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    Spatio-temporal variations and influencing factors of energy-related carbon emissions for Xinjiang cities in China based on time-series nighttime light data
    ZHANG Li, LEI Jun, WANG Changjian, WANG Fei, GENG Zhifei, ZHOU Xiaoli
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (10): 1886-1910.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-2028-z
    Abstract213)   HTML27)    PDF (6062KB)(12803)      

    This essay combines the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) nighttime light data and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) nighttime light data into a “synthetic DMSP” dataset, from 1992 to 2020, to retrieve the spatio-temporal variations in energy-related carbon emissions in Xinjiang, China. Then, this paper analyzes several influencing factors for spatial differentiation of carbon emissions in Xinjiang with the application of geographical detector technique. Results reveal that (1) total carbon emissions continued to grow, while the growth rate slowed down in the past five years. (2) Large regional differences exist in total carbon emissions across various regions. Total carbon emissions of these regions in descending order are the northern slope of the Tianshan (Mountains) > the southern slope of the Tianshan > the three prefectures in southern Xinjiang > the northern part of Xinjiang. (3) Economic growth, population size, and energy consumption intensity are the most important factors of spatial differentiation of carbon emissions. The interaction between economic growth and population size as well as between economic growth and energy consumption intensity also enhances the explanatory power of carbon emissions’ spatial differentiation. This paper aims to help formulate differentiated carbon reduction targets and strategies for cities in different economic development stages and those with different carbon intensities so as to achieve the carbon peak goals in different steps.

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    Spatio-temporal differentiation and influencing factors of China's urbanization from 2010 to 2020
    LI Ruzi, HUANG Xiaoling, LIU Yaobin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (4): 777-791.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202304001
    Abstract3584)   HTML899)    PDF (4458KB)(2583)      

    As China's urbanization has entered the middle and later stage and the improvement of well-being of residents has become a core goal, the transformation from "top-down" system goals optimization on the supply side to "bottom-up" multi-dimensional goals coordination on the demand side has become a new perspective to understand the connotation of urbanization. Based on the perspective of the human living conditions, the humanities environment, and human-city relationship, this paper constructs a connotation framework and index system of urbanization. Furthermore, Theil index is employed to analyze the spatio-temporal differentiation characteristics of China's urbanization before and after the implementation of the new-type urbanization strategy. Finally, in terms of both direct and indirect effect mechanisms, the mechanism framework of urbanization differentiation is constructed, and its evolution pattern is revealed by using Variance Decomposition and Geodetector. The results show that: since the implementation of the new-type urbanization strategy in 2014, China's urbanization has made remarkable achievements, with a steady improvement in human living conditions and human-city relationship, and there is still much room for improvement in the humanities environment. The high-level areas of urbanization are mainly distributed in coastal areas, and expanding to inland areas along the Yangtze River Basin and Yellow River Basin. The regional differences of urbanization gradually decrease, but the contribution rate of inner-regional differences shows an expanding trend. Differences in human living conditions and human-city relationship are the main factors of urbanization differentiation, but the contribution of differences in humanities environment is gradually expanding after 2014. Opening up and scientific & technological innovation are the main influencing factors of the difference in human living conditions. With the implementation of the new-type urbanization strategy, the impact on differences in humanities environment of the government finance gradually diminishes. Resource endowments have a relatively strong influence on differences in human-city relationship. This study can provide theoretical and empirical support for promoting the development of urbanization in China.

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    The extent and spatial distribution of terrace abandonment in China
    DONG Shijie, XIN Liangjie, LI Shengfa, XIE Hualin, ZHAO Yuluan, WANG Xue, LI Xiubin, SONG Hengfei, LU Yahan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (1): 3-15.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202301001
    Abstract2939)   HTML496)    PDF (2847KB)(1883)      

    With urbanization and industrialization, cultivated land in hilly regions of China has been gradually marginalized. Abandoned cultivated lands have ranged from inferior sloping land and extended to high-quality terraces. The abandonment of terraces will lead to a series of social and ecological problems, especially with large-scale abandonment. Therefore, the degree and spatial distribution of terrace abandonment should be evaluated scientifically to address the issue of abandonment as well as its effects. This study investigated the extent of terrace abandonment in China via a questionnaire sampling method. Based on 560 village questionnaires from 329 counties in China, the scale of terrace abandonment was calculated and the spatial heterogeneity characteristics and primary reasons for terrace abandonment were further analyzed. Study results showed that: (1) The phenomenon of terrace abandonment was observed throughout China, occurring in 54% of all the villages investigated; 9.79% of the total terraced areas have been abandoned. (2) The degree of terrace abandonment showed a spatial pattern of "high in the south and low in the north". The degree of terrace abandonment was higher in the southern hilly mountains, and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River was the most serious. (3) The primary factors related to terrace abandonment were found to be labor migration, the degree to which terraces have been mechanized, irrigation conditions, and farming traffic conditions. Measures that include improving the degree of terrace mechanization should be enacted to address the problem of terrace abandonment. An orderly "conversion of cropland" could be applied to poor-quality terraces. Changing the planting structure, strengthening new agricultural infrastructure, and encouraging circulation and large-scale operations are options that could be applied to good-quality terraces.

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    On spatial effects in geographical analysis
    LIU Yu, WANG Keli, XING Xiaoyue, GUO Hao, ZHANG Weiyu, LUO Qinyao, GAO Song, HUANG Zhou, LI Haifeng, LI Xin, WANG Jiaoe, WANG Jinfeng, ZHU Di
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (3): 517-531.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202303001
    Abstract2710)   HTML436)    PDF (1266KB)(1820)      

    GIScience inherits the spatial analysis tradition of geography. Given that "spatial is special", GIScience needs to highlight spatial effects when constructing methods for geographical analysis. The research presents an explicit definition of spatial effect. By formalizing core GIScience concepts including space, location, field, distance, and region, we identify four types of spatial effects, namely spatial heterogeneity effect, neighbor effect in spatial dependence, distance decay effect in spatial interactions, and scale effect in spatial zoning. A unified framework is constructed to cover the four spatial effects based on the inherent linkages among them. We argue that spatial heterogeneity effect is the most fundamental one. While spatial dependence and spatial interaction are two basic geographical processes that represent the second-order relationships between two locations, neighbor effect and distance decay effect reflect the impacts of space. Scale effect is raised when aggregating attributes using regional units. Hence, the four types of effects form a hierarchical system. From a methodological perspective, this paper summaries related GIScience tools that implement different effects, and emphasizes the value of geospatial artificial intelligence for revealing and quantifying spatial effects.

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    Pattern evolution and optimal paths of county urbanization in China
    LIU Yansui, YANG Ren, LIN Yuancheng
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (12): 2937-2953.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202212001
    Abstract2989)   HTML447)    PDF (5350KB)(1580)      

    The orderly development of county urbanization, as an effective driving force for the integrated development of urban and rural areas in the new era, promotes the interaction and flow of elements between urban and rural territorial system, the optimization and adjustment of industrial structures, the optimal allocation of resources and markets, and the organic integration of urban and rural territorial system. The results show that: (1) From 2000 to 2020, the county urbanization in China developed rapidly, and the regional differences in spatial and temporal dynamics were significant. The county urbanization rate in the eastern coastal, central suburbs and northern border areas was high, while it is low in southwest China, rural areas of the central region and most parts of Tibet and Xinjiang. In 2020, to the east of the Hu Huanyong Line, the northeastern region, northern Hebei, Shanxi-Shaanxi-Henan region, eastern Sichuan, and Yunnan-Guizhou region became high-value areas for urbanization rates at the county level. There are 716 counties with urbanization rates exceeding 50%, including the Pearl River Delta, the Yangtze River Delta, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Chengdu-Chongqing region, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the border areas of Inner Mongolia, and the southeastern coastal areas of Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Fujian, accounting for 38.3% of the country's total. (2) The county urbanization in China is the result of the combined effects of factors such as population, economy, society, and culture. The level of economic development, natural environment conditions, infrastructure construction, geographic locations, public resource supply, professional entrepreneurial clusters, and macro policies affect the direction, scope and depth of county urbanization. It is predicted that by 2035, the urbanization rate of China will reach about 76.04%, and that of counties will be about 64.38%. In the future, we should strengthen the adjustment and optimization of county population, economy, society and spatial organizational structure. (3) There are five types of county urbanization in China, including factor agglomeration urbanization in counties around big cities, industrial agglomeration-driven urbanization in counties with specialized function, agricultural modernization-led urbanization in counties with main agricultural production areas, ecological conservation urbanization in counties with ecological function areas, and concentrated urbanization in counties with population loss. (4) County urbanization takes county and key towns as important spatial carriers for the agglomeration of urbanization elements, and forms a multi-level system of residence-industry and industry-city coordination. The rational spatial distribution of factors such as the development of industrial integration and population resources will further promote the interactive flow of urban and rural elements, the integration of urban and rural industries, the equalization of urban and rural residents, and the equalization of urban and rural infrastructure, and enhance urban-rural integration and network development.

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    Spatial evolution of new infrastructure and its determinants: A case study of big data centers
    WANG Jiaoe, DU Fangye, XIAO Fan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (2): 259-272.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202302001
    Abstract1962)   HTML456)    PDF (2376KB)(1387)      

    Data center is a new infrastructure system based on new development concepts, technological innovation, and information networks. It provides services for digital transformation, smart upgrading, and integrated innovation to meet the needs of high-quality development. The new infrastructure covers the construction of 5G base stations, intercity high-speed rail, intercity rail transit, new energy vehicle charging piles, big data centers, artificial intelligence, and industrial internet. It could promote resource integration, nurture new growth points, and shape new locations. Analyzing the spatial patterns of new infrastructures and their influencing factors is of great significance for understanding the regional development advantages. Using the data center as an example, this paper explores the spatial distribution and determinants of new infrastructure. Since the data center is not only infrastructure but also a strategic emerging industry, it is different from traditional infrastructure in terms of technical requirements and energy consumption. Since this difference will be reflected in the spatial layout, this paper proposes the macro layout principle of the data center. Then, the evolution characteristics and influencing factors of the spatial pattern of data centers in China are analyzed, and the following conclusions are drawn: (1) The macroscopic distribution of data centers should follow four principles: demand-oriented, cost oriented, operating environment-oriented, and safety oriented. (2) The distribution of data centers presents a spatial structure centered on the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and Chengdu-Chongqing urban agglomeration. (3) Economic development, internet development, the number of high-tech enterprises, labor costs, and educational institutions have a positive impact on the macro layout of data centers. The impacts of location conditions, land costs, and layout policies of data centers on their macro layout begin to appear at a certain stage. (4) There are three types of data center distribution models in China: demand-orientated, cost-oriented, and demand-cost-operating environment-oriented. At present, the data center in China is demand-oriented and will develop into a comprehensive demand-cost-operating environment-oriented model in the future. Our conclusion could provide guidance and suggestions for scientific site selection and the optimal layout of data centers.

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    Regionalization of flash floods in China
    CHEN Yuehong, XU Congcong, ZHANG Xiaoxiang, ZHANG Ruojing, MA Qiang, LIU Changjun, REN Liliang, SHI Kaixin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (5): 1059-1073.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202305001
    Abstract1574)   HTML359)    PDF (4275KB)(1244)      

    According to the Ministry of Water Resources of the People's Republic of China, the number of casualties in flash flood disasters accounts for nearly 70% of flood disaster casualties in recent years and flash flood has become one of the major natural disasters causing casualties in China. Flash flood regionalization is fundamental for implementing the local measures of the flash flood prevention and mitigation according to local conditions. Using results from existing flash flood relevant physiographical regionalization schemes, and in accordance with the principles of comprehensive, dominant factors, the relative consistency within units, the relative difference between units, the integrity of spatial distribution and the hierarchical divisions, this paper firstly constructs an index system of the flash flood trigger factors and its underlying surface environment for the flash flood regionalization in China. In the combination of top-down and bottom-up regionalization, the hybrid self-organizing-map-based spatial clustering algorithm is then built. Finally, nine homogeneous regions at the first-grade and thirty-three subregions at the second-grade are delineated for flash floods in China. The historical flash flood events and the Geodetector method are adopted to evaluate the developed regionalization schemes. Results show that the first-grade and the second-grade flash flood regionalization schemes in China can respectively provide the determinant power of 66.4% and 75.4% for the spatial distribution of historical flash flood events in the whole country, indicating the developed flash flood regionalization has a good spatial consistency with the distribution of historical flash flood events with different densities. The developed flash flood regionalization not only effectively delineates the regional differentiation pattern of flash floods, but also provides a scientific basis for the implementation of localized flash flood prevention and mitigation measures in China, which benefits for the sound development of flash flood disasters prevention and management in China.

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    Unbalanced trend of urban and rural development on the east and west sides of Hu Huanyong Line and micro-breakthrough strategy along the Bole-Taipei Line
    FANG Chuanglin, LI Guangdong, QI Wei, SUN Si'ao, CUI Xuegang, REN Yufei
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (2): 443-455.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202302011
    Abstract2081)   HTML274)    PDF (2438KB)(1122)      

    Under the background of promoting more balanced and fuller regional development in the new era, standing at the strategic height of national regional coordinated and balanced development, it is necessary to comprehensively consider the natural environment, the unbalanced situation of economic and social development and the reality of widening gap on both sides of the Hu Huanyong Line, and put forward the basic idea of the Hu Huanyong Line to achieve micro-breakthrough along the Bole-Taipei Line. The Hu Huanyong Line is an important dividing line of population geography, natural geography and ecological environment in China, the dividing line of national main function area and national ecological function area, the dividing line of new urbanization main area and non-main area in China, and the dividing line of unbalanced and inadequate economic and social development in China. In the past 40 years, the gap of economic and social development between the two sides of the Hu Huanyong Line has been widening at an accelerating speed. In the next 30 years, the gap can be narrowed to achieve micro-breakthroughs, focusing on achieving "ten 10%", namely, the proportion of population in the northwest half of China will be 10%, the proportion of total economy will be 10%, with the economic growth rate being more than 10%, the proportion of fixed asset investment in the whole society will be more than 10%, the proportion of local fiscal revenue will be more than 10%, the proportion of actual use of foreign capital will be 10%, the growth rate of per capita GDP will be more than 10%, the rate of increase in the absolute difference in the per capita disposable income of urban residents will be controlled within 10%, the rate of increase in the absolute difference in the per capita disposable income of rural residents will be controlled within 10%, and the absolute gap in education resources will be narrowing at an average annual rate of 10%. In order to achieve the strategic goal of micro-breakthrough, this paper puts forward the main paths and countermeasures to narrow the development gap between the east and the west of the Hu Huanyong Line and attain the micro-breakthrough from the aspects of population micro-layout, economic micro-layout, urbanization micro-layout, industrial micro-layout, moderate water diversion nearby, improvement of ecological compensation and transfer mechanism, construction of the Bole-Taipei Line and implementation of the strategy of further development in the western region.

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    China's regional economic development and policy system evolution: A three-dimensional analysis framework based on dynamic perspective
    XIA Tian, XIA Ying, LIU Xiaoyu, SUN Jiuwen
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (8): 1904-1919.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202308004
    Abstract1501)   HTML351)    PDF (2025KB)(1001)      

    Despite the initial development goals achieved, China's macro-economy is still deeply affected by the external environment and stuck in its own structure at the same time. In retrospect, not until 1949 with the founding of the People's Republic of China did China's budding regional economy witness the prominence of a fixed development pattern shifting from a spontaneous to an actuating one. After comparing the three regional economic practices, this paper finds that each development stage has its corresponding development strategy. At the same time, several development patterns, namely, the coastal and inland areas, the three regions, and four plates were formed accordingly. Furthermore, through combing the literature and historical facts, this paper determines the historical starting point, division criteria and division scheme of China's regional economic development before summarizing three main lines and also contradictions therein: the government-market relations against the background of market reform, the coastal-inland relations against the tide of economic zonation, and the urban-rural relations against the trend of urbanization. Based on the above, the paper constructs a three-dimensional model out of the spatio-termporal process of China's regional development before proposing new historical stages from the perspective of economic system modernization. These historical stages are: industrial economy, special zone economy, district economy, regional economy and urban network economy. Finally, from the urbanization angle, this paper concludes that for different urbanization stages, regional policies should be industrial policies, factor policies, fiscal and tax policies sequentially.

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    Dynamics of developmental vitality and equilibria of counties in China based on nighttime lights data
    LIU Lingcen, SUN Zhongxiao, WU Feng, LI Yuheng, ZHANG Qian
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (4): 811-823.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202304003
    Abstract1209)   HTML242)    PDF (4351KB)(817)      

    Eliminating inequality and achieving balanced development is one of the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations. Accurate measurement of development equilibrium is a primary scientific problem to be solved urgently. Nighttime lights data have been proven to be a good proxy for economic activity, and they have been used widely due to their advantages of convenient acquisition and wide spatial coverage. Therefore, in this study, we applied the Gini coefficients derived from nighttime lights data and pixelized population data to evaluate the development equilibria for China's 2900 counties from 2002-2020. We then examined the nexus of the development equilibrium and developmental vitality represented by the average nighttime lights intensity within each county. The results showed that the Gini coefficients based on nighttime lights data have generally been decreasing for 96% of the counties in China during 2002-2020. Moreover, in general, the Gini coefficients present a spatial pattern of being lower in the east and higher in the west. The results illustrate the synergetic development pathways of economic growth and equilibrium promotion of the economically developed counties, although the variation of their equilibria is significant. On the contrary, there is still distinct room for improvement of development equilibria for 60% of the economically underdeveloped counties in China. The results provide scientific support for achieving balanced development and promoting common prosperity in China.

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    Spatio-temporal variation patterns of diurnal freeze-thaw cycles of the near-surface soil on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau between 2002 and 2020
    SHEN Qikai, LIU Xiuguo, ZHOU Xin, ZHANG Zhengjia, CHEN Qihao
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (3): 587-603.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202303006
    Abstract1098)   HTML202)    PDF (8122KB)(800)      

    The diurnal freeze-thaw cycle of near-surface soils on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) significantly affects the exchange of water and energy between the soil and the atmosphere, which is important for an understanding of the response of the QTP to climate change. Based on MODIS, AMSR-E and AMSR-2 data, we first obtained the diurnal calibration coefficients from AMSR-2 to AMSR-E in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), and then used the Fourier nonlinear model to fusion diurnal freeze-thaw index with surface temperature, and further obtained the diurnal freeze-thaw condition of near-surface soils at 1 km resolution per day, and finally carried out a study on the spatial and temporal changes of diurnal freeze-thaw cycles of near-surface soils in the QTP between 2002 and 2020. The results indicate that: (1) The improved calibration method of AMSR series sensors in this paper is more suitable for the QTP region than the calibration method for global scale. The accuracy of the freeze-thaw product obtained by fusion using the Fourier nonlinear model was 80.96% for diurnal freeze-thaw discrimination, which was 3.95% higher than that of the unfused product. (2) The frequency of diurnal freeze-thaw cycles in the seasonal freeze-thaw process of near-surface soils on the QTP varies spatially, with the highest frequency occurring in the southern Tibetan region and the Qinghai plateau, and is cyclical in time, the high frequency region shows a shift to the northwest when warming and to the southeast when cooling. (3) In the past 20 years, the trend of diurnal freeze-thaw days in different parts of the QTP is varied, with the northern Tibetan plateau, southern Tibetan alpine region and eastern Tibetan region showing an increase and the Qinghai plateau showing a decrease. (4) There are regional differences in the beginning of the continuous diurnal freeze-thaw cycle on the QTP, with the beginning of the thawing process being gradually delayed from east to west and the beginning of the freezing process being gradually delayed from west to east. In the past 20 years, the starting time of continuous diurnal freeze-thaw cycle in near-surface soils has been changing, with 0.17 d/a earlier during thawing and 0.18 d/a earlier during freezing.

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    Evolutionary characteristics and zoning of ecosystem functional stability on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    WANG Qianxin, CAO Wei, HUANG Lin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (5): 1104-1118.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202305004
    Abstract1140)   HTML254)    PDF (6316KB)(791)      

    As the third pole of earth, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is an important ecological security barrier in China and an ecologically sensitive area of global climate change. The increasing climate change has posed a major challenge to its ecosystem function and stability. This paper first analyzes the spatiotemporal variation characteristics of the ecosystem pattern of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its key functions including water conservation, soil conservation, windbreak and sand fixation from 2000 to 2020, clarifies the regional differences in ecosystem functions and their importance, and further evaluates the stability of ecosystem functions. And there is no doubt that the stable state will lay a scientific foundation for the plateau to build an ecologically civilized highland and launch protection and restoration projects. The results show that: (1) From 2000 to 2020, the wetland area of the study area increased and the grassland area decreased significantly. The water conservation and windbreak and sand fixation capacity were improved, and the annual change rates were 3.57 m3/(hm2·a) and 0.23 t/(hm2·a), respectively. However, the overall soil conservation showed a downward trend with an annual change rate of -0.16 t/(hm2·a). (2) The core areas of water conservation, soil conservation and windbreak and sand fixation accounted for 12.7%, 13.9% and 14.2%, respectively. The core water conservation barrier areas were mainly located in southeast Tibet, Sanjiangyuan and Ruoergai. The core windbreak and sand fixation areas were concentrated in the central and western parts of the plateau, and the core soil conservation areas surrounded the plateau. (3) From 2000 to 2020, the water conservation, soil conservation, and wind protection and sand-fixation functions have shown relatively high stability in the southeastern and central parts of the plateau, while relatively weak stability in the western part of the plateau. Combining stability assessment and ecological protection and restoration practices, we can divide the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau into three major categories of 16 ecosystem function zones and carry out differentiated ecological protection and restoration for different core ecosystem functions and zones.

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    The characteristics and multi-scale governance of rural space in the new era in China
    GE Dazhuan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (8): 1849-1868.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202308001
    Abstract1171)   HTML243)    PDF (3252KB)(773)      

    Deconstructing rural spatial characteristics is the precondition for building rural spatial governance system in the new era, and multi-scale rural spatial characteristics and its governance path would effectively support the modernization of the national governance system. Based on the comprehensive, regional and mobile thinking paradigm of geography, this paper deconstructs the multi-scale rural spatial characteristics, identifies its internal operating logics, summarizes its governance dilemmas, constructs a multi-scale rural spatial governance framework that is based on geographical analysis paradigm, explores feasible governance paths, and constructs a multi-scale rural spatial governance system research plan, namely, "characteristics identification-dilemma analysis-governance framework-governance path". The paper finds that: (1) to analyze the operating logics of the multi-scale rural space through the comprehensive, regional and mobile analytical thinking of geography, it is necessary to understand the mechanism of action of scale synthesis, scale differentiation and scale flow to the multi-scale rural spatial characteristics, highlighting the comprehensive characteristics of rural space, strengthening rural spatial heterogeneity, and integrating rural spatial mobility. (2) The lacking urban-rural spatial overall planning, unsmooth spatial mobile network and not-reflected different types of rural spatial value are the key dilemmas in the rural spatial governance, which need to be addressed. (3) The multi-scale rural spatial governance framework of "comprehensive spatial governance-spatial zoning governance-spatial mobile governance" could effectively solve the problems of urban-rural spatial integration, regional spatial coordination and spatial network blockage. (4) Integrating urban-rural comprehensive governance, innovating regulation control to improve regional governance and balancing the configuration of spatial development right to achieve mobile spatial governance are feasible paths for multi-scale rural space governance. In conclusion, clarifying the multi-scale rural spatial characteristics in the new era and constructing a scientific governance system could provide theoretical support to promote integrated urban-rural development and rural vitalization strategy.

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    Urban-rural population change and the regional types evolution of China's urbanization
    LIU Tao, ZHUO Yunxia, PENG Rongxi, CAO Guangzhong
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (12): 3006-3022.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202212005
    Abstract833)   HTML82)    PDF (3003KB)(721)      

    Urbanization is the outcome of population dynamics in both urban and rural areas, which has a profound influence on urban-rural development. This paper puts forward a method to identify regional types of urbanization from the perspective of urban-rural population change. Using this method and based on the census data, this paper analyzes the spatial pattern and influencing factors of China's urbanization. The results show that China has entered an era of rapid urbanization since 1990. Urbanization rates have risen in almost all regions, but with varied pathways over time and across regions. With the decline of natural population growth and the expansion of rural-urban migration, the process of urbanization depends more and more on rural population loss, leading to the transformation of urbanization regional type from "urban-rural growth" to "urban growth" in the country. Although the "urban growth" is the most common regional type of urbanization at both provincial and prefecture levels, the transformation of urbanization regional type from "urban growth" to "rural loss" has been witnessed in a large number of regions in the past decade. Besides, regions with the "urban-rural growth" type have shrunk to places such as Tibet and Shanghai while regions with the "urban-rural loss" type have expanded in non-provincial capital cities in Northeast China. At present, China's urbanization regional type is still driven by economic development: rural population declines faster in areas with rapid economic growth, leading to the "rural loss" urbanization; rapidly industrialized regions have undergone faster urban population growth and slower rural population loss than their counterparts; while the effect of social factors such as public services on urbanization regional type is limited. In addition, the impact of new urbanization strategy and rural revitalization strategy is not yet clear, given the limited attractiveness of urban agglomerations of the western region as well as small and medium-sized cities and the prevalence of rural population loss.

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    Spatial pattern and influencing factors of shipping service industry
    WANG Liehui, CHEN Ping, ZHANG Nanyi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (4): 913-929.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202304009
    Abstract1217)   HTML163)    PDF (5101KB)(700)      

    The shipping service industry is a major driving force in the economic growth and reorganization of port cities' spatial structure, as well as a core element in raising hub port cities' competitiveness. Recently, the global distribution and network connections of the shipping service industry have attracted significant attention, but few studies have analyzed the distribution differences and influencing factors of different shipping service industries. In this study, we divided the shipping service industry into upstream shipping auxiliary industries (ship owners, ship management, ship repair and construction) and downstream shipping derivative service industries (shipping finance, shipping insurance, maritime law). And based on Lloyd's Maritime Directory in 2019, we built a database about the world's shipping service industry. The spatial connection network of the global shipping service industry was then examined at the global, regional and city levels, using the correlation network model and the negative binomial regression model, which revealed the differences in distribution between the upstream and downstream shipping services. The affecting elements on upstream and downstream shipping services are explored in the last section. The results are as follows: (1) Europe and Asia are the primary distribution region of the upstream and downstream shipping service industries, a pyramid structure is shown under the variation in countries' distribution. The spatial distribution of the upstream industry is wider in range, closer in connections and stronger in agglomeration, compared to the downstream industry. (2) The global shipping service network presents a dual-center structure. Europe centers on London and builds a trans-continental radiation network of downstream shipping derivative services connecting to neighboring capital cities. Asia forms an upstream service network that connects Hong Kong, Shanghai and other cities with Singapore as the center. (3) The upstream shipping auxiliary industry is mainly distributed in non-capital seaport cities, while the downstream shipping derivative service industry is chiefly distributed in the capitals and other administrative centers. (4) The e-commerce index and the logistics performance index are positively related to the upstream and downstream industries. Otherwise, the upstream shipping auxiliary industry is also affected by the degree of economic freedom, the number of tourist arrivals, and the liner transport index, while the downstream shipping derivative service industry is mainly influenced by international trade and political culture. This study provides a theoretical reference for China to construct an international shipping center, reaches the linkage development between upstream and downstream shipping services, and improves the overall strength of China's shipping industry.

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    Spatiotemporal Knowledge Graph: Advances and Perspectives
    LU Feng, ZHU Yunqiang, ZHANG Xueying
    Journal of Geo-information Science    2023, 25 (6): 1091-1105.   DOI: 10.12082/dqxxkx.2023.230154
    Abstract827)   HTML90)    PDF (3611KB)(697)      

    The continuous generalization of geographic information poses a huge challenge to the classic geographic information analysis modes. Networked knowledge services will gradually become a new mode for geographic information applications, facilitating to transform the form of geographic computing into social computing. Geographic knowledge services need to connect people, institutions, natural environments, geographical entities, geographical units and social events, so as to promote knowledge assisted data intelligence and computational intelligence. Facing the urgent need for spatiotemporal knowledge acquisition, formal expression and analysis, this paper firstly introduces the concepts and characteristics of spatiotemporal knowledge graph. The spatiotemporal knowledge graph is a directed graph composed of geographic spatiotemporal distribution or geo-locational metaphors of knowledge that is a knowledge graph centered on spatiotemporal distribution characteristics. Secondly we proposes a research framework for spatiotemporal knowledge graph. The framework includes various levels from multimodal spatiotemporal big data to spatiotemporal knowledge services that contain ubiquitous spatiotemporal big data layer, spatiotemporal knowledge acquisition technique layer, spatiotemporal knowledge management layer, spatiotemporal knowledge graph layer, software/tools layer, and industrial application layer. Thirdly this paper introduces relevant research progress from text implied geographic information retrieval, heterogeneous geographic semantic web alignment, spatiotemporal knowledge formalization and representation learning. Combined with application practice, we then enumerate the construction and application approaches of domain oriented spatiotemporal knowledge graph. Finally, it discusses the key scientific issues and technical bottlenecks currently faced in the research of spatiotemporal knowledge graph. It is argued that in the era of large models, constructing explicit spatiotemporal knowledge graph and conducting knowledge reasoning to meet domain needs is still the only way for spatiotemporal knowledge services.

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    Spatiotemporal interaction characteristics and transition mechanism of carbon intensity in China's service industry under the targets of carbon peak and carbon neutrality
    WANG Zheng, CHENG Zhanhong
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (1): 54-70.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202301004
    Abstract909)   HTML125)    PDF (3402KB)(692)      

    To realize carbon‐related nationally determined contributions and achieve the targets of carbon peak and carbon neutrality on schedule, low-carbon development of China's service industry is an inevitable trend. On the basis of the comprehensive application of multiple spatial analysis methods, the spatiotemporal evolution and dynamic interaction characteristics of carbon intensity in China's service industry from 2005 to 2019 are analyzed from the perspective of spatiotemporal interaction. Combined with quantile regression and the nested model of spatiotemporal transition, the driving mechanism patterns of carbon intensity in China's service industry under different transition types are revealed. The results are as follows: (1) The carbon intensity in China's service industry first increased and then decreased from 2005 to 2019, showing spatially unbalanced characteristics. (2) The kernel density curve demonstrates the dynamic convergence trend of regional differences in the carbon intensity of the service industry. And the carbon intensity also showed a significant spatial agglomeration phenomenon according to the spatial autocorrelation analysis. (3) Based on the evolution analysis of the spatial correlation pattern of carbon intensity in the service industry from 2005 to 2019, a path-locking feature was shown by few spatiotemporal transitions across different types. The eastern coastal region had relatively stable spatial structure and spatial dependence direction, while the central and western regions demonstrated the opposite. (4) The spatiotemporal network pattern of carbon intensity in China's service industry was dominated by positive correlations, although a certain degree of spatiotemporal competition was found between some neighboring provinces. (5) Regional differences existed in the spatiotemporal transition driving patterns of carbon intensity in China's service industry. Specifically, the eastern coastal provinces were mainly influenced by the population-urbanization restriction mode, while most regions in the northwest, southwest, and northeast were mainly influenced by the driving pattern of technology-regulation. From the northwest to the southeast, the spatiotemporal transition patterns showed an evolutionary characteristic of "synthetic development-synthetic restriction". Therefore, the formulation of the emission reduction policies should not only consider various driving/restriction factors but also emphasize differentiated emission reduction measures in China's service industry by combining different types of carbon intensity agglomeration and transition paths, as well as avoiding the regional closure of inter-provincial emission reduction policies through synergistic emission reduction.

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    Spatiotemporal variation of snow cover days and influencing factors in north and south Qinling Mountains based on remote sensing monitoring
    LI Shuangshuang, HU Jialan, DUAN Keqin, HE Jinping, YAN Junping
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (1): 121-138.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202301008
    Abstract744)   HTML80)    PDF (9308KB)(685)      

    It is a hot issue in climate change research to study the response mechanism of mountain snow cover to climate warming based on elevation-dependent warming. Based on Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow cover phenology datasets from 2000 to 2019, we analyzed the spatiotemporal variation of snow cover days in the north and south of the Qinling Mountains by the methods of trend and detrended correlation analysis. Meanwhile, we identified the influencing factors of snow cover days from the perspectives of sea surface temperature (SST) in autumn and winter of the equatorial Pacific, high pressure over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, respectively. The results are as follows: (1) after 2013, climate condition in the north and south of the Qinling Mountains shifted from "warming hiatus" to "warming up", followed by declining snow cover days. And the proportion of areas with snow cover more than 10 days decreased from 35.1% to 8.6%. (2) We identified 1950-2000 m in the Qinling Mountains and 1600-1650 m in the Daba Mountains as transition zones of snow cover days. Above the transition zone, the increasing rate of snow cover days with altitude is higher than that of the low altitude area. Particularly, the altitudinal belt between 2100 m and 3150 m is the sensitivity zone of snow cover days to climate change. On the basis of the reference period of 2000-2004, we find that the elevation with 40, 60 and 80 days of snow cover increased by 100 m, 100 m and 150 m for the period of 2015-2019. (3) The SST in autumn and winter over NINO C and NINO Z regions and the winter high pressure over Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are two effective indicators of snow cover days anomaly in the Qinling Mountains, Hanjiang Valley and Daba Mountains. The lower SST of the central equatorial Pacific in autumn and winter, or the lower the winter high pressure over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is, the more excessive snow cover days would occur. (4) In terms of circulation mechanism, during the years with more snow cover days, the 0 ℃ isotherm in January and February was southerly, providing the proper temperature for increasing snow and ice accumulation and delaying snow and ice melting. Moreover, there was a weak water vapor convergence zone in January, which provided water vapor conditions for increasing snow and ice accumulation. The findings can enrich our understanding of winter climate change and provide early warning information of snow anomaly in the subtropical and warm-temperate zones in China.

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    Spatial pattern and determinants of international migration flows in Asia, 1990-2015
    LIU Ye, WANG Xiaoge, GUAN Jing, GU Hengyu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (10): 2409-2425.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202210001
    Abstract3140)   HTML168)    PDF (2817KB)(682)      

    Understanding the characteristics of transnational migration in Asia is beneficial for China to formulate a reasonable international migration policy in the new era and promote the high-quality development of the Belt and Road Initiative. Based on the data of bilateral international migration flows from 1990 to 2015, this study tries to clarify the temporal and spatial patterns and influencing factors of Asian transnational migration by using social network analysis and spatial filtering panel negative binomial gravity model (ESF). The results are listed as follows: First, the main migration flows in Asia from 1990 to 2000 were concentrated in West Asia, South Asia and Southeast Asia, and most of them occurred between the adjacent countries and regions. From 2000 to 2015, there was a number of large-scale migration flows across the above three subregions. Second, the scale of the migration network in Asia is relatively low, and the degree of closeness between the Asian countries has increased first and then weakened over time. Third, political instability and war conflicts of the origin were important driving forces for transnational migration in Asia. Besides, the differences of economic development and national income between countries were the crucial driving forces, while multi-dimensional proximity factors played an important role in promoting transnational migration. Fourth, from 1990 to 2015, the effect of economic differences on transnational migration increased first and then weakened. In addition, political instability has always been the main influencing factors for migration. Besides, the development of import trade has positively promoted transnational migration, and the attractiveness of studying abroad has a fluctuating effect on transnational migration. Finally, non-economic and structural impacts were the most important factors influencing the transnational migration in Asia.

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    The evolutionary characteristics and innovation effects of technological knowledge polycentricity in Chinese urban agglomerations
    MA Haitao, XU Xuanfang, JIANG Kaile
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (2): 273-292.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202302002
    Abstract963)   HTML246)    PDF (5289KB)(668)      

    Technological knowledge polycentricity is a measure of the degree of polycentricity present in knowledge innovation; it can be used to model the spatial structure of technological knowledge production and cooperation within urban agglomerations, and can thus be used to gauge the level of innovation and the quality of development in an urban agglomeration. Drawing on patent application and inter-city patent cooperation data for 293 cities in China in the years 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2019, we used polycentricity measures, instrumental variables, and panel threshold models in order to explore the spatiotemporal evolution characteristics, type evolution trends, and innovation output effects of technological knowledge polycentricity in 19 urban agglomerations. Our results show that: (1) The evolution of the morphological and functional polycentricity of technological knowledge differs significantly between agglomerations—whilst morphological polycentricity showed a fluctuating trend (whereby a decline was followed by an increase and then a further decrease); in fact, we found functional polycentricity to have gradually increased over the study period. (2) Urban agglomerations with high morphological and functional polycentricity values were found to maintain higher innovation levels, while low morphological and functional polycentricity could be linked to lower innovation levels; the results of the type of distribution analysis, further, show that while morphological polycentricity did not present any obvious concentration or evolution trends over the study period, functional polycentricity increased significantly. (3) The modeling results show that the relation between the morphological polycentricity of urban agglomerations and urban innovation outputs has an inverted U-shaped relationship, with an inflection point at the value 0.438; functional polycentricity, in contrast, was found to maintain a consistently positive relationship with innovation outputs, confirming the importance of inter-city innovation cooperation when it comes to urban innovation output. Our conclusions on the development pattern of technological knowledge polycentricity can provide theoretical support for the formulation of innovation development strategies in urban agglomerations.

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    The evolution modes of town-villages construction pattern of typical counties:A comparative case study of three counties in Jiangsu province
    JIA Kaiyang, QIAO Weifeng, HU Xiaoliang, HUANG Xianjin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (12): 2954-2971.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202212002
    Abstract881)   HTML98)    PDF (5940KB)(648)      

    Town-village shows a heterogeneous development trend in the urban-rural transition in China. However, previous studies focused more on the dynamics of the physical space of town-villages and the impact of natural factors while ignoring the shaping effects of the underlying socioeconomic changes. Scientific understanding of town-villages development rules at the county scale and the refinement of typical evolutionary modes can help construct an efficient and coordinated town-villages construction pattern (TVCP) that adapts to socioeconomic patterns according to local conditions. It also helps to promote industrial reshaping, organisational reconstruction, and spatial reconfiguration of town-villages. More importantly, it can build a new platform for urban-rural integrated development and thus achieve common prosperity for both rural and urban areas. This research aims to refine the evolutionary modes of TVCP in counties with different development paths. First, we analysed the logic and history of the differentiation of the TVCP evolutionary path from the perspective of "social process-space form". Then, a multicase method was used to compare and analyse the differences in the evolution of TVCP in three typical counties of Jiangsu province from 2009 to 2018. Finally, we generalised the experience into universal evolution modes. The results show that the TVCP evolution is a typical process of the production of space, and the transformation of the production mode leads to various evolutionary paths of the TVCP. Moreover, there are obvious differences in the spatio-temporal characteristics of the TVCP evolution and the mechanisms of influencing factors under different development paths due to the difference in spatial demands of element agglomeration and evacuation. Based on the comparative case analysis, we summarise three types of evolutionary modes with different changing trends and dynamic mechanisms. The agricultural production mode shows a trend of polarised expansion of Chengguan town and shrewd contraction of the villages, which is mainly driven by urbanisation combined with state power and social demands. The industrial production mode, driven by rapid capital circulation dominated by market power, shows a trend of polycentric expansion of towns and consolidation of villages. The ecological consumption mode is characterised by the divergence between the revival and decline of villages; the driving mechanism is commodification and authoritativeness in rural space. According to the three modes, we suggest that efforts should be made to equalise basic public services, realise the citizenization of the migrant agricultural population, and promote commercial cooperation between urban and rural areas in the future.

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    Ecological and hydrological perspectives of the water retention concept
    GAO Hongkai, LIU Junguo, GAO Guangyao, XIA Jun
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (1): 139-148.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202301009
    Abstract749)   HTML64)    PDF (1020KB)(629)      

    Water retention plays a critical role in terrestrial ecosystem service. However, regarding its definition and calculation, there is a long debate in academia, which illustrates its importance in practice, and simultaneously demonstrates the complexity and vagueness of this essential concept. Thus, there is an urgent need to clarify its definition and calculation method based on basic ecological and hydrological theories, and eventually promote science-based decision-making and integrated water management. Interestingly, we observed that for the same term of "water retention function", ecologists intended to concern the terrestrial ecosystem's water storage capacity (Smax), while hydrologists concerned more about the water yield from the catchment (Q). Both perspectives have their own rationality, but with totally different vision and emphasis. By theorical discussion and data analysis, we found that water storage capacity (Smax) and water yield (Q) indeed have strong connection, but they are definitely two different concepts. The Smax of terrestrial ecosystem determined the separation of precipitation into either evaporation (green water) and Q (blue water). The size of Smax in most cases trades off with the amount of Q. We further revealed that the root zone storage capacity (SRmax) of ecosystem is at the heart of water retention function assessment, and plays a key role linking blue and green water. The SRmax is the result of ecosystem's adaption to its climate, and can be derived by the classic method to design reservoir, i.e. the Mass Curve Technique (MCT). Lastly, we gave three recommendations: (1) simultaneously evaluating green water retention capacity and blue water yield in practice; (2) further investigating the water retention functions of more water bodies, e.g. glacier, snow cover, and groundwater; (3) synergizing natural and artificial water retention capacities to enhance the water use efficiency in both the ecosystem and our economic-social system.

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    Rural digitalization and rural spatial transformation
    YANG Ren, LIN Yuancheng
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (2): 456-473.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202302012
    Abstract712)   HTML103)    PDF (2284KB)(608)      

    The extension and penetration of digital technology into rural areas profoundly affects the organization and structure of rural economy, society and politics, and promotes the transformation and reorganization of rural territorial system from the perspective of urban-rural development network. Based on defining the concept of rural digitalization, this paper discusses the coupling relationship between rural digitalization and rural spatial transformation, deeply analyzes the mechanism of rural digitalization and rural spatial transformation, and builds a research framework for rural digitalization development and transformation. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) Rural digitalization is a process of reshaping the physical environment, economic form, social network and spatial organization of rural areas with the wide application of digital technology in vast rural areas. It promotes the digital transformation of rural economic and social forms and spatial organizational structure, including the process, role and effect of digital technology on rural regional space. (2) Under the background of rural digitalization, the transformation of rural space tends to be comprehensive and complex, and multiple spaces such as material, economy, society and culture are superimposed and transformed, and cyberspace and network culture forms are derived under the connection of digital information. (3) The multi-dimensional embedded mechanism of rural digitalization and rural spatial transformation includes the logic of digital infrastructure construction and rural physical environment transformation, the mechanism of digital economic development and rural economic transformation, the relationship between digital technology application and rural social network restructuring, digital governance models and the role of rural spatial organization reconstruction. (4) Under the major strategic direction of urban-rural integrated development and rural revitalization, future research needs to explore frontier fields and innovative dimensions of rural development based on digitalization for strengthening disciplinary contributions. It includes focusing on smart rural application scenarios, developing rural planning and construction systems and engineering technical specifications, and serving the rural sustainable development, informatization and modernization of rural development.

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    The novel pattern and driving factors of population spatial distribution on both sides of the "Hu Line" based on seventh census in China
    QI Wei, LIU Shenghe, LIU Zhen
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (12): 3023-3040.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202212006
    Abstract1394)   HTML97)    PDF (4316KB)(558)      

    The "Hu Line" is a geographical line connecting Heihe City and Tengchong City in China. It is densely populated on the southeast side of the "Hu Line" but sparsely populated on the northwest side. Since the implementation of New-type Urbanization strategy in 2014, the spatial pattern of population distribution on both sides of the "Hu Line" has changed a lot. We put forward the "Quasi-Hu Line" based on the boundaries of prefecture-level administrative divisions. According to the seventh population census data in 2020, this study focuses on the new characteristics of population spatial patterns and population growth patterns on both sides of the "Quasi Hu Line" from 2010 to 2020. We analyze the driving factors combined with the development of New-type Urbanization. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The human-land relationship reflected by the "Hu Line" was still stable, and the overall distributions of densely populated and sparsely populated areas were also steady. In 2020, the population ratio of the southeast side to the northwest side was 93.5∶6.5. (2) The population share of the northwest side still increased slightly, but the increment was significantly lower than that before 2010. (3) The centralization index of the population on the northwest side turned from decline to increase after 2010, which indicated the concentration of spatial population distribution in the northwest half was similar to that in the southeast half. (4) The spatial differentiation of population growth on the southeast side has been strengthened. The negative population growth area accounted for 54.22% of the southeast side from 2010 to 2020, exceeding the positive population growth area. The population growth on the northwest side had also changed from the "relative balance" model to the "Matthew effect" model, with the negative population growth area accounting for 26.14% of the northwest side. (5) The relative population growth advantage of provincial capitals was becoming much more prominent. The spatial polarization process of population growth slowing down or negative growth was formed in the surrounding areas of provincial capitals. In addition, such a process on the northwest side was more significant than on the southeast side. (6) The driving factors, including the level of economic development, the scale of urban population size, and the level of administrative divisions, significantly impacted population growth. For the northwest side, the level of administrative divisions had a particularly significant impact on population growth, while the impact of urban agglomerations was not noticeable. In general, the northwest side had begun to present similar population spatial distribution patterns and driving factors with the southeast side. In the context of population migration and urbanization, the novel patterns of spatial population distribution reflected a kind of "breakthrough" of the "Hu Line". With China's total population turning to decline and urbanization entering the mid-late stages, more attention should be paid to the regional differences and coordination of demographical structures on both sides of the "Hu Line".

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    Impact of labor transfer differences on terrace abandonment: Evidence from micro-survey of farmers in the mountainous areas of Hunan, Fujian and Jiangxi
    XIE Hualin, WU Qing, LI Xiubin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (1): 16-34.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202301002
    Abstract692)   HTML97)    PDF (1527KB)(550)      

    Frequent terrace abandonment in hilly and mountainous areas has become a great concern for Chinese agricultural sector and academia in recent years. However, few studies concern about the impact of differences in agricultural labor transfer on farmers' terrace abandonment behavior. Taking Hunan, Fujian and Jiangxi provinces, where terraced fields are widely distributed, as study areas, this paper adopts Probit and Tobit models to analyze the impact of quantity, distance, and quality of labor off-farm transfer on farmers' terrace abandonment behavior and scale from the perspective of labor transfer difference based on survey data of 1438 households. The research shows that: (1) The quantity, distance and quality of off-farm labor transfer significantly positively impact farmers' terrace abandonment behavior and scale. (2) The scale of terrace abandonment in hilly and mountainous areas expands with the deepening of farmers' off-farm transfer. (3) The spatial distance and quality of labor transfer strengthen the impact of labor transfer quantity on farmers' terrace abandonment behavior. To alleviate terrace abandonment resulting from labor off-farm transfer, attention should be paid to the labor substitution effect of agricultural service outsourcing and mechanization in mountainous areas. It is suggested to promote the adaptability of agricultural machinery in mountainous areas, improve farmland transfer market, and encourage farmers to transfer terraced fields.

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    Jiaoyufication as an education-driven gentrification in urban China:A case study of Nanjing
    SONG Weixuan, CAO Hui, TU Tangqi, SONG Zhengna, CHEN Peiyang, LIU Chunhui
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (4): 792-810.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202304002
    Abstract798)   HTML135)    PDF (5002KB)(541)      

    Jiaoyufication, as an education-driven gentrification in urban China, mainly refers to the social space process that the well-off middle-class groups who attach importance to education cluster around the catchment zone of leading elementary schools through the purchase of an apartment in the district at an inflated price. Based on the existing theoretical analysis of Jiaoyufication by domestic and foreign scholars, this empirical study is carried out by utilizing multi-source data such as POI, real estate market, portraits of mobile phone users and questionnaires in 2020, taking Nanjing as a case. This paper evaluates the Jiaoyufication level of 218 public primary school districts in the main urban area of Nanjing by virtue of the entropy-weight TOPSIS model. Findings show that only a few top-level school districts are highly gentrified, and they are contiguous and mainly settle in Gulou and Xuanwu districts. In order to better reveal the characteristics of typical gentrified school districts, they are divided into four types by Jiaoyufication level, namely high level Jiaoyufied school districts, mid-high level Jiaoyufied school districts, medium level Jiaoyufied school districts and low level Jiaoyufied school districts. Results demonstrate that there is a close correlation between the unit system and the highly Jiaoyufied neighborhoods that register the presence of a substantial number of middle-class families with high social, economic and cultural capital and paying great attention to children's education. They attempt to buy their way into the catchment areas of prestigious schools regardless of lower quality of life, inhabit them for relatively brief periods, and then sell them on at a profit to the next cohort of parents without needing to invest to improve them. A combination of strict school district systems in policy, soaring market-oriented school district housing prices and surging educational anxiety in the cultural realm continuously strengthens the educational resource advantages of elite schools and intensifies Jiaoyufication, which nails down high-quality educational opportunities to specific neighborhoods and groups. Jiaoyufication is essentially a process in which "school district space", as the pivotal driving factor, promotes the mutual transformation and consolidation of economic capital and cultural capital, and passes the family's social capital on to the next generation. This kind of social space reconstruction caused by imbalance of high-quality educational resources can easily widen the gap between the rich and the poor and perpetuates the class stratification. To avoid the negative effects brought by Jiaoyufication and promote the equity of education and society, it is necessary to effectively advance the balanced development of resources in urban compulsory education and students.

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    The spatiotemporal pattern evolution and formation mechanism of high-quality development in Central China
    CHEN Minghua, WANG Zhe, XIE Linxiao, LI Qian
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (4): 859-876.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202304006
    Abstract703)   HTML144)    PDF (3842KB)(538)      

    The high-quality development of national strategic regions is a hot topic in today's academic circles. Central China connects the east to the west and links the south to the north, which plays a pivotal role in supporting the coordinated development in China. At present, there is a relative lack of multi-scale and multi-dimensional comprehensive analysis on high-quality development in Central China. Based on the basic logic and scientific connotation of high-quality development in Central China, this paper constructs an evaluation index system to measure the high-quality development level of Central China from 2006 to 2019, and examines the spatiotemporal pattern of high-quality development in Central China from a multi-level spatial scale, and uses the traditional and spatial kernel density to analyze the distribution dynamic evolution and long-term transfer trend, and explores its formation mechanism from a structural perspective. The results show that: (1) The high-quality development level in Central China is lower than the national average, but the growth rate is relatively large; the gap is obvious between the eastern and central regions, and it is close to the western and northeastern regions; Central China presents a distribution pattern of "provincial capital cities are better than non-provincial capital cities". (2) The high-quality development in Central China is generally good, but there is a trend of spatial polarization, among which, Henan and Hubei are prominent. The high-quality development in Central China generally has the characteristics of "club convergence"; the positive spillover effect of the high-level neighboring cities in the whole region and most provinces is significant, while the spatial spillover effect of Hubei and Shanxi is not obvious. (3) From the perspective of structure, the differences between the central and other regions are mainly due to differences in economic structure, ecological environment and people's livelihood development, and internal differences come from differences in coordination and innovation; structural optimization and people's livelihood development are the main driving forces for high-quality development in Central China, and the formation mechanism of polarization characteristics varies from province to province. Among them, the polarization trend of Henan and Hubei is mainly determined by the characteristics of structural coordination and technological innovation; the spillover of industrial elements, ecological cooperation and development, and people's livelihood co-construction and sharing are the main reasons for the transfer of high-quality development in the region, but there is obvious spatial heterogeneity in the formation mechanism of transfer across provinces.

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    Human sedentism and utilization of animal resources on the prehistoric Tibetan Plateau
    WANG Qing, ZHANG Ying, CHEN Shungang, GAO Yu, YANG Jishuai, RAN Jingkun, GU Zhengquan, YANG Xiaoyan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (1): 177-197.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202301012
    Abstract586)   HTML56)    PDF (3829KB)(529)      

    It is a long process for human to shift from highly mobile to year-round sedentary lifeways. Sedentism had a profound impact on the subsistence, technologies, and ultimately the origin of civilization in human societies. The emergence of sedentism was effected by climate change, population growth, resource pressure, technological innovation and so forth. The Tibetan Plateau is a key region to study human evolution and adaptation to extreme environment due to the alpine and hypoxia conditions. How people adapted and permanently occupied the Tibetan Plateau has been a heated debate in the past decades, but the prehistoric process of sedentism on the Tibetan Plateau is still ambiguous. By reviewing the published archaeological and genetics research, we find that current studies of prehistoric human sedentism on the Tibetan Plateau focused on agricultural diffusion from low-altitude to high-altitude areas and its effects; Few attentions were paid to the role of animal resources in the process of sedentism, and the chronological sequence and driving mechanism of sedentism on the Tibetan Plateau are still controversial. Seasonality analysis is crucial to determine whether a site is occupied year-round. We summarized the methods for seasonality analysis using animal remains, and put forward some suggestions on how to efficiently establish the schedule of animal resources utilization at a site according to the local conditions. Firstly, the database of skeletal morphology, whole genome and proteome of modern animals on the Tibetan Plateau should be established to provide a basis for the identification of animal remains from archaeological sites. Subsequently, the human-animal-environment relationship and the role of animal resources in human sedentism process on the Tibetan Plateau should be evaluated.

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    Patterns and evolution path of regional industrial upgrading under globalization
    LIU Yi, ZHANG Yifan, HUANG Kaixuan, WU Di
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (2): 351-370.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202302006
    Abstract663)   HTML103)    PDF (2214KB)(510)      

    Industrial upgrading is one of the most concerned topics for latecomer economies, but existing research in this field has unpacked regional industrial upgrading from geographical aspects. This paper conducts a critical review on the research progress of industrial upgrading and points out that current studies tend to describe spatial changes rather than disclose geographical motivations of industrial upgrading. Thus, the geographical attributes, patterns and evolution paths of industrial upgrading are yet to be revealed. Based on the perspective of relational economic geography and to explore industrial upgrading patterns, this paper constructs an analytical framework from both the enterprise and the region levels, and find four upgrading patterns: enterprise upgrading, structural upgrading, regional upgrading, and involutional development. Following that, this paper reveals that there is a general evolution path of regional industrial upgrading under globalization. Regions have the tendency to evolve from enterprise upgrading or structural upgrading to regional upgrading and then to involutional development. This evolutionary path is well matched with the industrial upgrading trajectory of the Pearl River Delta. Also, industrial upgrading in the delta has shown a circuitous evolutionary path, which can be termed an "S-type paradigm". Overall, this research suggests that regional industrial upgrading is affected by external forces outside regions under globalization. The performances and achievement of regions can be analyzed from both the corporate and the regional levels. From the aspect of technology, capital and market, latecomer regions can use their geographic advantages to bargain with transnational corporations, in the process of which local institutions and territorial environment have a significant role to play. The major contribution of this paper comes from its new analytical perspective to understand the process of regional industrial upgrading and its finding about different performances of industrial upgrading in different scales, including the enterprises and the region scales. Also, an industrial upgrading pattern that is different from the well-known "the flying geese paradigm" has been proposed, which tentatively provides an innovative framework to understand development of latecomer economies under globalization and refine theories about globalization in economic geography.

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    Measurement and spatio-temporal pattern of urban-rural integrated development in China
    ZHENG Yuhan, LONG Hualou
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (8): 1869-1887.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202308002
    Abstract646)   HTML135)    PDF (7275KB)(510)      

    Urban-rural integrated development is an advanced stage in the evolution of the urban-rural relationship, and it is also the basic path and main goal for the implementation of rural revitalization. Scientifically understanding and identifying the integration stage and its current level of urban-rural development in China is the prerequisite basis for promoting urban-rural integrated development and rural revitalization. Based on the concept connotation, this paper constructed a multi-dimensional evaluation system of urban-rural integrated development at the prefecture level. The process status and spatiotemporal divergent characteristics of urban-rural integrated development in 336 prefecture-level regions in China from 2000-2018 were portrayed and revealed. The results show that: (1) The current state of urban-rural integrated development in China is generally at a low-to-middle level, showing a heterogeneous spatiotemporal pattern with apparent gradient divergence. The integrated development level of the Pearl River Delta, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, and the Shandong Peninsula is high, but the regions distributed to the west of the "Hu Line" develops slowly. (2) According to the level and characteristics of integrated development, the 366 prefecture-level regions can be divided into four types: integrated development, tending integration, imbalanced development, and lagging development, with a more active transformation between the latter three types. (3) The development level of urban-rural economic integration is higher than that of demographic and social integration, while the development process of urban-rural spatial and ecological integration shows some natural zonal divergent characteristics. Finally, we identified the problem areas for different types of integrated development and explored the regional promotion path of urban-rural integrated development, which could provide scientific references for the strategies of regional urban-rural development and rural revitalization.

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