developed villages confirmed the evolution rules of rural transformation to some extent. (3) In practice, the evolutionary process of rural development presented skip or parallel phenomena because of regional differentiation of resources, location, market size, and willingness. According to the changes of the roles of different groups in development course, each stage could be subdivided into initial stage, transition stage, and maturation stage. (4) Based on the analysis of evolutionary rules of rural transformation, the paths of rural sustainable development in different types of region included land consolidation and agglomeration path, specialty industrial development path, industrial platform for collection and distribution path, and community function intensification path in the context of urban-rural integration.

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    Cited: CSCD(3)