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    The spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors of Chinese villages
    ZHOU Yang, HUANG Han, LIU Yansui
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (10): 2206-2223.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202010012
    Abstract1458)   HTML83)    PDF (6205KB)(778)      

    Village is the object of rural governance and revitalization. It is of great scientific value to carry out the research on the spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors for comprehensively promoting the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy. This study systematically integrated the multi-source data such as the longitude and latitude coordinates of the village, geo-environment, traffic conditions and socio-economic level, and comprehensively applied spatial analysis, kernel density estimation and Ripley's K-function to describe the spatial distribution characteristics of Chinese villages and identify the influencing factors of village spatial differentiation. The results demonstrated that the evolution of villages follows the life cycle laws of formation, development, stability, decline, and revitalization, which is affected by the natural geographical environment and human, social, and economic factors. The speed, intensity, direction, and outcome of village evolution vary across regions over time. Further analysis results showed that the distribution density of villages in China is 0.353 per square kilometer. Overall, the number of villages in China is larger in the south than in the north, and larger in the east than in the west, and characterized by agglomeration in the southeast and dispersion in the northwest. Villages are most densely distributed in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and the Huaihe River Basin. With Hu's line as the boundary, the density of villages in the southeast is higher than that in the northwest. The Moran indexes of the kernel density of villages on the scales of province, county and township are 0.580, 0.861 and 0.910, respectively, showing obvious spatial aggregation characteristics. The spatial distribution of villages in each province presents an inverted U-shaped pattern, and the difference is obvious between provinces. The distribution pattern of Chinese villages is the result of the interactive coupling of geographical environment, location conditions, and social and economic factors. The spatial distribution of Chinese villages is relatively concentrated under the conditions of a slope of 6°-8°, an altitude of less than 200 m, rainfall of 1100-1200 mm, average annual temperature of 15-19 ℃, and anthropogenic soil and cultivated vegetation. The spatial distribution of villages is clustered along roads and rivers. The density of villages in the buffer zone of 100-300 m around roads and rivers is the largest, and gradually decreases as the buffer distance increases. Under the background of comprehensively promoting the strategy of rural revitalization, it is urgent to systematically analyze the causes and dynamic mechanism of rural recession, identify the geographical distribution and types of declining villages, and explore the feasible ways and regional models of rural revitalization.

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    Changes of the physical and human geographical environment in China during the past 2000 years
    GE Quansheng, ZHU Huiyi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (1): 3-14.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202101001
    Abstract1378)   HTML136)    PDF (1859KB)(767)      

    Understanding the changes of physical and human geographical environment during the past 2000 years in China is beneficial to establish the position, direction, focus areas, and initiatives of "Beautiful China" construction. In this paper, we integrated the results published in research papers, summarized the general characteristics of geographical environment changes in the history, and explored the implications of these changes on the construction of ecological civilization. The results implied that historical changes in China's land surface had been mainly manifested by the multi-scale quasi-periodic fluctuations and regional differentiation of climate, the fragmentation of the Loess Plateau, the expansion of desertified land in the northern regions, the gradual migration of delta coasts, the large scale shrinkage of lake systems especially in the Yellow River and the Yangtze River basins, and the decline in area of forests and the grasslands of northern China. Meanwhile, the economic and social changes were prominently reflected in the population growth and pattern changes, the migration of economic center to the southeast, the expansion of cultivated land to the periphery, and the transportation network evolution. From the above results, we could achieve the following enlightenments: in the future, the deserts in the northern region would still exist, and the lake systems in the middle and lower reaches of both the Yellow River and the Yangtze River were difficult to restore. The grain transportation from the south to the north disappeared in the history. But there was still much room for improvement in the coverage rate of forests, the transportation network could still achieve a higher level, and at the same time, we must mitigate the risk from climate change in the coastal cities.

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    Urban expansion and form changes along the Belt and Road Initiative
    HAI Kai, WANG Siyuan, MA Yuanxu, YANG Ruixia, TU Ping, LIANG Juanzhu, LIU Weihua, WU Linlin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (10): 2092-2108.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202010005
    Abstract1103)   HTML63)    PDF (10319KB)(722)      

    Although more and more people realize the important role of the urbanization process on the economic, political and environmental systems along the Belt and Road, the study on urban expansion and form changes is still limited. Based on the latest 300 m resolution global land cover dataset from 1992 to 2015 released by the ESA Climate Change Initiative project, DMSP/OLS night lighting data from 1992 to 2012, and LandScan population data from 2000 to 2015, in this paper we first analyzed the spatial pattern of urban land growth and dynamics in the ten major sub-regions along the Belt and Road from 1992 to 2015. Then, by analyzing the spatial and temporal changes of urban land density in concentric rings in 1992, 2003 and 2015, the expansion and form changes of 80 cities along the Belt and Road were quantified. Finally, the long-term relationships between urban land area, weighted lighting area and urban population were quantified by using three statistical models, including linear, power-law and exponential function models. The results show that the urban land area along the Belt and Road increased from 0.24% in 1992 to 0.56% in 2015, and developing countries in Africa and Asia are major contributors. The density of urban land in the concentric rings is decreasing from the city center to the urban fringe, and the spatial distribution between cities is completely different. Comparisons among cities in China, Europe, Africa, West Asia, Southeast Asia, and India with populations of more than one million, show that, in addition to the decentralization of China's urban form, the overall urban form of other sub-regions became compact. Further analysis results show that the urban economic vitality and urban population distribution trends will affect the urban spatial expansion and form changes at different levels.

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    Coupling Coordination Characteristics and Its Influencing Factors of Brand Tourism Resources Competitiveness and Tourism Flow in Yunnan Province
    Zhao Shuhong, Bai Meng
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2020, 40 (11): 1878-1888.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.013
    Abstract98)   HTML6)    PDF (1376KB)(696)      

    On the basis of constructed coupling coordination model and evaluation index of brand tourism resource competitiveness and tourism flow, taking Yunnan as a typical case, this paper analyzes the spatial-temporal characteristics and influencing factors of the coupling coordination development of brand tourism resources competitiveness and tourism flow from 2009 to 2018 by using entropy weight TOPSIS Model and coupling coordination model. It finds that: 1) There is a significant positive correlation between brand tourism resources competitiveness and tourism flow with a strong coupling coordination relationship. 2) As time goes by, the coupling coordination degree of brand tourism resources competitiveness and tourism flow in Yunnan Province is gradually improved, but the spatial difference of coupling coordination degree between the cities is enlarged, demonstrating an obvious ‘Core-periphery’ spatial structure. 3) The influence degree is ‘tourism transportation and reception service > human capital > economic environment > natural environment > Infrastructure > policy environment > tourism publicity’. 4) In view of the different types of coupling and coordinated development, we provide some advices to promote the coordinated development of tourism resources and tourism flows. Such as improve the convenience of tourism transportation and strengthen tourism publicity.

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    Modern agricultural geographical engineering and agricultural high-quality development: Case study of loess hilly and gully region
    LIU Yansui, FENG Weilun, LI Yurui
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (10): 2029-2046.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202010001
    Abstract1713)   HTML62)    PDF (6060KB)(596)      

    Agricultural geography is the interdisciplinary subject of agricultural science and geographical science, and agricultural geographical engineering is the further deepening and systematic application of the interdisciplinary research of geography and engineering in the field of modern agriculture and rural revitalization, and it is an important material basis to ensure the agricultural high-quality development. With the innovative development of modern agricultural science and technology and human-earth system science, the scientific and technological needs of regional agricultural infrastructure are increasingly strong, and agricultural geographical engineering experiments have become an important task of agricultural engineering technology research and farmland system management. This article expounds the scientific connotation, experimental principles and technical methods of agricultural geographical engineering, and takes the loess hilly and gully region as an example to carry out the experimental research on geographical engineering and discussed the countermeasures for high-quality agricultural development. Results show that: (1) Agricultural geographical engineering experiments mainly include soil and water allocation, soil layer composition, field experiment, ecological protection, geospatial analysis and monitoring for specific regional geographical environment and agricultural development issues, aiming to explore coupling law of resource elements for regional high-standard farmland construction and healthy agricultural ecosystem construction, and establish a sustainable land use system and multifunctional agricultural management model. (2) Agro-ecosystem experiments mainly includes trench slope protection methods, healthy farmland system structure, crop-soil matching relationship, economic analysis of farmland input and output, which aimed to reveals the coupling mechanism and optimal control approach of "crop-soil relationship" by carrying out interactive experiments and field trials for land improvement and crop optimization. (3) Optimization and regulation of crop-soil relationship is the main content of engineering experiment design, which includes six stages: climate-crop optimization, soil-body structure improvement, terrain-crop optimization, soil quality improvement, soil-crop optimization and benefit-crop optimization. (4) The core tasks of the application of agricultural geoengineering technology are to deepen the comprehensive research, reveal the micro-coupling mechanism and establish the engineering test paradigm, and its application path is mainly reflected in three dimensions of time, space, and logic. The geographical engineering experiment of modern agriculture and its application in the new era are conducive to enriching the frontier theories and methodology of agricultural geography, and are of great significance to the advancement of geographical engineering research and the decision-making of agricultural and rural high-quality development.

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    Spatial evolution characteristics and driving forces of Chinese highly educated talents
    GU Hengyu, SHEN Tiyan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (2): 326-340.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202102006
    Abstract1179)   HTML60)    PDF (1787KB)(595)      

    Talents are the core driving force for regional innovation and development, and they are also the key to urban competition in the future. Based on the data of the sixth population census and the national 1% population sampling survey in 2015, this paper uses the concentration index (CI), Gini index (GI) and several related spatial analysis methods to examine the spatial patterns of highly educated talents across China and the drivers behind these patterns from 2010 to 2015. The results are as follows: (1) Talents show highly concentrated and unbalanced spatial distribution patterns at the city level over the five years, but the trend of concentration and imbalance has gradually eased. Results from standard deviation ellipse (SDE) indicate that the distribution direction of highly educated people is "NE-SW". Furthermore, there is a significant spatial spillover effect in the distribution of talents, with three major urban agglomerations of China as the highlands. (2) Economic opportunities are the dominant drivers for the distribution of highly educated talents in China. Among them, wages are the core driver, and gross GDP and industrial structure of each city also exert a significant impact. (3) After controlling the impacts of economic opportunities, local quality variables represented by basic public services (e.g., education and medical care), transportation accessibility and urban consumption facilities play an important role in the distribution of highly educated talents. (4) There are significant differences between the driving factors for talents in urban agglomerations and non-urban agglomerations: economic opportunities are the main driving force for the distribution of talents in both urban agglomerations and non-urban agglomerations, while local qualities including education, consumption, transportation and natural environment have a more significant impact on the distribution of talents in urban agglomerations. This study provides references for the formulation of urban and regional talent policies and regional development policies.

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    North-south transect series in vegetation of eastern China's north-south transitional zone and their significance for determining climate dividing line
    ZHANG Xinghang, ZHANG Baiping, WANG Jing, YU Fuqin, ZHAO Chao, YAO Yonghui
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (1): 30-43.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202101003
    Abstract784)   HTML59)    PDF (4493KB)(590)      

    The National Basic Resources Investigation Program "Integrated Scientific Investigation of the North-South Transitional Zone" introduced the concept of north-south transitional zone (Qinling-Daba Mountains). Variation of north-south series in vegetation of the Qinling-Daba Mountains is of great significance to reveal the transition, diversity and complexity of the regional structure of China's north-south transitional zone. Based on the survey data of plant communities, in this study, the eastern Qinling-Daba Mountains is divided into four geography units: north flank of eastern Qinling Mountains (EQMN), south flank of eastern Qinling Mountains (EQMS), north flank of eastern Daba Mountains (EBMN), south flank of eastern Daba Mountains (EBMS). The regional climate divisions on levels of plant species, plant community structure and species richness are explored. The results show that: (1) On plant species level, there are mainly north plants in EQMN, evergreen species and fewer north plants in EQMS. Then to the eastern Daba Mountains, there are mainly south plants which like wetness and heat. (2) On plant community structure level, there are 4 formations (3 northern formations, 0 southern formation, 1 widespread formation) in EQMN, 6 formations (3 northern formations, 1 southern formation, 2 widespread formations) in EQMS, 4 formations (0 northern formation, 2 southern formations, 2 widespread formations) in EBMN, 3 formations (0 northern formation, 3 southern formations, 0 widespread formation) in EBMS. In terms of the numbers and properties of formation, there is a mixture of northern and southern formations only in EQMS. On species richness level, the diversity of family, genus and species decreases with the increase of latitude, but the mixture of north and south plants occurred in the south flank of eastern Qinling Mountains. This paper studies the variation of series in vegetation, which increases the scientificity of determining north-south dividing line, and shows that the south flank of eastern Qinling Mountains is more suitable as the warm temperate-subtropical zones dividing line.

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    Spatial distribution patterns of Pinus tabulaeformis forest and Pinus massoniana forest in Qinling-Daba Mountains and the boundary of subtropical and warm temperate zones
    YAO Yonghui, KOU Zhixiang, HU Yufan, ZHANG Baiping
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (11): 2298-2306.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202011002
    Abstract1276)   HTML51)    PDF (4387KB)(537)      

    Qinling Mountains is not only the geographical boundary between North and South China, but also the boundary between subtropical and warm temperate zones. It plays an important role in the geo-ecological pattern of China. However, there is controversy about the specific location of this geographical boundary in academic community due to the complexity, transition and heterogeneity of the transitional zone, as well as the differences in the delimitation indicators and research purposes. To further reveal the characteristics of the North-South transitional zone and clarify the specific location of the geo-ecological boundary between North and South China, combined with SRTM topographic data, temperature and precipitation data, Pinus massoniana forest and Pinus tabulaeformis forest, which represent subtropical coniferous forests in South China and temperate coniferous forest in North China respectively, were chosen to analyze their spatial distributions in the Qinling-Daba Mountains and the climatic conditions at their boundary with the climatic indexes of annual precipitation, the coldest month (January) average temperature, the warmest month (July) average temperature and the annual average temperatures. The results show that: (1) Pinus massoniana and Pinus tabulaeformis forests and the climate indicators of their boundary can be used as one of the vegetation-climate indicators for the delimitation of subtropical and warm temperate zones. The boundary between the subtropical coniferous forest (Pinus massoniana forest) and temperate coniferous forest (Pinus tabulaeformis forest) in Qinling-Daba Mountains is located along the south slope of Funiu Mountain to the north edge of Hanzhong Basin (the south slope of Qinling Mountains) at an altitude of 1000-1200 m, where the climatic indictors are stable: the annual precipitation is about 750-1000 mm; the annual average temperature is about 12-14 ℃; the coldest monthly average temperature is 0-4 ℃; and the warmest monthly average temperature is about 22-26 ℃. (2) It could be more scientifically to delimitate the boundary of subtropical and warm temperate zones in China by comprehensively considering the vegetation-climate indicators. Additionally, the boundary between subtropical and warm temperate zones in Qinling-Daba Mountains should be a transitional zone consisting of the boundaries of coniferous forests, broad-leaved forests and shrubs between subtropical and warm temperate zones. The results provide a scientific basis for the selection of delimitation indicators of subtropical and warm temperate zones.

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    Development and prospect of human-economic geography
    LU Dadao, LIU Yansui, FANG Chuanglin, CHEN Mingxing, WANG Jiaoe, XI Jianchao
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (12): 2570-2592.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202012003
    Abstract923)   HTML53)    PDF (4000KB)(509)      

    Human geography is one of the three major branches of geography. Since the establishment of Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IGSNRR, CAS) in 1940, human-economic geography has gone through several important periods, such as budding, rise, maturity, fluctuation and prosperity. Outstanding progress and remarkable results have been achieved in scientific research, cultivation of talents and service of national strategic decision-making. Pioneering achievements have been made in the study of economic geography, agricultural geography, industrial geography, transportation geography, urban geography, rural geography, tourism geography and regional sustainable development, which has driven the overall innovation and development of China's human-economic geography. The IGSNRR has undertaken a series of national tasks and attained major achievements in the fields of agricultural regional planning and land use research, industrial base construction and transportation layout, urban system construction and urbanization, regional development and planning. And it has made important contributions to supporting the national strategy and leading the development of human-economic geography. This research made a systematic review of the establishment and growth history, research fields, research teams and academic achievements of the human-economic geography of IGSNRR in the past 80 years, as well as its role in serving national and regional economic and social development. Through selecting 6216 papers (4576 in Chinese and 1640 in English) published by the human-economic geographers of the IGSNRR, research progress and academic achievements in stages are reviewed. Finally, new consideration and prospect were proposed to face the ecological civilization construction, new urbanization, rural revitalization strategy and beautiful China construction. Our purposes are to innovate the frontier theory of human-economic geography and establish a new interdisciplinary system, and strive to strengthen research on territorial space governance, regional sustainable development, human-earth system science, urbanization and rural revitalization, and innovation of national modern geography.

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    Spatiotemporal patterns of energy carbon footprint and decoupling effect in China
    PAN Jinghu, ZHANG Yongnian
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (1): 206-222.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202101016
    Abstract454)   HTML43)    PDF (7443KB)(478)      

    The global environment issue resulting from carbon emissions has aroused worldwide concern for governments, the public and scientific communities. A precise measurement of the time-resolved and spatial distribution characteristics of carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon footprint as well as its long-period evolution mechanism, can help clarify the relationship between environmental carbon load and economic growth, and are critical references to the formulation of scientific carbon emission reduction targets with reasonable and differential emission reduction policies. In this study, the mainland of China is taken as the research object. According to the quantitative correlations between DMSP-OLS nighttime light image data and carbon emission statistics, the carbon emission panel data model was simulated for China's carbon emissions in the period 2000-2013, and then the spatiotemporal evolving trend and spatial distribution characteristics of carbon emissions in the 14-year research period were discussed using Theil-Sen Median trend analysis and Mann-Kendall test method. Based on the framework of exploratory spatial-temporal data analysis (ESTDA), the spatial pattern and spatiotemporal dynamic evolution of carbon footprint from 2001 to 2013 were analyzed from the perspective of spatiotemporal interaction. In the three periods, the decoupling effect between environmental carbon load and economic growth of 336 prefecture-level cities were analyzed using the improved Tapio decoupling model. The results show that the overall carbon emissions in China had been on the rise from 2000 to 2013, in which the stable-slow rise type was dominant. China's carbon footprint and carbon deficit increased year by year, and the central and western regions became the focus of the growth of carbon footprint and carbon deficit from 2001 to 2013. At different administrative city scales, the spatial distribution pattern of carbon footprint and carbon deficit show obvious administrative orientated and spatial zonal differentiation characteristics. The annual average of global Moran's I index of each level unit is 0.491, which indicates that there is a significant spatial auto-correlation feature in the carbon footprint of China's prefecture-level units. The relative length of the LISA time path is greater in the north than in the south, and it tends to increase from the coastal areas to the central and western regions. The curvature of LISA time path decreases from coastal areas to inland areas on the whole. The curvature of northeast and central regions is higher, while that of eastern and western regions is lower. There is a different trend of the decoupling effect of environmental carbon load in China. Meanwhile the expansion-connection and expansion of negative decoupling regions continuously increased and spatially agglomerated, presenting an "E"-shaped distribution pattern from the north to the south. The national average decoupling elastic value is gradually increasing, while the coefficient of variation continues to decline, and the decoupling type has a significant evolution trend. Therefore, the unbalanced trend of economic growth and carbon emissions in China will continue for a certain period.

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    Multi-scale factors influencing the evolution of Manzhouli port-city relationship
    YANG Qingshan, LIU Jian, ZHANG Yu, YANG Weixu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (10): 2146-2163.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202010008
    Abstract501)   HTML30)    PDF (3198KB)(478)      

    Border ports are the key nodes for economic cooperation among the sovereign countries at the Belt and Road Initiative. This study takes Manzhouli, the most closely connected port city on the Sino-Russian border, as an example. Firstly, by constructing the Modified Dynamic Concentration Index (MDCI), this study divided the process of the port-city relationship in Manzhouli into five stages: low level balanced development stage (1979-1987), port development slightly faster than the urban development stage (1988-1997), port development significantly faster than the city development stage (1998-2005), city development slightly faster than the port development stage (2006-2015), and new abrupt change point of port-city relationship (2016-2017). Secondly, the vector autoregressive model (VAR) is used to analyze the degree of influence at national, regional, local and individual scales on the Manzhouli port-city relationship. The research shows that in the whole period, the influence of different scales is manifested as national scale > individual scale > local scale > regional scale; at low level balanced development stage, the influence of national scale is larger, while that of regional, local and individual scales has less impact; at port development slightly faster than the urban development stage, with national scale as the main factor, the influence of Russia is slightly greater than that of China, and that of other scales is small; at port development significantly faster than the city development stage, all the national, regional and individual scales play an important role, and the role is relatively balanced; at city development slightly faster than the port development stage, the role of national, regional and local scales is more obvious, and the impact of individual scale is weakened. Among them, the regional scale has the largest impact, and the national scale (Russia) > local scale > national scale (China) > individual scale; at the new abrupt change point of port-city relationship, the influence of individual and national scales is larger, while that of regional and local scales is smaller. Finally, this study makes full use of both quantitative and qualitative analysis methods, such as VAR model and in-depth interview, to examine the influence mechanism of national, regional, local and individual scales on the evolution of port-city relationship in a full period and in stages. This study can provide a multi-scale perspective for Manzhouli to promote its benign development of port-city relationship, and also provide a reference for the development of port-city interaction in the vast border areas of China.

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    Review and prospect of the 80th anniversary of Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    GE Quansheng, LIAO Xiaohan, GAO Xing, FENG Zhiming, LIU Weidong, LIAO Xiaoyong, ZHU Yunqiang
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (12): 2537-2546.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202012001
    Abstract978)   HTML118)    PDF (1099KB)(450)      

    The year 2020 marks the 80th anniversary of the establishment of Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research (IGSNRR), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). Looking back over the past 80 years, the institute has experienced the initiation of Institute of Geography of China in Beibei, Chongqing in 1940, then the founding of Institute of Geography, CAS in 1953 and Commission for Integrated Survey of Natural Resources, CAS in 1956, and the final merger of the above two institutes into the IGSNRR in 1999. After the endeavour of three generations, IGSNRR innovates geography and resource sciences and has made contributions in different stages to the development of the country and the progress of human civilization. This paper commemorates the 80th anniversary of the IGSNRR by reviewing the development and progress of the institute over the past 80 years, summarizing the classic scientific research achievements and the major science and technology infrastructures, as well as looking forward to the future of IGSNRR.

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    Urban Spatial Expansion Mode Based on the Construction of Landscape Ecological Security Pattern: A Case of the Coastal Area of Jiangsu
    Yang Qingke, Wang Lei, Li Yongle, Qin Xianhong
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 737-746.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.05.001
    Abstract342)   HTML138)    PDF (2635KB)(434)      

    The importance of ecological security space has attracted more and more attention in the top-level design of urban spatial expansion in China. That’s very necessary to identify security issues and key ecological factors from regional scale, construct landscape ecological security pattern and analyze urban spatial expansion mode, which can provide policy reference for the upcoming territorial spatial planning. Taking the coastal areas of Jiangsu as an example, based on the theory of ‘process-pattern’ of landscape ecology, this article constructs four single ecological security patterns for the maintenance of basic ecosystem services such as landform, water conservation, biodiversity and recreational landscape. According to the ‘minimum-maximum constraint’ criterion, by overlapping mosaic operations, four different levels of comprehensive ecological security patterns are constructed, and the low security level zone that needs to be strictly protected, then the high security level that could be planned as a key development zone in future. Meanwhile, use MCR model, set up and compare the impact of different models on urban spatial expansion, such as ‘ecological security protection type’ ‘economic growth dominant type’ and ‘ecological and economic coordination type’. The results show that the coordinated model of ‘ecological protection and economic development’ can better balance the ‘ecological-social-economic’ benefits. This model can reasonably determine the space for urban construction and industrial development. It is the optimal model for the orderly and healthy development of cities and towns in the future, and also of great significance for optimizing the spatial layout of cities and towns and improving the comprehensive benefits of construction land development.

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    From productivity to capacity of production conversion: Based on consideration of China's capacity of production conversion during the epidemic
    ZHU Shengjun, YIN Zihan, YANG Bofei, HE Canfei
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2021, 40 (2): 293-309.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj020200900
    Abstract714)   HTML117)    PDF (4073KB)(432)      

    The distribution of China's productivity has focused on production capability and neglected the capacity of production conversion for a long time. Since the outbreak of COVID-19 worldwide in 2020, many cities in China have effectively alleviated the shortage of epidemic prevention materials by production conversion. This makes the urban capacity of production conversion begin to attract attention. This paper discusses the role of industrial relatedness of evolutionary economic geography in urban capacity of production conversion and builds the index system of China's urban capacity of production conversation by using the data of the registration certificate of domestic medical devices on the official website of National Medical Products Administration, Chinese Customs Trade Statistics, Chinese Industrial Enterprises Database, and other statistical data. The results of the study found that: (1) Based on the analysis of actual production conversion of epidemic prevention materials in the first quarter of 2020 in cities of China, the relatedness density can better represent the capacity of production conversion of the city. (2) The index system of China's urban capacity of production conversion with industrial relatedness as the core index can further optimize the evaluation of the urban capacity of production conversion, which provides a scientific reference for how to take both productivity and capacity of production conversion into account at the same time in China's future productivity distribution.

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    Sensitivity and areal differentiation of vegetation responses to hydrothermal dynamics on the southern and northern slopes of the Qinling Mountains in Shaanxi province
    QI Guizeng, BAI Hongying, ZHAO Ting, MENG Qing, ZHANG Shanhong
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (1): 44-56.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202101004
    Abstract725)   HTML57)    PDF (3629KB)(429)      

    The Qinling Mountains, located at the junction of warm temperate and subtropical zones, serves as the boundary between North and South China. Exploring the sensitivity of vegetation response to hydrothermal dynamics can be conducive to understanding the pattern and dynamics of main vegetation types and the mechanism of their response to changes in temperature and moisture. Importance should be attached to the laws of vegetation change in different climate zones. To reveal the sensitivity and areal differentiation of vegetation responses to hydrothermal dynamics, the spatial and temporal variation characteristics of NDVI and SPEI on the southern and northern slopes of the Qinling Mountains from 2000 to 2018 are explored using the meteorological data from 32 meteorological stations and the MODIS NDVI datasets. The results show that: (1) The overall vegetation coverage of the Qinling Mountains improved significantly from 2000 to 2018. The NDVI rise rate and area ratio on the southern slope were higher than those on the northern slope, and the vegetation on the southern slope exhibited better improvement than that on the northern slope. The Qinling Mountains showed an insignificant humidification trend. The humidification rate and humidification area of the northern slope were greater than those on the southern slope. (2) Vegetation on the northern slope of the Qinling Mountains was more sensitive to hydrothermal dynamics than that on the southern slope. Vegetation was most sensitive to hydrothermal dynamics from March to June on the northern slope, and from March to May (spring) on the southern slope. The vegetation on the northern and southern slopes was mainly affected by hydrothermal dynamics on a scale of 3-7 months, and it responds weakly to hydrothermal dynamics on a scale of 11-12 months. (3) 90.34% of NDVI and SPEI were positively correlated in the Qinling Mountains. Spring humidification in most parts of the study area could promote the growth of vegetation all the year round. The sensitivity of vegetation responses to hydrothermal dynamics with increasing altitude increased first and then decreased. The altitude of 800 to 1200 m was the most sensitive altitude for vegetation response to hydrothermal dynamics. The sensitivity of vegetation response at the elevation of 1200-3000 m decreased with the increasing altitude. The grass was the most sensitive vegetation type to hydrothermal dynamics on the northern and southern slopes of the Qinling Mountains, but most of other vegetation types on the northern slope were more sensitive to hydrothermal dynamics than those on the southern slope.

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    Theoretical basis and priority areas of the interconnected river system network research
    LI Zongli, LIU Changming, HAO Xiuping, QIU Bing, WANG Zhonggen
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (3): 513-524.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202103002
    Abstract332)   HTML136)    PDF (1203KB)(422)      

    The interconnected river system network (IRSN), as an important strategy of national water security, is actively promoted in China. There are great significances to improve the ability of water resources allocation, guarantee river and lake health, and control floods and droughts. A large number of IRSN practical projects have been built to bring huge benefits, but they are facing risks such as ecologic and environmental deteoriation, water shortage and economic loss. Therefore, we need theoretical systems as the guidance to achieve more eco-economic comprehensive benefits from IRSN in the future. However, the theories of IRSN, are just rare and fractional, far from a complete system. It is urgent to promote the theoretical construction based on the relevant scientific theories. This paper firstly discussed the systemic and interdisciplinary characteristics of the theories of IRSN, and then analyzed the relationship between the IRSN theories and some main relevant scientific theories including the sustainable development theory, hydrology theories, hydrodynamics theories, economics theories, ecological theory and system science theory, which were thought to helpfully provide the valuable theoretical basis for IRSN. The IRSN theories system should be built and innovated on the basis of the comprehensive systems of these relevant scientific theories. Considering the urgent demands for the operation of IRSN, the theory research in some priority areas should been done, such as the theory and methods of the IRSN connectivity and function assessment, the theory of the IRSN coupling mechanism and system stability, the theory of the IRSN compatibility, the theory of matching of the IRSN and economic pattern, the theory of the IRSN impact mechanism and evaluation on ecological environment, the theory of the uncertainty and adaptability of IRSN giant systems. All these theories and some priority areas of the IRSN theory systems would provide a strong support for the IRSN projects implementation and benefits.

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    Prediction of agricultural drought in China based on Meta-Gaussian model
    WU Haijiang, SU Xiaoling, ZHANG Gengxi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (3): 525-538.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202103003
    Abstract593)   HTML13)    PDF (11145KB)(417)      

    It is predicted that many regions will witness higher frequencies of drought events under global climate change, which could pose a threat to crop yield and water security. Therefore, the development of efficient and reliable methods for agricultural drought prediction is crucial. This study used the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) based on monthly precipitation at a 6-month time scale as an indicator of meteorological drought. The Joint Standardized Soil Moisture Index (JSSI) was used to assess the comprehensive situation of agricultural drought and was derived by combining the Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSI) over 1-, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month time scales based on monthly root zone soil moisture. Using the antecedent SPI and the persistent JSSI as predictors, the Meta-Gaussian (MG) model was applied to predict agricultural drought in China from June to August in 1961-2015. The Brier Skill Score (BSS) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency Coefficient (NSE) were adopted for the evaluation of the prediction performance of the MG model. The results showed that the JSSI was capable of capturing both emerging and prolonged agricultural droughts in a timely manner, which is significant for agricultural drought monitoring. The spatial distribution of predictions of severe agricultural droughts with the 1- to 3-month lead by the JSSI for June to August in 2010 and 2014 resembled the corresponding observations for most parts of China. Moreover, the areas with a predicted higher probability of JSSI falling below -0.5 corresponded well with areas that experienced agricultural drought according to observed data (JSSI < -0.5). The BSS and NSE results confirmed that the MG model was able to provide reliable predictions of agricultural drought for June to August in most parts of China. The prediction of JSSI from June to August by the MG model with the 1-month lead showed that the proportions of the total area with BSS ≥ 0.5 were 0.714, 0.642, and 0.640, respectively, whereas the proportions of the total area with NSE ≥ 0.5 were 0.903, 0.829, and 0.837, respectively. However, the MG model performed poorly in desert areas, including southern Xinjiang, western Qinghai and western Inner Mongolia, which may have been due to the extremely arid conditions of these regions with soil water mostly related to condensation water rather than rainfall. The results of this study can provide scientific basis for agricultural drought monitoring, early warning, and decision-making in China.

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    Impacts of climate and land use/cover changes on runoff in the Hanjiang River basin
    TIAN Jing, GUO Shenglian, LIU Dedi, CHEN Qihui, WANG Qiang, YIN Jiabo, WU Xushu, HE Shaokun
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (11): 2307-2318.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202011003
    Abstract1005)   HTML61)    PDF (3823KB)(416)      

    As a link between the atmosphere and the geosphere, the hydrological cycle is affected by both climate change and Land Use/Cover Change (LUCC). However, most existing research on runoff response focused mainly on the impact of the projected climate variation, neglecting the influence of future LUCC variability. Therefore, the objective of this study is to examine the co-impacts of both projected climate change and LUCC on runoff generation. Firstly, the future climate scenarios under BCC-CSM1.1 and BNU-ESM are both downscaled and corrected by the Daily Bias Correction (DBC) model. Secondly, the LUCC scenarios are predicted based on the Cellular Automaton-Markov (CA-Markov) model. Finally, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is used to simulate the hydrological process under different combinations of climate and LUCC scenarios, with the attempt to quantitatively evaluate the impacts of climate change and LUCC on runoff generation. In this study, the Hanjiang River basin is used as the case study area. The results show that: (1) compared with the base period (1966-2005), the annual rainfall, daily maximum and minimum air temperatures during 2021-2060 will have an increase of 4.0%, 1.8 ℃, 1.6 ℃ in RCP4.5 scenario, respectively, while 3.7%, 2.5 ℃, 2.3 ℃ in RCP8.5 scenario, respectively. (2) During 2010-2050, the area proportions of forest land and construction land in the study area will increase by 2.8% and 1.2%, respectively, while those of farmland and grassland will decrease by 1.5% and 2.5%, respectively. (3) Compared with the single climate change or LUCC scenario, the variation range of future runoff under both climate and LUCC is the largest, and the influence of climate change on future runoff is significantly greater than that of LUCC. This study is helpful to maintain the future water resources planning and management of the Hanjiang River basin under future climate and LUCC scenarios.

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    Characteristics, mechanism and response of urban shrinkage in the three provinces of Northeast China
    MA Zuopeng, LI Chenggu, ZHANG Pingyu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (4): 767-780.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202104001
    Abstract1361)   HTML48)    PDF (3803KB)(410)      

    Understanding the population loss and economic decline in the three provinces of Northeast China from a perspective of urban shrinkage is of great significance to deepening the transformation theory of China's old industrial bases. The main results can be summarized as follows. Since 2000, obvious differences in urban growth and shrinkage have occurred in Northeast China. Some 42.85% of cities showed an urban shrinkage. The manufacturing and service industries in cities of urban growth (growing cities) are increasingly advanced, while the development of new pattern industries and industrial structure upgrading are slow in cities of urban shrinkage (shrinking cities) and the economic competitiveness of these shrinking cities is weakening. There is a close spatial correlation between growing and shrinking cities. On the one hand, growing cities continuously absorb the production factors such as population and capital of shrinking cities through the agglomeration effect, and on the other hand, they increase the pressure of economic transformation of shrinking cities through the spatial transfer of traditional industries. The shrinkage degree varies from high to low from north to south, and shows a trend of 'first strengthening, then weakening' from east to west. The processing cities have the highest shrinkage degree, followed by industrial and mining cities, and the tourism and port cities have a relatively low shrinkage degree. The factors influencing urban shrinkage include the development lag of public service facilities, the misalignment of industrial development and market demand, the low correlation degree of industrial structure, the aging of population structure, and the agglomeration effect of regional central places, their intensity of action enhancing in turn. According to the economic long wave theory and local circumstances, Northeast China will experience a long-term urban shrinkage in the future. It should be a strategic choice to develop this region to actively adapt to the shrinkage, and optimize and reorganize population and economic factors through smart urban shrinkage.

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    The geographical pattern and differentiational mechanism of rural poverty in China
    ZHOU Yang, LI Xunhuan, TONG Chunyang, HUANG Han
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (4): 903-920.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202104009
    Abstract477)   HTML28)    PDF (5448KB)(402)      

    Poverty eradication is a worldwide concern. Regional impoverishment has been considered to be closely related to the geographical environment. Therefore, the relationship between poverty and geographical environment has become the core content of poverty geography. Based on the theoretical basis of regional multidimensional poverty and impoverished areal system, this study constructed a "poverty-environment-economy-society" analytical framework to examine the nexus between poverty and geo-environment. On this basis, taking 124000 poverty-stricken villages as the research object, this study used the methods of spatial autocorrelation, kernel density analysis and geographical detector to depict the spatial geographical pattern of China's poverty-stricken villages in the new era, quantitatively detect the leading factors of the regional differentiation of poverty-stricken villages, and reveal the interaction mechanism between the village impoverishment and the geographical environment. The main conclusions can be drawn in the following three aspects. First of all, poverty and the geo-environment interact with each other, and the paths and manifestations of the interaction between the two are complex and diverse. In general, factors leading to village poverty can be detected from the two categories of nature and humanities and the three dimensions of environment, economy, and society. Environmental factors play a fundamental role in the evolution of poverty, economic factors are the most direct and important contributor to impoverishment, and social factors have a magnifying effect on poverty. Secondly, the distribution of poor villages in China has obvious spatial agglomeration characteristics. The spatial distribution pattern of poverty-stricken villages across the country is consistent with the basic geographic pattern depicted by the Hu Huanyong Line and the three-level topography, with obvious vertical and slope differentiation characteristics. The poor villages in China are spatially distributed with one first-level core area, five second-level core areas and seven third-level core areas. Last but not least, the spatial distribution pattern of poor villages in China is the result of the interaction of multiple factors. Topography, natural resources endowment, labors, transportation and public services were identified as the main contributors to spatial differentiation of poor villages in China. Interaction detection results indicated that the driving force between two-factor interaction is stronger than that of a single factor, and the interaction types are non-linear enhancement except for topographic factors and location. Facing the 2030 UN Sustainable Development Goals, China needs to establish the long-term mechanism to effectively link up poverty reduction, rural revitalization, ecological civilization construction, territorial space optimization and urban-rural integrated development, so as to stimulate the endogenous development momentum of poverty-stricken areas and promote regional sustainable development.

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    Review on Spatiotemporal Analysis and Modeling of COVID-19 Pandemic
    PEI Tao, WANG Xi, SONG Ci, LIU Yaxi, HUANG Qiang, SHU Hua, CHEN Xiao, GUO Sihui, ZHOU Chenghu
    Journal of Geo-information Science    2021, 23 (2): 188-210.   DOI: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2021.200434
    Abstract744)   HTML39)    PDF (12855KB)(401)      

    The COVID-19 pandemic is the most serious global public health event since the 21 st century, and has become a hot topic concerned by different disciplines. According to the bibliometric analysis, more than 13,000 papers related to the COVID-19 have been published since the beginning of the pandemic. Related researches include not only the pathogenic mechanism of the virus and the development of specific drugs and vaccines from the medical and biological perspectives, but also the non-pharmaceutical prevention and control methods for the pandemic. The latter is the focus of this paper, in which the research progress on the pandemic is discussed from six aspects: detection of transmission relationships, spatiotemporal pattern analysis, prediction models, spread simulation, risk assessment, and impact evaluation. The research on the detection of transmission relationship mainly includes the detection of cluster cases and transmission relations, among which individual trajectory big data have become the key to research. The progress of the analysis of spatiotemporal patterns of the pandemic shows that the spatiotemporal distribution of the pandemic has significant temporal and spatial heterogeneity, and the spatiotemporal transmission presents typical network characteristics. The prediction of the pandemic mainly relies on dynamic models scaling from macro to micro, in which the non-negligible impact of population migration makes the human flow big data become one of the key elements of model prediction accuracy. In the study of epidemic spread simulation, the focus is on evaluating the effects of controlling measures such as traffic restrictions, community prevention and control, and medical resources allocation through simulation methods. Results show that traffic interruption and community control measures are the most effective means among non-pharmaceutical interventions at present, and the guarantee and reasonable deployment of medical resources are the basis for pandemic prevention and control. After the pandemic is controlled under the effective measures, the resumption of work and production must be in an orderly manner. The research on pandemic risk assessment currently focuses on biological factors, natural factors and social factors. As to biological factors, researches show that the underlying disease and the male (due to their high mobility) are related to a higher risk of infection. Among natural factors, temperature, precipitation and climate have limited influence on the spread of the pandemic. As to social factors, human mobility, population density, and differences in medical conditions caused by social inequity have significant influences on the infection rate. Regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, we mainly focus on three aspects: the public psychology, natural environment and economic development. Specifically, the impact of the pandemic is mainly negative on the public psychology and economy, and positive on the natural environment. In conclusion, big data especially individual trajectories and population big data are indeed pervasive in research of non-pharmaceutical intervention. To prevent and control the major outbreaks, the intersection of multiple disciplines and the collaboration of personnel in different fields are indispensable. Although a great progress has been made on various aspects such as the effect of controlling measures and the influencing factors of the pandemic, the spatial traceability, precise prediction and future impact of the pandemic are still unsolved problems.

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    Urban scaling and the spatio-temporal characteristics of scaling exponents in China
    JIAO Limin, LEI Weiqian, XU Gang, XU Zhibang, ZHOU Zhengzi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (12): 2744-2758.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202012014
    Abstract496)   HTML42)    PDF (5098KB)(378)      

    Urban scaling laws depict the nonlinear relationship between urban indicators and population size within an urban system, but its applicability and significance in China's urban system is not clear. This study applied the data of 275 prefecture-level cities in China to explore the scaling relationship between different urban indicators and population sizes. We also attempt to present an empirical analysis of spatio-temporal characteristics of urban scaling exponent (β) from 2000-2017 to enrich the understanding of urban scaling laws. The result shows that as a typical fast urbanizing country, China's urban development conforms to the urban scaling laws but presents some different characteristics from developed countries. There is a significant increasing return to population size of economic output brought by China's urban population agglomeration. Nevertheless, the economies of scale for land use, infrastructure and public service are supposed to be strengthened. Some infrastructure and living facilities indicators have a super-linear or linear relationship with the population size, which are contrary to the expected sublinear regime. The scaling exponents of education, medical and health care and other urban indicators are far below the sub-linear thresholds of developed countries, which reflects the uniqueness in a fast urbanizing country that large cities are given priority to infrastructure construction and the unbalanced development of different-sized cities. The spatial distribution characteristic of scaling exponent reflects the differences in the degree of coordination of urban development, with the most significant differences in Northeast China. We also analyzed the evolution of scaling exponents of major urban indicators over time. Economic increasing returns to population size effect of large cities in China was the most significant in 2009 before falling slightly. Urban land expansion in large cities has continued to accelerate since 2000 and still remains at a high level after 2008. It is urgent to control the extensive urban land expansion and improve land use efficiency, especially in large cities. This study on urban scaling in China contributes to fully understanding the characteristics and evolution of urban systems in the fast urbanizing country. This paper is supposed to provide a support for achieving a balanced regional development and implementing new urbanization development strategies as well.

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    High Temperature Heat Waves in the Huaihe River Basin and Relation to the Madden-Julian Oscillation: Spatio-temporal Properties and Causes
    Bu Fanrui, Sun Peng, Yao Rui, Zhang Qiang, Wen Qingzhi, Hu Yuqian, Feng Anlan
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 705-716.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.04.017
    Abstract113)   HTML10)    PDF (10796KB)(372)      

    To evaluate the spatial change of high temperature heat wave events in the Huaihe River Basin (HRB) and its mechanism, characteristics of high temperature heat waves in the summer were analyzed based on pacific climate factors and NECP/NCAR reanalysis data in the 39 meteorological stations. Four sub-regions were divides via Ward-like hierarchical clustering analysis. Meanwhile, correlation between high temperature heat wave events and atmospheric circulation in the HRB was investigated and the evolution mechanism of high temperature heat wave events explained via EOF analysis and atmospheric circulation teleconnection in the HRB. The study shows that: 1) There are obvious interannual changes in summer temperature that the warm phase changed to the cold phase in the 1980s and the cold phase changed to the warm phase after 2010. The trend of the high temperature heat wave event start time and duration is consistent with that of the summer high temperature time. 2) There are obvious differences in the onset time of high temperature heat wave events in four regions. The onset time of the high temperature heat wave events in subregion 1 is the earliest (May 28), followed by subregion 3 (June 1), and subregion 2 (June 5) and subregion 4 (June 10) the hottest heat wave started at the latest; 3) The frequency of mild high temperature heat waves in the HRB is 1.24, and the frequency of moderate heat waves was the second with an average of 0.37. Severe heat waves have the lowest frequency with an average of 0.04. Moreover, the high temperature heat wave events in the HRB are coincided with the change of warming (El Niño) or cooling (La Niña) in the eastern Pacific Ocean. 4) The weakening of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Inner Mongolia led to heat wave high temperature events increase in the HRB. The heat waves mainly occurred in June and September in subregion 4 and subregion 1, and that in subregion 2 and subregion 3 occurred mainly in July and August. There is significantly correlation between subregion 1, subregion 4 with Pacific North American Index, PDO (North Pacific Ocean Temperature Anomaly), and MEI (Multivariable ENSO Index). However, subregion 2 and subregion 4 have significant correlation with Niño3.4 and Pacific North American Index.

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    Simulation of city network accessibility and its influence on regional development pattern in China based on integrated land transport system
    CHEN Zhuo, LIANG Yi, JIN Fengjun
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (2): 183-193.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.02.001
    Abstract304)   HTML9)    PDF (13495KB)(371)      

    With the increasing emphasis on coordinated regional development, transport and socioeconomic developments in China have taken a new turn in recent years. Based on the present and future integrated land transport network, the trend of city network accessibility and its impact on the change of regional development patterns in China were analyzed in this study by focusing on the construction of travel circles and regional balance. The results show that the completion of the existing planning can greatly improve the accessibility of China's city network and can largely support the construction of travel circles according to the shortest travel time. By promoting the development of hub-spoke organization mode and spatial cascading order, the existing planning can guide the multi-center and networking development of spatial structure and provide a basis for the coordinated and balanced development between regions. In the future, China's transport development should continue to optimize the supply structure of transportation services and improve the ability of the integrated transport system to serve the needs of people's daily lives and production.

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    A Research on the Temporospatial Changes of Modern Inland Harbors Opening to Steamship in Yangtze River: Based on Inland Places Open to Steam Navigation under I.W.S.N. Rules
    Cheng Jun
    Historical Geography Research    2020, 40 (4): 119-131.  
    Abstract318)   HTML20)    PDF (5399KB)(370)      

    After the Inland Waters Steam Navigation Rules was promulgated by the Qing government in 1898, the inland shipping along the Yangtze River underwent a sudden growth. By 1929, there were more than 418 inland harbors opening to steamship in Yangtze river basin. In terms of distribution, the inner harbors open to steam ships in the Yangtze River basin are spatially concentrated in the lower reaches, less in the middle reaches, and very rare in the upper reaches. In terms of temporal changes, the inland harbors opening to steamship spreaded from lower reaches to upper reaches, and from trunk stream to tributaries. The trend of time and space changes of inner harbor reflects the development of the modern shipping industry in the Yangtze river basin.

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    Environmental magnetic record of East Asian summer monsoon variability on the Chinese Loess Plateau since 16 ka BP
    LIANG Xiao, YANG Pingguo, YAO Jiao, ZHANG Peng, ZHANG Jianhui, SUN Pengfei, AO Hong
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (3): 539-549.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202103004
    Abstract392)   HTML21)    PDF (3629KB)(366)      

    Climate change since the last deglaciation period is an important topic of Quaternary paleoclimate research. Eolian Holocene paleosols (S0) and last glacial loess (L1) on the western Loess Plateau margin have high sedimentation rates and provide valuable materials for the study of East Asian monsoon climate change since the last glacial deglaciation. Here we report high-resolution environmental magnetic records spanning the last 16 ka for the whole S0 and the uppermost L1 from the Hepingzhen section in the western Chinese Loess Plateau. Environmental magnetic results suggest that the magnetic properties of the Hepingzhen loess section are dominated by fine-grained magnetite, including superparamagnetic (SP), single-domain (SD), and fine pseudo single-domain (PSD) magnetite particles. The magnetic susceptibility and frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility records show identical variability during the last 16 ka. This consistent variability suggests that they are both influenced by content of pedogenic fine-grained (SP, SD, and fine PSD) magnetite particles, which is similar to the loess accumulations on the eastern Chinese Loess Plateau. Therefore, the magnetic susceptibility and frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility records of the Hepingzhen loess section can be also used to infer the soil pedogenic intensity and summer monsoon precipitation that dominates regional pedogenesis, as the case for the eastern Chinese Loess Plateau. The summer monsoon rainfall variation inferred from the Hepingzhen loess magnetic susceptibility and frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility records is consistent with that inferred from South China stalagmite oxygen isotope data during the last 16 ka. Both the western Chinese Loess Plateau and South China precipitation is suggested to be substantially lower during the last glacial period than in the Holocene. Precipitation was high during the BØlling-AllerØd Warming (BA, 15-13 ka BP), and low during the Younger Dryas (YD, ~12 ka BP). The highest precipitation occurred in the early Holocene (~11 ka BP), with a long-term decreasing trend from early to late Holocene. Combining a detailed land-sea comparison, we suggest that the variation of East Asian monsoon precipitation between 16 ka and 11 ka was affected by combined solar radiation and regional temperature of the northern hemisphere, while the long-term summer monsoon precipitation during the last 11 ka was dominated by a decreasing trend in solar radiation.

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    Spatiotemporal patterns and influencing factors of rainstorm-induced flood disasters in China
    HU Pan, CHEN Bo, SHI Peijun
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (5): 1148-1162.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202105008
    Abstract655)   HTML69)    PDF (10412KB)(363)      

    Understanding the influencing factors and controls of rainstorm-induced floods, which have caused tremendous losses of human lives and national economy, is a pressing need for flood risk management in China. Based on the meteorological disaster census data of counties in China, hourly precipitation data at 2420 stations, statistical yearbook, terrain data and other data, the authors (1) investigated the spatiotemporal pattern of flood impacts in China over the period from 1984 to 2007 using trend analysis techniques and (2) explored the driving factors of the spatiotemporal pattern by adopting the geospatial statistical analysis tool (Geodetector). This study considered the spatiotemporal patterns and their interplays among county-level flood impacts (i.e., flood-induced mortality rate, proportion of population affected, and economic loss in percentage), disaster-formative environmental factors (i.e., population density, urban population percentages, average elevation, river density, average slope, and average distance to the seashore), and extreme precipitation characteristics (i.e., annual average volume and duration of extreme rainfall). The results show that: (1) there were no consistent temporal trends of extreme rainfall characteristics over the study period across China. (2) The frequencies of flood disasters in the Yangtze and Pearl rivers and southeast coastal areas increased significantly, but the casualties over these regions decreased. (3) Flood-induced casualties, proportion of population affected and economic loss in percentage increased in Northwest China; and meteorological factors, disaster-formative environment factors such as geographical conditions and social economy, and geographical conditions contribute mostly to the proportion of population affected, flood-induced death and economic loss in percentage. These results indicate that more attention should be paid to improving the flood control capacity of small or medium-sized cities in the inland river basins, especially in Northwest China, and we should recognize the important roles that disaster-formative environment plays in triggering flood losses.

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    Using the Fulcrum Cognitive Model to explore the mechanismof past human-land co-evolution
    DONG Guanghui, QIU Menghan, LI Ruo, CHEN Fahu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (1): 15-29.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202101002
    Abstract516)   HTML48)    PDF (2484KB)(363)      

    The trajectory, pattern, and mechanism of the human-land co-evolution process is a critical issue in the field of human geography. The pattern of human-environment interaction has varied significantly during different phases of human evolution, suggesting a series of changes in the driving force of human-land co-evolution. Although a variety of underlying mechanisms specific to the key periods of human history (e.g., Paleolithic, Neolithic, Bronze, and historical ages) have been intensively investigated, there are still significant gaps in the widely accepted model of the fundamental law that governs human-land co-evolution across human history. In this paper we propose the Fulcrum Cognitive Model (FCM), with the objective of disentangling the mechanism of human-land co-evolution. The FCM focuses on the equilibrium between the natural ecosystem and human social system, which can be disturbed by both climatic/environmental change and human activities, and restored by an adjustment of the human social system. Moreover, we propose a "quantitative-change equilibrium pattern" and "qualitative-change equilibrium pattern" on the basis of FCM, to further describe the mechanism of past human-land co-evolution in different contexts. In the former pattern, a new equilibrium between the natural ecosystem and human social system is rebuilt by the corresponding changes in population size, without a shift in the fulcrum position. In contrast, in the latter pattern, societies improve their social resilience to the deterioration of the living environment through social and/or technological changes. In this case, the fulcrum position of the original equilibrium shifts and the pattern of human-environment interaction is transformed. Social resilience is gradually strengthened during the evolutionary process and the dominant influencing factor moves from natural causes towards anthropogenic factors. To test its feasibility, we applied the model to the changing patterns of the human-land relationship in Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Henan provinces in central north China between the Yangshao period (~5000-3000 BCE) and Zhou Dynasty (1046-256 BCE), based on a comprehensive analysis of updated archaeological and paleoclimatic data. The results suggested that the mechanism controlling the human-land relationship during ~4000-2600 BCE and 2600-256 BCE could be explained by the "quantitative-change equilibrium pattern" and "qualitative-change equilibrium pattern", respectively. The mechanism of human-land co-evolution in the past is very complicated and the interaction of these two patterns may vary in terms of its spatiotemporal scale, which will require further study in the future.

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    Modeling of multilevel vector cellular automata and its simulation of land use change
    SUN Yizhong, YANG Jing, SONG Shuying, ZHU Jie, DAI Junjie
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (10): 2164-2179.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202010009
    Abstract619)   HTML27)    PDF (5119KB)(363)      

    Urban planning plays an important guiding role in land use change. The planning at all levels supports and complements each other, and influences the evolution of land-use pattern from top to bottom. Vector cellular automata, which takes irregular geographical entities as its basic units, can express the objective and complicated urban land use structure in a more realistic way, and has become one of the focus in the land use change research. However, when we face urban planning with the characteristics of hierarchical synergy, spatial guidance and controlled conductivity, some key issues are highlighted, such as the establishment of CA hierarchical system, the construction of hierarchical synergy and the acquisition of transition rules. After constructing the multilevel vector CA model, we chose Jiangyin City as the study area and its land use data covering the years 2007, 2012 and 2017 as the basic data to simulate the land use changes from 2012 to 2017. On the basis of multilevel vector cellular automata model, through the comparative analysis between the simulation results and the current situation of land use in 2017, the individual parameters of the model were modified to further improve the feasibility and applicability of the model, and then the urban land use pattern in 2022 was predicted. The simulation results indicated that the development of construction land in Central District has become saturated, while the expansions of construction land in Chengnan District, Chengdongnan District and Chengdong District were obvious. From an overall perspective, there was a tendency to gradually form a three-level urban-rural spatial settlement system "central city area-urban agglomeration-village". Using FoM index, we concluded that the simulation results had great simulation precision and the model had high feasibility and applicability, because the FoM values of the whole city and each district were almost greater than or close to 0.21. This shows that the simulation results are more accurate and the model is more effective in the simulation of land use change based on urban planning.

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    Signal and impact of wet-to-dry shift over Xinjiang, China
    YAO Junqiang, MAO Weiyi, CHEN Jing, DILINUER Tuoliewubieke
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (1): 57-72.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202101005
    Abstract546)   HTML39)    PDF (4118KB)(360)      

    Xinjiang, a unique natural unit, is sensitive to the global warming. Studies on the spatial-temporal variation and impacts of drought and wetness in Xinjiang have a significant effect on the adaptability of future climate change. Based on observations of monthly mean temperature, monthly precipitation, and calculated standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI), this paper analyzes the drying trend and impacts of climate change on the water resources and vegetation dynamics over Xinjiang, China. The results can be shown as follows: (1) The climate experienced a significant shift from warm-wet to warm-dry over Xinjiang in 1997 based on the SPEI data, after which the frequency, trend, dry months and percentage of stations of drought increased sharply. (2) The increased meteorological drought severity had a direct effect on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and river discharge. The NDVI exhibited a significant decrease during the period 1998-2015 compared with 1982-1997, which was found to be caused by increased soil moisture loss. (3) The hydrological drought was very complicated and not entirely comparable to the SPEI droughts. Hydrological records indicate that runoff in most rivers in the Tianshan Mountains has increased, while it remained stable or even decreased slightly in the Kunlun Mountains over the past 20 years. The runoff in Xinjiang is strongly influenced by glacial melt, and it is getting worse due to global warming. The climatic shift and intensified climate extremes over Xinjiang have resulted in SPEI-drought severity. These changes also have possibly intensified the instability of water cycle system and ecosystem. The results provide valuable decision-making reference for the regional drought disaster prevention, reduction and emergency management over Xinjiang, China.

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